PSYCH FINAL STUDY
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Bretz on Monday February 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych105 at a university taught by Jessica Higginbotham in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 12 Social Psychology o What is person perception o What can we nd out within 110th of a second Attractiveness Likeability Competence Trustworthiness Aggressiveness o 4 characteristics of person perception 1 Reactions to others are determined by your perception not who they really are 2 Selfperception also in uences how you seetreat others 3 Your goals determine the amount and type of information you collect 4 Evaluate people according to your expectations of who they are or social norms 0 How does someone39s attractiveness alter person perception They perceive them as smarter happier and better adjusted better marriages betterjobs better lives 0 What are social norms Socially excepted behavior 0 5 different attribution errors 0 Be able to recognize and create examples of these 1 Blaming the victim Ex Bad things don t happen to good people Life is fair Justifying someone s bad situation with the notion that they quotdeserved itquot 2 Hindsight Bias Ex Well sure I knew that was going to happen 3 Selfserving Bias Ex Common in individualist cultures Success quotI did such a great jobquot Failure quotwhy did everyone else have to mess it upquot 4 Selfeffacing Bias Ex Common in collectivist cultures Success quotI couldn t have done it with out everyonequot Failure quotWhy am I so terriblequot 5 Fundamental Attribution Ex Others behavior can be explained by their internal and personal characteristics lgnoring situational factors Reversed when explaining own behavior 0 What is attribution Expaining behavior 0 Explain the difference between stereotypes and prejudice Recognizing a trend exists among a group of people is a stereotype Applying stereotypes to all members of a group is prejudice 0 3 situations in which prejudice is most likely to emer e 1 Resources are scarce 2 Social change is occurring 3 Perceptions of threat to ingroup values 0 What is your attitude toward something Attitude Tendency to evaluate an object person or issue in a particular way positive or negative 0 How is it demonstrated Cognitive Thoughts about it Behavioral Actions regarding Affective Feelings or emotions toward 0 What are implicit attitudes Unknowingly hiding an attitude toward something 0 Cognitive dissonance lnconsistency between two thoughts or perceptions What did the robbers cave experiment teach us about prejudice Working toward a common goal is the best way to over come prejudice F o Ethnocentrism Belief your culture or ethnic group is superior to others 0 Know examples of conformity studies Normative Social In uence lnformational Social In uence Asch Conformity Experiment E 0 What were things that made people more likely to obey 1 Previously wellestablished mental framework to obey 2 Situation or context in which obedience normally occurs 3 Gradual repetitive escalation of the task 4 Experimenter s behavior and reassurances 5 Physical and psychological separation from learner Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders 0 WSU counselingservice Free to WSU students lndividual and group 509 3354511 Counseing and testing services Lighty Student Services Building 0 De ne mental disorder Patterns of behavioral or psychological symptoms that 1 Cause signi cant personal distress 2 lmpair ability to function 3 Depart from social and cultural norms The 4 D39s 1 Deviance 2 Dysfunction 3 Distress 4 Danger Psychopathology Study of origins symptoms and development of psychological disorders DSM5 what is it Drawbacks Advantages Diagnostic and statistic manual of Mental Disorders Drawbacks what is normal Arbitrary cut offs Lack of cultural diversity Advantages over 300 classi ed disorders 0 How likely is someone to develop a psychological disorder over his or her lifetime 50 likely 3 characteristics of anxiety disorder 1 Irrational 2 Uncontrollable 3 Disruptive what are the anxiety disorders we talked about Persistent Chronic and Excessive General Anxiety Disorder GAD 0 Difference between panic attacks and panic disorder Panic Attack Sudden episode of extreme anxiety Pounding heart rapid breathing breathlessness choking or suffocating sensation weakness dizziness sweating or chills chest pain lack of control feeling of impeding death Panic Disorder Frequent and unexpected occurrence of panic attacks Agoraphobia PTS D What is it Persistent and chronic symptoms of anxiety develop in response to extreme physical andor psychological trauma Situations when PTSD is more likely to occur 1 Frequently recalls the event intrusive 2 Avoids stimuli that trigger memories numbing of emotional responsiveness 3 Increased physical arousal associated with anxiety Susceptibility ncreased susceptibility if Family history of psychological disorders Magnitude of trauma Multiple traumas Difference between obsessions and compulsions Obsession Repeated intrusive irrational thoughts causing extreme anxiety or distress Compusions Repetitive behaviors or mental act that are performed to prevent or reduce anxiety What are mood disorders Significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive behavioral and physical functioning Major Depression What is it Extreme and persistent feelings of sadness worthlessness and hopelessness causing impaired emotional cognitive behavioral and physical functioning Emotional behavioral cognitive amp physical symptoms Know these 4 categories anol know at least 1 from each Emotiona Sadness hopelessness emptiness Emotionally disconnected Turning away from others Behavioral Dejected facial expressions Less eye contact Loss of interest Cognitive Difficulty thinking and concentrating Global negativity Suicidal thoughts Physica lnsomniaoversleeping Symptoms Low sex drive Loss of energy 0 Dygthymic disorder Lowgrade feelings of depression that produce subjective discomfort but