Study guide for real
Study guide for real HSTAA 301
Popular in Colonial North American History
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Popular in American Studies
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Lecture Notes Lecture 2 92514 Origins of European Expansion Order Order and unity dominated the European mind trying to hearken back to Roman power People wanted to get back to their established order Hope for order and unity was expressed in society itself There was a country called the Holy Roman Empire Unities of church and state Feudal relationships gave each person a xed status Serfdom was still around Free labor had not yet been invented Vast majority of people remained under forms of obligation Church could unite people against heathens Institutions combined to create order quotall natures difference that keeps all nature s peacequot People had different liberties from one another Hazing and the like were pretty common to maintain order Metaphors maintained hierarchy OOOOO Schism and con ict Spain England france challenged holy roman empire Many religious sects challenged pope and Catholicism Protestantism spread through printing press from Germany and civilian unrest as did Anglicanism Henry VIII had taken his country out of Catholicism to allow him to divorce his wife and marry his mistress National religions were emerging Individuals began to have a direct relationship with god did not need to go through a pope or bishop or something Rise of nationstates Religion did not drive education anymore Expansion Europe39s expansion will be led and fueled by competition Vikings went east west and south 0 Hung out in Canada Shipping technologies had exponentially grown Lecture 3 92914 Discovery to Seaborne Empires Why Europe Vicioust competing religious nations How Europe Competitive seaborne empires quotocean39s separated by continentsquot o It was quicker to communicate and transport by sea than it was by land Potosi and Santa Fe Hundreds of thousands of Europeans and Native Americans were already in this mountain 1500 There were others as well Portugal 1497 Vasco da Gama made it to India for god and spices Mastered building of caravels carries heavy cargoes go against the wind Founded Sao Tome where they grew sugar cane and enslaved Africans off the coast of West Africa Signed treatise to keep others out of Africa Looked toward central and south America Columbus was determined to stake out claim to new world Cortez banned together groups of Natives to take over Empires in Central America and sent gold to Spain Legends of riches in South America sent Spaniards south Potosi Mercury was mined because it was discovered that it could process silver 0 Mines were terrible life expectancy was a few months for the native workers 0 Tons of gold and silver were sent back to Europe doubling Europe39s precious metals 0 More precious metals were sent to china to open up trade Spanish used a great deal of agriculture that then taught the English to do the same in the 13 colonies Relatively small Spanish population ruling over native people with a huge ratio Sugar 0 Became the premier crop in the new World especially raised by Spanish and Portuguese Initially labor force was native americans Encomienda system of a sort of indentured labor system Took a huge toll on indian populations Brutal to raise o A great deal of diseases transferred over to the Americas Complicated racial hierarchies grew out of this intermingling and it was frowned for Europeans to mix with other races OOOO Tordesillas Treaty that divided east to Portugal while west went to Spain But Portugal got part of brazil French and English Fished in newfoundland Gave people ideas that the way to china was through North America Gave an idea that North America was thin Explored the St Lawrence River Settlements began 0 Some of the settlements were destroyed by Spain39 Fish and furs in Canada 0 Native people traded the furs beaver skins especially to be made into hats By 18th century founded many settlements along the east 0 The French were running north America and were befriending natives while British were struggling to make an impact British Hudson found Hudson bay Dutch west india company in New Amsterdam Negotiated with Indians to try to gain a handle on the fur trade Used fort orange to trade furs Had some agricultural elds Transported many Black people there to work their land in Lecture 5 10114 America discovered continued Indians 8090 depopulation o Believed it to be favor of Christian god Columbian exchange 0 From EurasiaAfrica Domesticated animals horses cattle chickens 0 From Americas Root vegetables potato corn How will the survivors of contact survive o Squanto became a cultural broker Remained as a race viewed as peaceful trustworthy stewardly to the earth America and Indians as well became a symbol of something new Europeans view and promotions of america Referencing garden of eden and virgin land America showed natural comfortable lifestyle nakedness Depictions of natives were either of beautiful naked women in idyllic surroundings or hearkening back to classical depictions of romanlooking Indians America turned out to be Harsh winters mosquitos some places were barren eventually promoters like John Smith began to describe America as quota gardenquot where it was quite fertile but required work others called the new world savage dangerous not worth it inhabited by evil men new world became a dream for ambitious men English colonization of Virginia England was late because it was an outlying country 0 Also sort of chaotic and uncivilized Gentry class was rising in power and prestige People would follow ministers respected officials leaders Local government was king in England which then transitions to the respected state governments of America Companies were nanced by merchants that saw the bene t of trade and the new world Lecture 6 10214 Settlement of Virginia The crown divided the English colonizing enterprises into The Virginia Company of Plymouth and of London in 1606 Plymouth North Virginia 0 Started unsuccessfully in Maine London South Virginia 0 Established rst successful settlement in Jamestown 0 Very few survived o Settlers were too busy looking for gold to nd food then started attacking natives John Smith was captured freed then used as a liaison between native and English populations Many ate corpses It was pretty violeny 1610 relief eet arrived Sold colony to investors