Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Ruhe on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 104 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Group Communication 21015 905 PM Definition 9 3 individuals working to achieve a common goal 5 essential components 1 Members 9 people with distinct knowledge experiences skills etc who are recognized as belonging to the group 2 Interactions 9 generates meaning amp establishes relationships 3 Interdependence 9 members influenced by each other 4 Working 9 physicalmental effort used to achieve goals 5 Common goal 9 purposeobjective 0 Guides action sets standard Ideal group size The ideal group size for a problemsolving discussion is three to nine members Groups of ten or more members tend to be less effective Systems theory Examines how interdependent factors affect one another Recognizes that communication is part of a larger communication system 0 Ex a group is a collection of interacting interdependent elements working together to form a complex whole that adapts to a changing environment Types of groups Primary 9 provides affection support belonging 0 Ex family Social 9 shares common interests in a friendly setting participate together in social activities 0 Ex close friend group sororityfraternity Selfhelp 9 supportencourage members who wantneed help 0 AA weight watchers Learning 9 help members gain knowledgedevelop skills 0 Ex classmates book club Work 9 achieve goals for an organization 0 Ex business team Public 9 discuss issues on behalf of the public 0 Ex online forum government groups Service 9 assist a worthy cause for people outside the group 0 Ex food drive Civic 9 support a worthy cause for people within the group 0 Ex veterans groups PTA Synchronous v Asynchronis Synchronus 9 instant ex voice call skype Asynchronis 9 noninstant ex text email Advantagesdisadvantages from working in groups Superior resources More time energy amp resources Member satisfaction social Conflicts Learning People problems Cultural understanding Creativity Civic engagement 0 advantages typically outweigh disadvantages 0 but it depends on the task 0 critical question how do we make groups more effective amp efficientquot Synergy 9 the whole is greater than the sum of the parts Nature of group communication Theory 9 statement to explainpredict Helps explain what is occurring Strategy 9 effective strategies are based on theories 9 a specific ability that helps groups carry out tasks Basic elements of group communication process Members 9 recognized as belonging to the group Context 9 physicalpsychological environment in which a group communicates Important factors group size working conditions relationships Channels 9 media means in which message travels between members Feedback 9 verbalnonverbal responses to a message Helps members asses how well others interpret their messages Noise 9 external physical ex sounds amp internal attitudes opinions that interferes with messages Group balance Balanced groups 0 Empowerment 9 group v individual empowerment Potency 9 balance of power Meaningfulness 9 everyone has to feel they are contributing Autonomy 9 selfsufficiency 0 Impact 9 task has to be important Relational dialects theorygroup dialectics Dialect 9 middle ground between 2 opposite ideas 0 Individual v Group 0 Conforming v Individuality 0 Structure v Spontaneity Etc Optimal group experience Includes 0 Highly motivated members 0 Committed amp inspired members Worthy goal Empowerment 9 no senior leader everyone contributes equally Ethics 0 Requires lots of communication and understanding 0 Not everything is black amp white Group Development 21015 905 PM Group Development Stagg Tuckman Model Forming 9 getting to know eachother talk less explore goals 0 Primary tension 9 basic minor tension from social apprehensiveness could last for minutes or months 0 Storming 9 members become more comfortable 0 Secondary tension 9 disagreement from conflictaggressiveness can be minor 0 Good resolve 9 light jokes 0 Groups try to skip this stage which is not good to do Norming 9 members create group norms amp resolve conflicts 0 Group commitment teambuilding conformity Performing 9 assume appropriate roles amp work productively Adjourning 9 tasksgoals completed amp membership no longer required 0 Members may be reluctant to leave group amp experience separation anxiety Ex Zimbardo s Prison Experiment Shock study Fisher Model 0 Orientation Forming 0 Conflict Storming Emergence Norming Reinforcing Performing Wheelan Dependency amp Inclusion 9 members dependent on emerging leaders to provide direction 0 Pseudowork 9 getting to know each other rather than doing work 0 Counter dependency amp Flight 9 members disagree while trying to establish goals amp