do not seriously impair function 0 Bipolar disorder Manic episodes Rapidly escalating emotional state with extreme euphoria excitement physical energy and rapid thoughts 0 Anorexia 4 characteristics 1 Refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight 15below normal Slow progression 2 Fear of gaining weight 3 Body dismorphic disorder 4 Denial of seriousness of weightloss o Dangers to someone with anorexia Malnutrition Decreased metabolism glucose insulin leptin hormonal levels Disrupted menstruation sex drive and function ncreased lanugo baby peach fuzz to keep body warm 0 Bulimia 3 characteristics 1 Recurring episodes of binge eating Excessive amounts up to 50000cal within a 2 hourpedod 2 Inability to stop or control eating behavior 3 Recurrent episodes of purging laxatives diuretics vomiting enemas o Dangers to someone with bulimia Disruption in electrolyte balance Muscle cramps irregular heartbeat cardiac disruptions Tooth decay gum disease Gl dysfunction Personality disorders Unique characteristics ln exible maladaptive patterns of thoughts emotions behavior and interpersonal functioning o 3 clusters know at least one disorder from each 1 Odd Eccentric Paranoid 2 Dramatic Emotional Erratic Antisocial 3 Anxious Fearfu Dependent on 0 Main features of paranoid antisocial and borderline personality disorder Paranoid Disorder Suspiciousness of others mostly men inappropriate outburst of anger Antisocial Disorder Disregards or violates rights of others lacks guilt or remorse mostly men quotpsychopathquot Borderline Disorder Chronically unstable emptions relationships selfimage skewed views of self and others avoids abandonment selfharm emptiness Schizophrenia 0 Characteristics Severely distorted beliefs perceptions and thought processes 0 Positive vs negative symptoms 0 Examples of each Positive Deusions false O Halucinations false perceptions Disorganized thoughts speech behavior NegaUve Absence of motivation emotional expressiveness Fat affect 4 types 1 Paranoid No cognitive impairment disorganization or negative symptoms Delusions of persecution 2 Catatonic Rare Disturbed movements postures grimaces behaviors lmitation of others Resistant to direction from others 4 Disorganization Disorganized behavior speech Halucinations Fat affect Stillness laughing for no reason 4 Undifferentiated combination of positive and negative symptoms that do not t in other types Ch 15 Therapies psychotherapy vs biomedical therapy Psychotherapy Therapy Emotiona behavioral interpersonal problems Understanding Modifying Biomedical Therapv Psychotropic medications Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT Deep Brain Stimulation DBS Symptoms associated with psychological disorders psychoanalysis vs humanistic approach know the goals treatment styles of each Psychoanalysis Goals Recognize work though and resolve long standing con icts Treatment styles Free association dream analysis interpretation Humanistic Goals Develop selfawareness selfacceptance self determination Treatment styles Nondirective unconditional positive regard genuineness empathetic understanding 0 behavior therapy what is it good for Classical conditioning operant conditioning observational learning Relearn adaptive behaviors o Counterconditioning systematic desensitization aversive conditioning positive reinforcement can use for behavior therapy quot 0 Cognitive therapy ogica patterns of thinking 0 RET Rational Emotive Therapy Role of quotbeliefsquot quotI must be successful at everything I do or lam a complete failure I was not successful sol am a complete failure and a worthless human being 0 CT Changing maladaptive and unrealistic beliefs Examples of irrational beliefs Selective abstraction Arbitrary Inference Overgeneralization Personalization MagnificationMinimization 3 components of treatment 1 Recognize and monitor automatic thoughts 2 Empirically test irrationality 3 Collaboration between therapist and patient CBT Cognitive Behavior Therapy Bene ts Integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques assuming thoughts moods and behaviors are related IOO Mindfulness Mindfuness based Group and family therapy Group therapy advantages Cost effective Observabe interactions with others Added support and encouragement Hepfu practical advice Security and comfort new behaviors Familycouples therapy assumptions Works on the whole family rather then individual Often enhances effectiveness Operate as a system Effectiveness of therapy 1 Therapeutic relationship 2 Therapist characteristics 3 Client characteristics 4 External Circumstances 5 Cultural Differences Biomedical therapies Psychotropic medications Antipsychotics What are they good for a High blood pressure diminish psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia Reduce positive symptom What are they not good for a Not a cure negative symptoms still present Side effects dry mouth weight gain constipation sleepiness poor concetration Atypical antipsychotics How do they work a Affect DA and 5HT What can they treat Clozapine risperidone Antianxiety anxiolytics Examples 0 Valium Xanax What are they good for Relax muscles promote sleep reduce anxiety What are they not good for 0 Reduce coordination alertness reaction time Lithium What is it 0 Medication for bipolar manic and depressive How does it work Stabilizes glutamate release What does it work for a Bipolar manic and depressive Antidepressants Different types How are they different Tricycic Imipramine desipramine MAO inhibitors phenelzine tranylcypromine SSRVs Prozac Zoloft Paxil Celexa Lexapro For depression anxiety DualAction Dual Reuptake Inhibitors Good for Bad for 0 Effectiveness ECT What is it o Electroconvulsive Therapy Good for What 0 Treat depression sometimes mania schizophrenia a Very effective in short term DBS What is it 0 Deep brain stimulation Good for What 0 0CD depression chronic pain epilepsy Tourette s Risks of ECT and D85 Controversies Ethical considerations
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