Company launched propaganda about the fertility and abundance of Virginia Situation in England around turn of 17th century Time of in ation Vagabonds unemployed homeless Illdisposed children Virginia company wanted to round up children to serve 7 year contracts of labor So 400 more arrived in 1609 only like 40 lived Virginia became a prisonlike rigorously run camp 0 But this order saved it 0 People were punished heavily for crime John roth married pocohauntus made more peace with pohawton John roth also discovered tobacco for England made Virginia marketable 0 Tobacco became a huge craze in England 0 Crown raised a lot of money and great quantities were imported Company offered chances for entrepreneurs to make their own attempt at starting plantations o The more people you traveled with the more headrights you received servants became key Relaxed Virginia39s laws house of burgesses Tried to give power to people when they arrived Mostly just run by local governors and people who could exploit and take liberties from others 1619 rst signi cant presence of Africans in Virginia Virginia Virginia was a colony founded on smoke entirely built on tobacco Needed a wealth of labor OOOOO Needed a way to market Neededland So the rich usually got richer Had all of its value through export Relatively few women People were dying all the time widows were a hot commodity Structures and powers of English local government were moved to virginia 0 English inspiration but Americanized Lecture 7 Pur ans Virginia moved toward political and economic individualism whereas New England was all about order and religious discipline New England Communities were entirely driven by religion The corporation form persists and transitions into a way of control for the people Establishing a planned community devoted to god Pur ans Reform group within Christianity Used as a term of negativity for many 0 Few called them freedom gures Based on evidence 0 Mostly Anglicans o Puritans in Plymouth colony were mostly called seperatists o Puritans were very suspicious and superstitious o Gossipy people where shame was everything Doctrines 0 Absolute sovereignty of god 0 Man39s predestination and limited atonement the elect saved and others not Justi cation for salvation by faith alone not works Bible as revealed word of god bible ran the entire show Education is imbedded in religion again Obsessed with original sin OOOO Lecture 8 Puritan way continued Puritan life Prepaeration Humiliation Justi cation Vocation SancU cann 0 Doing good works are not the means but the expression of sncti cation Election Establishing full membership was done by telling your church community aboutyourexpe ences Winthrop Governor of Massachusetts Oversaw Anne Hutchinson trial In his youth he was very sinful Puritan Piety Elitism of the church of quotvisible saintsquot of being within the walled garden 0 Dictatorship of the virtuous But subversive of old hierarchies of rank and status Activist and optimistic o Disciplined selfexamined self nding life 0 Finding meaning in anything Maintaining delicate balance between excessive reliance on divine inspiration and excessive con dence in preparation and good works Puritanism was a system for those searching for order and unity Some churches would train people that working rigorously would get you into heaven 0 Heresy Anne Hutchinson Believed that some preachers were better than others Alluded to revelation linking her to Protestantism Saw too much attention to works and preparedness because it was a contradiction of predestination Lecture 9 10814 Puritanism in action Pilgrims separatist puritans arrived at Plymouth in 1620 Arrived with may ower compact o Formed a new puritan congregation o All those who signed it would be freed men under the same laws 0 Also it was done to establish control over those that were not religious William Bradford was leader of group 0 Wrote an account of the arrival to America New England settlement Gorges Maine Mason New Hampshire were given charters to settle from the Council of New England Thomas Morton settled in Massachusetts and certainly wasn t puritan Puritans arrived through Dorchester Co settled in Salem 1623 then through New England Co to royally chartered Mass Bay Co 1629 Massachusetts Bay had been taken over by Puritans because a huge number decided to leave England 0 lmpulse for migration was dominated by leadership guys like Winthrop or Cotton brought huge amounts of people 0 Winthrop eet came in in 1630 Religious and economic motivations for quota city on a hillquot Puritan settlement Church wanted to develop churches of quotvisible saintsquot 0 Huge sort of application process to become a visible saint and member 0 There were churchgoers who were not members because they were not as visibly saintly 0 New churches could only be created by of cers in the state who were elected by members of the state State preserving corporate forms with only saints as full citizens preserving right religion But move towards parliamentaryEnglish forms as bicameral General Court from discretionary toward de ned written law Town controlled at central and local levels through land allocation Local governments through town meetings church and ridicule Patriarchal control Family concerns for education and properly raised children Marriage and morals ran the household Big families low infant mortality rate Lecture 10 101314 Second wave of settlement These new settlements were settled by proprietors Maryland First founded Was a refuge for Catholicism Founded by lords Baltimore actual name calvert Was a bit of a feudal lordship under the Bishop of Durham Clause 1649 declaration of religious liberty Calvert rule with plantation tobaccograin economy large manors Carolina Mostly settled by other colonies Ashley cooper and John Locke39s 1669 fundamental constitutions seeking to checkbalance political and economic power 0 Showed that you could actually make government Emergence of separate N and S Carolinas 0 South Carolina had indian and African slavery cattle rice indigo 0 North Carolina became rough barron unsettled produced its own labor force Rice became a huge product that required a great deal of work and manipulation of the land First settlement referring to themselves as whites and blacks instead of Christians and pagans Carolina had a black majority the only colony in North America 0 Charleston became the slave importing port of English America Pennsylvania