procedures 0 Conflict is necessary to establish trust Members must be comfortable disagreeing with each other 0 Trust amp Structure 9 works through conflicts member trust amp commitment increases Communication becomes more open amp task oriented more mature negotiations arise 0 Work Productivity 0 Termination Socializing newcomers phases 1 Antecedent 9 a newcomer brings beliefsattitudes needs motives skills knowledge prior group experience etc to a new group 2 Anticipatory 9 an established group have expectations for newcomers 3 Encounter 9 newcomers try to fit in by adjusting to expectations assuming needed roles communicating effectively and balancing individual goals and group s goals 4 Assimilation 9 newcomers become fully integrated into group culture 5 Exit 9 working groups often give departing members a warm sendoff Goal theory amp group work Groups function best when goals are 0 Specific Difficult yet realistic 0 Accepted by all members 0 Used to evaluate performance Linked to feedback amp rewards 0 Set by members Framed to promote member growth Hidden agenda 9 an individual s goal is different from what they say it is Individual goals v group goals Group goals 9 must be clear specific challenging amp feel important Requires 0 Clarity ChaHenge Commitment Compatibility Cooperation 0 Cost Balance between group amp individual members is necessary OOOO Group Norms Expectations held by members 0 Without norms a goal is difficult to accomplish Roles of norms o Expresses the group s dynamic o Helps the group operate smoothly o Defines appropriate behavior 0 Helps accomplish goals Implicit v explicit 9 understood v obviousexplained 0 Group norm categories 0 Interaction 9 communication patterns of the group 0 Procedural 9 dictate how group interacts Raising hand 0 Status 0 Achievement Conformity v nonconformity Conformity 9 members adopt ideasattitudes to match group norms 0 Factors want to stay in the group low status like working with someone in the group avoid punishment 0 Ex Zimbardo Prison amp Milgram Electric Shock Experiment Nonconformity 9 straying away from group norms Constructive 9 resists conforming but still has group interests in mind 0 Deconstructive 9 resists conforming amp does not have the group s best interests in mind 0 How to handle in order accept confront exclude Group Motivation Extrinsic rewards 9 come from external environment 0 Ex money perks 0 Usually useful when working alone Intrinsic rewards 9 come from within the group 0 Ex encouragement Kenneth Thomas intrinsic rewards Motivated groups have Sense of meaningfulness 9 believe what they are doing is important and that they are capable of being successful To promote Meet member needs Adapt to personalities Give feedback Sense of choice 9 the group amp individuals in the group feel they have power Groups should a Select strategies I Know member duties I Properly communicate to sharediscuss idea Sense of competence 9 a sense that the group is doing well Promote by n Providing constructive feedback n Complimenting member abilities I Setting high standards Sense of progress 9 a sense of accomplishment Group Member Needs 21015 905 PM Schutz s FIRO theory of interpersonal needs 0 people join groups in order to satisfy one or more of these 3 needs that most people share inclusion need 9 our desire to belong be involved and accepted 0 one becomes a social member when their inclusion need is met they enjoy working with others as well as by themselves 0 unment inclusion needs results in the undersocial member who withdraws from the group as a result of perceived underappreciation the oversocial member who attracts attention to compensate feelings of inadequacy and seek constant companionship because they hate being alone 0 control need 9 whether we feel competent confident amp free to make our own decisions 0 often expressed by an aspiring group leader 0 the satisfaction of one s control need whether great or small results on a democratic member who has no powercontrol issues in the group and is comfortable with both giving and receiving orders They often make the best leaders 0 unment control needs results in the abdicrat who wants control but does not pursue it They often become submissive due to the perceived hopelessness of gaining control They follow order and avoid responsibilities the autocrat who attempts to control the group through domination often resulting in criticism 0 affection need 9 our desire to be liked by others 0 when one s affection need is met they become a personal member who has no emotional problems with the other group members They feel wellliked but also secure enough to function in a less affectionate group 0 unmet affection needs results in the underpersonal member who believes no one likes them and only develops superficial relationships They appear distant and reluctant to share feelings amp opinions The overpersonal member who desperately attempts to create intimate friendships despite other members disinterest They are often too talkative amp confiding Member Roles A member as assumed a role when they exhibit a unique set of skillsbehavior unique to a specific group function 0 Ex creating enthusiasm keeping the peace organizing tasks etc Benne and Sheats Functional Group Roles This list of group roles is common in most communication textbooks Roles are potentially temporary depending on the circumstances 3 categories of roles be able to recognize amp give examples don t need to memorize all Group Task Roles 9 focuses on the necessary behaviors to keep the group on task 0 Initiatorcontributor gets the group started amp provides direction by proposing ideas amp suggestions Information seeker makes the group aware of information gaps by asking for necessary factsfigures and requesting explanationsclarifications Opinion seeker attempts to discover group thoughts on an issue by testing group opinions Information giver provides relevant info by researching organizing and presenting needed info Opinion giver states personal beliefsinterpretations and offers analysisarguments Elaborator helps explain ideassuggestions by providing examplessummaries or describing consequences of a decisionaction Coordinator tries to coordinate activities of members or subgroups pulls ideassuggestions together Orienter summarizes what has been said or occurred raises questions regarding the direction of a discussion in relation to the overall agendagoal Evaluatorcritic asses ideasargumentssuggestions amp diagnoses taskprocedure problems Serves as the group s critical thinker Energizer motivates members creates enthusiasm for task and a sense of urgency if needed The group cheerleader Procedural technician assists prep for meetings suggests agenda items makes materialequipment arrangements Recorder keepsprovides record of group ideas suggestions decisions 0 Group Maintenance Roles 9 focuses on buildingmaintaining relationships to keep the group cohesive and cooperative O Encouragersupporter provides praise amp encouragement often person to person Harmonizer helps resolve conflicts emphasizes teamwork and importance of peacecooperation Compromiser offers suggestions to minimize differences Tension releaser alleviates tension with friendly humor breaks the ice tries to casually relax the group Gatekeeper monitors participation amp control communication encourages quiet members to speak more and talkative members to step back Observercommentator interpretsexplains nonverbal communication and feelings Paraphrases on behalf of other members Follower supports the group and accepts others ideas An attentive audience member 0 Selfcentered Roles 9 put individual needs ahead of group needs and goals 0 Aggressor puts down member to get what they want Often critical of others amp takes credit for someone else s workidea Blocker blocks progress by presenting negative amp disagreeable ideas amp attempts to derail an effective ideaproposal with delaying tactics Dominator prevents participation of others Asserts authority manipulates others interrupts others and monopolizes discussion 0 Recognition seeker boasts personal accomplishments to become the center of attention Disrupts discussion when they are not getting enough attention 0 Clown injects inappropriate humorcommentary to distract the group Prefers goofing off over working 0 Deserter withdraw from group and stops contributing acts bored amp above it allquot 0 Selfconfessor shares very personal feelingsproblems to seek emotional support rather than contributing to goal 0 Helpseeker expresses insecurityconfusioninferiority in order to seek sympathetic responses 0 Special interest pleader influences group to support an unrelated interest by speaking on behalf of an outside group or personal interest Belbin39s Team Roles more info under other infoquot 3 critical roles Innovator fosters creativity Coordinator helps group get organize in order to make good decisions Team worker promotes collaboration amp avoids friction Member Confidence Groups with confident members are more likely to succeed They cope effectively with unexpected events problematic behavior and challenges Group confidence helps groups commit to ambitious goals amp believe in their ability to succeed Communication apprehension 9 fearanxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with one person or multiple people Ex getting coffee with friends v a job interview Strategies for helping apprehensive members provide supportive amp constructive feedback focus on behavior rather than