Quakerism and William Penn as proprietor Continued to stress religious tolerance and inner light within all Rejection of rank and ceremony Pennsylvania was a refuge There were no preachers just elders and overseers Quakerism was radical and threatening but also very interested in controlling itself and freedom Lecture 11 101414 The second wave of settlement Pennsylvania Most important example of second wave Quakers emerged in Pennsylvania 0 People of humble origin in England William Penn was high class status 0 Penn received a vast quantity of land Pennsylvania 0 Set up as a feudal proprietorship 0 Parliament could levy taxes to Pennsylvania 0 Penn wrote up a constitution very interested in rights of people versus power Had a very American characteristic about it 0 Limiting business of government becomes part of the business of government Government 0 Disconnected from religion Broad religious toleration Only two capital crimes murder and treasons All about being limited No pervasive moralism Arbitrating grievance keeping peace Diverse cultures were accepted there Philadelphia city of brotherly love founded around 1680 0 City boomed and became the largest city in America by revolution Farming o Produced wheat and livestock Could thrive because of a lack of con ict also a mass of nonBritish immigrants Many different churches an congregations Rise of ethnoreligious and city government Refugees for variety of groups tolerance of varieties of belief Downfalls 0 Too relaxed so that when threats existed colony could not band together 0 Many different competing factions emerged political parties 000 O Lecture 12 Bound for America indentured abor 65 percent of those arriving to colonial America were arriving as labor in 17th century 0 50 percent in 18th Labor movement Shaped family composition decided what offspring were up to People became indentured servants to cross the atantic Some people were kidnapped and sold into indenture People were gathered from the reinand where ships took people across on credit if they could not nd the money they would need to indenture themselves Convicts were transported as well Both slaves and white servants had 10 and 5 percent respectively mortality rate during the voyage How was labor treated when it arrived Depended on their status skilllevel whether they were criminals or not Some were imprisoned until they were bought Depended on their contracts as well Labor lawfully was Property If lost it could be retrieved and punished Could be lost in a card game Ha rrower Unusual servant who wrote about his labor Died during service Lecture 13 Chattel slavery Olaudah Equiano Slave thrown into a labor system Similar intent to indentured servitude but became a hereditary lifelong condition Slavery origins Africans were brought in as early as 1619 but did not come in at great numbers Dutch had the most slaves in North America in the 17th century mostly in New York Last 30 years of 17th century showed a rise in imported blacks South Carolina by 1710 would have a black majority Turn of 18th century marked a huge shift in the labor source particularly the southern colonies Shifted from society with slaves to slave society Most of the slaves being brought over went to Brazil 38 only 5 were brought to British North America 0 Though north American slavery was tough North America was the only area where slave populations could naturally reproduce o By 1825 there were more slaves in British North America than anywhere else Transatlantic slave trade Middle passage twice as many Africans by percent died than indentured servants Children Partas sequitar ventrum status follows the belly master relations with slave girl meant children were automatically slaves Created a confused racial identity Lecture 14 Trade empire and time of troubles Yesterday recap From trade to empire A number of colonies had moved to being appointed by the crown royal governments Trade Acts were placed to keep trade in line under the crown Crown did not realize how dif cult it was to oversee 0 Huge amount of record keeping 0 Royal officials would post up in port towns o Bonds were used to keep people attached to trade Extension to colonies 1670s supervised by crown quotlords of trade and plantationsquot Flag follows trade 0 Commercial regulation plus colonial dissension precipitates royal political intervention Edward Randolph 0 Royal agent to boston 1676 o Leads legal challenge to Massachusetts Claimed that they violate acts of trade house kingslayers Led to quo warranto challenge 0 Charge s annulment in 1684 Crown created dominion of New England in 16861689 Done by Edmond Andros who traveled around New England challenging these colony s power Became a massive supercolony Andros and his aids ran a very autocratic dominion Abandoned many of the rights of Englishmen Widespread con ict in New England King philip39s war the time of Rowlandson39s captivity diary 0 1675 King Philip a Wampanoag 0 Killed 25 percent of the Indians in New England and 10 percent of the colonist 0 Indians were defeated with the aid of the lroqois o Demoralized New Englanders right before a great royal threat Bacon39s rebellion 0 Virginia 1675 0 Governor Berkeley was perceived as corrupt and tyrannical 0 Was not aggressive in his efforts against Indians but many new arrivals in the colony wanted New land Skirmishes arose along the frontier to kill many lndians Nathaniel Bacon was given a plantation along the frontier wanted to attain land against Indians lost favor with Berkley OO Bacon was given a commission to ght more Indians lost favor again and burned down Jamestown Bacon received a following wanted to attack cliques in colonial government and killed many of Berkley39s supporters Berkley rebuttled after bacon s death and hanged many supporters Crown responded by sending their rst army to Americas to settle the con ict rebellion collapsed but settlement was reached that was sympathetic to cause of rebels Many problems for Andros and his dominion of New England More problems for England Glorious Revolution 1688 O 0000 0 William of Orange39s Troops marched on London Kicked off con ict with france for England America followed suit with hearing about london s fall Leisler regime took over in New York and ruled for four years April 18 1689 a mob formed and they disarmed the frigate chased officials including Andros to fort hill Many people insisted that the old charters were dead so they appealed for a new charter Competing legitimacies frontier expansion William of Orange was the savior of Protestantism direct relationship between crown and common people Lecture 15 Explaining a time of troubles Overthrow of dominion of England done in the name of the new English authority Salem village 1692 Rumors circulated about a group of young girls Women were imprisoned many accused by girls At least 4 died in prison Puritans wondered if the evidence against the witches was sufficient furthermore many of the accused were prominent gures Only a handful were actually executed I believe Became a standard of condemning the innocent Context of trial Witchcraft accusations were not uncommon but there were only 16 executions prior to the trial Many of the accused were from other places Ministers began to hype up publications about witchcraft Salem village was a succession of scattered farms 0 Had many disputes about land factioned churches and failing ministers Putnam family was a huge accuser and many accused were on the eastern side Episode in social modernization Was not a very puritan town so blaming it on puritan bigotry does not really hold up Who was accused 0 most accused were women women are more susceptible to devil o accused were older men or women who were disagreeable connected to Quakerism lived alone delinquent in some way operated tavern some old women were known for fortune telling usual suspects o eventually those accused were respected married people people to envy accusers kept keeping stories interesting and maintaining as center of attention people said that accused were guilty of o appearing in dreams in bedrooms 0 scratching or pinching others 0 witches were blamed for events that happened years before found scapegoats 0 folk magic and healings became antichristian proceedings lecture 16 1030 Growth diversity and reason Internal political stability amid contest of empires Transportation was very limited 1730s in Chesapeake farmers were moving out toward the back country You could vote in any county in which you had land Plantation Chesapeake and Carolina countries 700000 pop by 1760 0 13 slave of natural increase Large tidewater units Washington and rise of gentry in Virginia Had humbleish origins Married heiress of wealthy origins 0 Once a woman married what she owned was passed onto the man 0 Marriage was a way for men to make fortune Byrd family 0 Involved in Bacon39s rebellion but shifted in support of Berkley to come up on winning side 0 Byrd kept up a life of a gentleman 0 Close inbred society 0 Only a few families ran the upper class Carolina New rich with making massive economic strides with rice and indigo growth Ball plantations were established all over Carolina Elias Ball left behind 5 children 2 by his black house keeper descending a variety of different families Rice was very dif cult to grow greatly affecting African American culture in Carolina 0 Slave communities were more prominent in Carolina and less controlled because many slaves lived together Less interest in culture and tradition and more on making money they ended up being richer than those in Virginia Neither societies are terribly religious anymore church is more about gentility than salvation Africanamerican culture emerges Black slaves Virginia 0 Did not import nearly as many because families emerged o Treated black people as their children 0 Not all about violence Carolina 0 Because of rigorousness of work families did not form as well and more slaves were imported 0 Because of slave communities that were not as well overseen food and customs from home were brought from Africa o Taskslavery was more used basically giving slaves a job and giving them leisure if they were able to nish their duty Tensions arose between different levels of blackness class battles Resistance began in many different forms Lecture 17 Backcountry 113 The northern backcountry 18th cent Almost continuous con ict between france England and Spain 0 Imperial con ict Raising cattle and pigs brought them to market to raise money A little involved in the fur trade but trade was dwindling in the north Settlements began as wigwam or holes in the ground appearance very insubstantial More cultivatable land in the north Southern Backcountry Many Europeans migrated to this area speci cally ScotsIrish and German Backcountry folk were rougher around the edges Lots of crime which led to movements that backcountry occupants in South Carolina began to govern themselves 0 They were called the regulators vigilante force that would use strong arm tactics for own ends 0 Would try to get government aid and assistance By 1760 back country of SC was not nearly as closely represented in politics Woodmason was an Anglican minister helping SC regulators Regulator movements existed in North Carolina as well they were more focused on defeating corruption in courts and legal action Battle of the Alamance 1771 governor vs regulators in NC 0 Regulator movement collapsed but was reformed into objectives in Revolution Many diverse races and occupations began to ll up the backcountry changing white AngloSaxon Protestant English America to a much more diverse area Paxton Boys Marched on Indians and Philadelphia as an example of the con ict that was going on between all people in the colonies Lecture 18 Great awakening German pietism and English Methodism became more about grace A great deal of focus put on conversion and salvation Stressing importance of gospel Mediation of Christ George whit eld and the great awakening Revivals of the church 17205 german pietism was brought to communities Wanted locally educated clergy sermons that were more personal Colonial America was overwhelmingly protestant Whitfield39s sermons were easily understood People would travel from afar to hear his sermon Revivalism made people proud and excited about religion come together for a new start quotnew birthquot New members were joining women blacks Ministers developed following and even groupies sexual scandals with ministers Distrusted instant conversion wanted people to have education called women and children more weak to sermons places like Harvard were accused of being too worldly and dark whit eld threatened professional educann Lecture smething Seeds of discontent 170050 period of salutary neglect intrinsic on Whig party and minimalist government Stability tolerance Protestantism local selfgovernment under royal authorty 0 Composite empire Patrick henry Hired by crown Decided