the individual describe the behavior rather than judging provide factual observations rather than assumptions amp opinions choose an appropriate timeplace to give supportive feedback 0 encourage amp include anxious members 0 stop talking Hyperpersonal communication 0 less direct than face to face communication 0 allows sender to strategically present information 0 explains why some members express themselves more completely amp confidently in computer mediated environments Member assertiveness Assertiveness speaking up and acting in your own best interests without denying the rights and interests of others 0 May enhance the confidence and effectiveness of the group 0 can raise personal confidence amp reduce communication apprehension Passivity vs aggression vs passive aggressive passivity gt expressed when members lack confidence amp desire to express opinions and feelings occurs when a member lacks the willskill to behave assertively passive members may experience high levels of communication apprehension are rarely satisfied with experience because they feel powerless aggressiveness gt members act on their selfinterests at the expense of others 0 often aggressive behaviors occur as a result unmet needs or the inability to express themselves assertively passiveaggressive gt combine both passive amp aggressive behaviors 0 lack aggressive behavior but lack respect for others 0 lack passive behavior because they speak up and appear confident undermine other members 0 appear cooperative but often fail to follow through with responsibilities 0 appear to agree while privately planning opposition 0 ex appear to handle criticism well then spread gossip Manipulation 9 how people seek to influence others typically for selfcentered reasons 0 Strategies to deal with manipulators 0 Identify manipulative behavior OOOOOOOOO Don t excuse manipulators don t accept favors from manipulators assert yourself use logic not emotion when responding to manipulators challenge dishonest statements call out rudeoffensive behavior agree to disagree or change the subject stand firm and repeat yourself enlist other group members for backup 21015 905 PM Cocultures 9 a specific culture within a larger societyculture Ex Muslim Americans Diversity 9 the quality of being different 0 Deep diversity 9 unique characteristics that are harder to recognize 0 Ex previous experiences knowledge skills etc Ethnocentricm 9 the belief that one s own culture is superior BAD patriotism Stereotypin19 a generalization about a group of people Oversimplifies a group s characteristics 0 Typically negative Prejudice 9 a negative attitude toward a group of people based on stereotypes Other not on the studyguide 21015 905 PM Group Communication 0 interactions increases exponentially with every additional person 0 large organizations tend to break up into smaller groups to achieve specific goals virtual communication 9 more complexunique McDonald amp Gibson study comparing face to face communication and virtual computer conference Belbin39s Team Roles TeamRole Theory Belbin claims groups work best when there is a balance of primary roles amp members knows their roles work to their strengths amp actively manage weaknessesquot 0 understanding the functions of Belbin s roles helps groups analyze amp improve their overall performance 0 members of successful groups can identify appropriate roles for themselves and how to work with the roles of other members 0 members should be clear about their roles but also avoid inflexibility Strategies for helping apprehensive members Knowthat you are not alone 0 Be well prepared 0 Learn communication skills 0 Relax physically 0 Think positively o cognitive reconstructuring gt assumes that communication anxiety is caused by irrational unproductive thoughts about speaking towith others that requires modifying restructuring Visualize success 0 visualization gt closely related to cognitive reconstructuring encourages positive thinking about communicating in groups Group Member Needs people join groups typically to satisfy needs 0 ex fireman wants to keep the community safe college students wants to make friends Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs SelfActualization fulfilling life purposepotential Esteem feeling good about yourself amp what others think of you LoveBelonging Safety comfort Psychological food water shelter Balancing individual and group needs 0 Using the FIRO theory requires a balance between the group and individual needs 0 Be cautious when using the FIRO method because it cannot perfectly explain every behavior 0 Ex An overpersonal behavior may not reflect an unmet affection need It could instead represent enthusiastic effort
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