that laws were for the good of the people against a case with clergy Called disallowing of laws tyranny of the crown Writs of assistance search warrants Otis Appealed to british constitution against parliamentary law Again lost Conclusion Both of these men appealed to English traditional law to oppose roya authorty Showed legitimacy Crown thought of them as daughters to a mother country Rising marine empire of goods As coony population grew imports also grew Many acts were passed to limit and victimize colonies Colonies gained feeling that they were being exploited with tobacco prices decreasing and Scottish merchants making deals that hurt the colonists Many regulations against them Colonists were secondclass English citizens 0 Their massive population was becoming threatening o Suspected that interest groups were corrupting their rule 0 Started calling themselves quotAmericansquot which is pretty cool Role of war in the 18th cent Colonists felt the need to protect themselves against foreign powers Many con icts culminating with French and indian war 0 Ohio river valley became focal point for fur trade New france was taking over interior and establishing many forts Both sides wanted to push into each other s territory George Washington and fort Duquesne Involved a series of campaigns that were threepronged attacks upon Canada check notes on French and indian war William Johnson took fort Niagara Others took other key places 0 Wolfe was stuck because of the attack 0000 CO Lecture 1113 From resistance to rebellion 176675 Legacy of stamp act Stamp act and sugar act if we have any tax without representation aren39t we slaves Stamp act was widely hated History writing became all about the rise of liberty Exposed weakness of imperial system Mass action boycotts Newspapers were devoted to criticizing government Protests about quartering troops Antagonized parliament39s attacks Townsend revenue acts Affected merchants and not colonists on the ground No mob action but royal gov was getting challenged o Smuggling had reached huge numbers 0 Customs of cers were coerced and threatened by smugglers This smuggling resulted in quartering of troops and troops taking jobs away from colonists o Hatred of lobster backs Boston massacre 1770 Soldiers were pelted with oyster shells wrapped in ice 5 Bostonians were killed when the soldiers opened re New English government under lord North Colonies were developing more formal complaints against government Radicals and writers were saying its not just parliament39s claim to tax its all of parliament Sam adams drafted what the rights of the colonists were Jefferson appeared on the scene and started publishing against English authorty Franklin used satire to write against England The people were emerging from middle class colonial society and were operating outside the assembly through committees of correspondence Quebec act of 1774 Tea act Was passed to revive the company by not paying so many duties 0 Also to undercut smuggling Cry of monopoly was raised People would not let the shipment of tea arrive much con ict Colonists banned together and threw tea overboard There was even an English opposition Believed that English government was devoted to take away liberties Assembly brought together in boston of the movers and shakers in the colonies Royal troops surrounded boston April 18 1775 troops were sent across river to get arms from colonists Lecture 1120 The loyalists yesterday continued Washington Eventually his qualities were recognized by his superiors Cared a great deal about correspondence Washington was criticized by fellow generals often Known as cincinnattus 0 Roman farmer who left the plow was asked to lead his entire life and returned to his farm War of American independence Modern war Small forces Much a war of attrition Securing allegiance of civilian population was most important France and spain joining sealed the deal 0 Failure of british blockade England39s warweariness also England had bigger sh to fry to hold onto Canada Caribbean island Many colonies remained with England after the war There was a peace treaty de nite end to the war 0 No continued attrition against brits o No guerilla crash amongst victors o No native American threat Those who started the revolution were still alive at the end 0 Conservative revolution Could be called a civil war Families were split and many were loyalists 0 Many were apathetic Over 80000 loyalists left the US Oftenforgotten by history Who were they 0 Not all bad guys 0 Tories conservatives against the mob of patriots 0 Royal officials who bene tted from English rule Joseph Galloway returned to England eventually Jonathan Bucher Anglican preacher in virginia that upset people William Smith was a son of liberty didn39t like how strike was done joined loyalists then went to Canada Quakers generally supported governemtn and were nonviolent Largest group was north Carolinians o Regulator movements and scotish population made this so 0 Frontiersmen to the westfavored England because it supported their economic work and limited how much farmland competition could have Royal officials andlicans merchants frontiersman minorities Loyalists made claims against the patriots after war and it is clear that much of the loyalsts had the same composition as patriots Often fear of the outcome of the revolution determined how tories felt they saw the chaos and anarchy of the American government and the removed fashion of England Loyalist groups were formed in Canada as many oyaists ed to there 0 Proved to still oppose America in 1812 Others went to Bahamas and took slaves 112614 Liberty and Experiment Societyt part II Indians Greatest losers in American revolution Devastation of Cherokee lands in southern Appalachia Raiders went out to bring back Indians as slaves and Cherokee lands would be passed to government lroqois lost bulk of their lands By 17905 lndians had ceded all their land White people s manifest destiny was to civilize and tame the forests to the west African americans More slaves were brought in by the end of the 18th century Problem with ideology Jefferson sought to denounce the slave trade 0 Southern delegates opposed this sentiment These sentiments freed very few slaves Huge amounts of uprisings and eeing during con icts with British Many slaves ed and lived in swamp communities Twice as many blacks served in british army than continental army Jus ably greatest slave rebellion prior to the civil war Freedom Northern blacks found freedom through enlisting 10 of continental army were black by the end 0 Masters would offer freedom to slaves who served in their place 0 Private individuals could emancipate their slaves Washington was the only substantial founding father who freed his slaves Signi cant rise in free black population Vermont bound slavery in constitution Massachusetts freed slaves through two judicial decisions Otherwise it was a slow process Some were sold south before they had emancipation even in the north Connecticut would not have anyone legally freed until pretty late Jersey was the last state to pass an emancipation law More slaves were in the states than ever before directly after revolution because so many more were imported and reproducing Revolution was fought in the interest of liberty for the preservation of property no so much out of an ideology that everyone should be free People comforted themselves in believing that slavery was an English institution Emancipation sharpened tensions in deliberate exclusion of blacks 12114 Confederation u states People wanted a central government but not a powerful one 0 They knew that republic could not work with such a large country They still spoke about united states as in states that were united but not a single entity Articles of confederation 1776 quotWe the statesquot Each state was sovereign and free No power to tax One stateone vote Huge amounts of in ation in confederation Depression Congress put Robert morris in charge of nancial committee 0 Established a bank that would use currency 0 Used debt to keep people in line because they remained loyal to the banks Severe trade depression US was now outside of British mercantilism o Contemporaries believed that the confederation should be replaced had become completely ineffective officials stopped showing up Backcountry Many expansions by US but other nations had occupation already and there was not much central support 1787 congress passes northwest ordinance More imperial approach with control from the center Slavery should be banned in this northwest area 0 Federal guarantee of civil rights and republican government Young men of the revolution Madison Hamilton Jay Morris These people began supporting a movement for a stronger federal government This generation saw the aws in the confederation 124 Summary and retrospect Upto 1660 1700 1660 Period of foundings Founding indian societies Southern occupied by spain Northeastern occupied by French Atlantic seaborde held by engilsh 0 English America get rich quick by expoloitation of others virginia and Cadbbean 0 New England all about rural development 1700 Atlantic economy Royal regulation Formation of empire built opn trade and racial distinction Assimilation or expulsion of indian peoples Glorious revolution of 1688 leads to greater English control Wanted to tax and legislate themselves Made up of parts governed in different ways Pennsyylvania designed to have more limited power and more tolerance separation of church and state 1760 Political stability Dramatic growth of population immigration and slave imports Diversi cation of population and religion and culture Low infant mortality Geographic diversi cation o Plantation o Bacjk country 0 Urban centers Spreading of ideas and movements translated into opposition of England Sometimes recent immigrants would be more loyal to english o Rivalries amongst groups both geographic and ethnic 176075 What War and con ict Frencha nd indian war Precipitated rebellion against England England had to tax to pay for war and people rebelled and intellectually opposed England Had to modify original moves Realized a need for centralized government Experimented with government People were now citizens and not subjects constituents 0 Too much power to the people could threaten authority Balance liberty and order had not changed Remained agrarian 0 Less than 5 people per square mile of land Life expectancy was low Social strati cation 0 Merchant and plantation gentry vs urban landless White male patriarchy ran family society slave labor force government Major transitions lndian people39s reduced in population and all land east of Mississippi White and black population growth Huge amount of diversity over time Labor 0 Originally indentured servitude 0 Then black chattel slavery joined through revolution 0 After revolution white indenture fell away while slavery grew in south shrunk in the nortgh Regionalism Attitudespractices Work was no longer seen as degrading but became patriotic hired help wage earners Reform groups Fraternal institutions Greater sancti ed nature of family White women and nonwhites were more excluded speci cally could not vote Reconceptualization of de nitinosa Liberty 0 Originally was order and service to god considered a privilege 0 After rev order and liberty are at odds liberty is about being your own person freedom to own property and pursuit of happiness 0 Education 0 Child rearing From control to freedom Religion 0 Submission involved in everything involved in government As a means to escape from evils of society 0 Freedom and nding your own government is not involved does not have the right to dictate religion More pluralist Allegiance to secular creed instead of religious one People could save themselves Function of state 0 To be served 0 To serve Midterm notes For short answer Have the who what where why how Give context Know the dates of when important things happened For essay Make an outline Be sure to have thesis Spanish empire in America Late 15th and early 16th ceturies Mostly in central and south America Followed promise of riches in south America Spain used terrible conditions in mines Also started agriculture in America and brought that knowledge to colonies Small Spanish population with huge native ratio Transferred diseases to America Premier crop in new world was Spanish sugar Treaty of Tordesillas gives spain everything west in New World Virginia company of London Arrived in Chesapeake 1607 First successful settlement in Jamestown Very few survived Settlers looked for gold instead of food had con icts with Indians and John Smith was captured Launched propaganda about fertility of Virginia Virginia became prisonlike Tobacco discovered byJohn Roth became crazed in England made virginia marketable Labor indentured servitude House of burgesses Established 1619 Tried to give power to people when they arrived lnstead run by local governors who could exploit and take advantage of people on arrival Council for new England Early 17th century joint stock company Granted royal charter to colonize Gorges settled Maine Mason settled New Hampshire Roger Williams Protestant theologian Exiled from Mass Bay Colony Supported religious freedom and separation of church and state Advocated fair dealings with natives Tried to prohibit slavery 1636 began the colony of Providence Plantation Harvard college Oldest higher learning in the US founded in 1637 In Massachusetts bay colony Ministerjohn Harvard donated hisn entire library Puritan concern for education During an education movement where the Mass School Law required towns to form elementary schools Fundamental constitutions of Carolina Ashley cooper and john locke made it in 1669 Sought to checkbalance political and economic power Showed that government could actually be made Cultivation of rice South Carolina used indian and African slavery for rice cultivation Rice became a huge product that required great deal of work and manipulation of the land Swampy Used African knowledge and massive African population Captivity narrative Captured during king philip39s war Held for 11 weeks in 1676 by Indians Described Indians as brutes Quakerism Really established in Pennsylvania in 1682 William Penn as proprietor Continued to stress religious tolerance and inner light within all Rejection of rank and ceremony Pennsylvania was a refuge There were no preachers just elders and overseers Quakerism was radical and threatening but also very interested in controlling itself and freedom Emerged from people of humble origin Status of women in early America ummm Headrights virginia company gave entrepreneurs chances to start plantations headrights were given for each indentured servant paid to cross the atalntic kept many poor and made rich richer populated the new world began in Virginia 1618 but was used other places Bacon39s rebellion Virginia 1675 Governor Berkeley was perceived as corrupt and tyrannical Was not aggressive in his efforts against Indians but many new arrivals in the colony wanted New land Skirmishes arose along the frontier to kill many Indians Nathaniel Bacon was given a plantation along the frontier wanted to attain land against Indians lost favor with Berkley Bacon was given a commission to ght more Indians lost favor again and burned down jamestown Bacon received a following wanted to attack cliques in colonial government and killed many of Berkley39s supporters Berkley rebuttled after bacon s death and hanged many supporters Crown responded by sending their rst army to Americas to settle the con ict rebellion collapsed but settlement was reached that was sympathetic to cause of rebels Glorious revolution William of Orange39s Troops marched on London 1688 Kicked off con ict with france for England America followed suit with hearing about london s fall Leisler regime took over in New York and ruled for four years April 18 1689 a mob formed and they disarmed the frigate chased of cials including Andros to fort hill Many people insisted that the old charters were dead so they appealed for a new charter Competing legitimacies frontier expansion William of Orange was the savior of Protestantism direct relationship between crown and common people Chartered company Association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade exploration and colonization From late 16th century received royal grant of monopoly rights with shared nancing Shaped governments and societies Virginia and mass bay were chartered Navigation acts Began 1651 Policy of mercantilism Keep all pro ts within the empire Acts restricted colonial powers to pro t off of trade and resulted in smuggling 1660 enumerated goods only to England or English colonies 1663 staple act most imports must go through england Cultivation of tobacco Discovered in Virginia made Virginia marketable Tobacco became huge craze in England Neededlabor Became export crop through plantation economy Yearround crop Labor intensive 17th century Conversion experience Made church members give narratives of religious experiences to prove memebership Only church members were freed men Made church involvement pivotal politically Massachusetts puritan churches began around 1630 John cotton really brought it along and john Winthrop39s story supported it Sq ua nto 1621 Taught original settlers survival methods in the new world plymouth Had lived in both European and native cultures so was very worldly through slavery and travel As his people died he became a culturalpower broker who would play on both sides during con ict between Europeans and english Settlement of Maryland First Proprietor colony to be founded Refuge for Catholicism Founded by lords Baltimore Was a bit of a feudal lordship under the Bishop of Durham Clause 1649 declaration of religious liberty Calvert rule with plantation tobaccograin economy large manors Dominion of new England 16861689 Done by Edmond Andros who traveled around New England challenging these colony s power Became a massive supercolony Andros and his aids ran a very autocratic dominion Abandoned many of the rights of Englishmen Bacon really challenged this dominion and problems kept arrising Growth of religious toleration Quakers were huge proponent of this Were radical at rst but their view were adopted more and more over time Began 1682 Adoption of black slavery First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619 brought by Dutch who had the most slaves throughout 17th cent Shifted to slave society in 18th century South Carolina began to use a lot of slavery for rice and grew to have a black majority Charlston became slave importing port of Americas Huge need for work on plantations slaves were cheaper than indentures 5 percent went to north America but most slaves were in America by 1825 Partas sequitar ventrum lndentured servitude Given a contract to work for a given amount of years if ful lled contract would be given opportunity to make own life Became servants to cross atlantic 65 percent of those arriving were arriving as labor in 17th cent Some were kidnapped convicts Iroquois confederacy King Philips war King philip39s war the time of Rowlandson39s captivity diary 1675 King Philip a Wampanoag Killed 25 percent of the Indians in New England and 10 percent of the colonist Indians were defeated with the aid of the Iroqois Demoralized New Englanders right before a great royal threat William Penn and pennsylvania Quakerism and William Penn as proprietor Continued to stress religious tolerance and inner light within all Rejection of rank and ceremony Pennsylvania was a refuge There were no preachers just elders and overseers Quakerism was radical and threatening but also very interested in controlling itself and freedom Penn received a vast quantity of land Pennsylvania Set up as a feudal proprietorship Parliament could levy taxes to Pennsylvania Penn wrote up a constitution very interested in rights of people versus power Had a very American characteristic about it Limiting business of government becomes part of the business of government 1680s founded pennsylvania Essay questions 1 The goals of the settlers as well as the fertility of the land determined the way that they used labor a Virginia i Tobacco ii lndentured servitude primarily evolving overtime into a slave society b New England and Pennsylvania Massachusetts i Puritans and quakers were more concerned with religion ii Did not believe in slavery c Carolina i North did not have good land ii Southern swamps were great for rice iii African slaves were imported and south Carolina became black majority and charlotte became main slave port 2 While Virginia used a prisonlike state to keep citizens in order Massachusetts used gossip and shaming to keep people in line a Virginia i was all about tobacco production people were motley crew ii Punished heavily for crimes b Massachusetts i john Winthrop ii Used closetogether towns centered on church Study guide Who What Where When whj Stono rebellion Cato literate Largest slave rebellion South Carolina September Lari slave led 80 in british colonies 1739 rebl slaves neg whi edL ass wor sa enfl resl maI Founding of James Brought colonists to Southeast british 1733 Sei Georgia Oglethorpe newly established colonies the colony Wanted to bring an britain s poor to colony pro No slavery Buffer sor military colony between british and spanish 18th cent urban development I South Carolina Back country Organized effort by back Western south 1760 Bat regulators frontiersmen country settlers to carolina Alai restore law order and mo local government in taki response to failed owr legislative efforts enc against outlaws Jonathan Edwards Puritan minister Puritan minister spread Massachusetts 17305 Sha revivals sinners in the awe hands of an angry god Great awakening George Religious revival In uenced 173051740s Leg white eld and Religious pluralism was churches pro jonathan promoted throughout the der edwards colonies but incr speci cally lncr middle and reliq northern Proi sen acc eml Ben franklin39s Benjamin Accounts of his life and 177190 autobiography franklin experiences Rise of Jonathan Acceptance of many Thoughout Mid 18th cent Allo denominational edwards sects of Protestantism colonies con pluralism reliq reliq ano maI Parson s cause Patrick henry Challenged royal Virginia 1763 Pati control Legal dispute kinlt King George vetoed law law that allowed tobacco stal debts to be paid Jury colonies in uproar croi Infll aga revi John Dickinson Lawyer published pennsylvania 17687 Sail essays under name quota collt farmerquot par revi reg unc Sigi adc of c Stamp act crisis Sons of liberty Direct tax taxed several Massachusetts 1765 Coll documents intended to new York other was pay for debts in French colonies brit and indian war Sons of sho libery incited riots in the Lon streets Stamp act Adc congress held in new spu York drafted grievances to parliament Common sense Thomas paine Pamphlet written in Throughout 17756 Whl simple common sense states was language Sold and legi distributed widely Most sep sold published work in Eng American history Used pop biblical references mal side Declaration of Thomas Declared colonies as Signed in 1776 ln l independence Jefferson and 56 independend Listed phyladelphia tha39 delegates grievances and natural the adams rights evilt Pennsylvania Ben franklin was First state constitution in Pennsylvania 1776 Dec const of 1776 involved in its direct response to ma authoring declaration par citi con tim Mass const of 1780 John adams Last written in chapters mass June 1780 Fori section and articles was con yea revi con nev Thoughts on John adams Written by john adams 1776 Ada government in response to north forr carolina s resolution of gov establishing new ano government sing boo boo one Abigail adams Wife ofjohn adams Letters to 1776 Firs mother ofjohn quincy continental sec congress in 1776 sigr she witl dur adv wor rigl beli an 1 Nature of loyalism Joseph Over 80000 loyalists South Carolina During war Sigi Galloway left the US tories Pennsylvania and through the jonathan conservatives royal throughout early 18005 gro Bucher William officilas beniitting from colonies aml Smith English rule quakers logi north Carolinian due to rea regulators hist frontiersmen saw chaos in l and anarchy aof up 1 possible American as i government Battle of Saratoga British general Surrounded by American Upsatate new 1777 Wit John Burgoyne forces when help he york suri expected did not arrive solc surrendered his entire sup army side tip aml Nathaniel greene Quaker fought Cleared most of Georgia Carolinas and Took For british and south Carolina by Georgia command aba Cornwallis exhausting troops 1780 afte forc virg Emancipation of Northern blacks found Vermont and Late 18th cent Rev slaves in freedom through mass outlawed into the early libe revolution enlisting slaves who slavery 19th pro served in master s Connecticut and eve place Washington was jersey waited a pee only founding father while the who released slaves sa signi cant rise in free nov black incr deli blat Republican Stressed Sel ess devotion of everywhere Before during Elei motherhood originally by mother to family was and after pre John Locke model republican revolution spe gures like behavior nat Abigail adams in inve educa on edL movement stre imp Articles of confed Congress of the Established US as All states mostly 1781 The confederation confederation of discussed in replaced in con sovereign states did not philadelphia 1789 faili have power to tax little nee control over states gov huge wer in ationdepression resl feai cou resl pov gov Virginia statute of Jefferson Disestablished church of Virginia Drafted in Not religious liberty England guaranteed 1777 the religious freedom to all introduced firsl faiths including catholics 1779 est and jews free Ordinance of 1784 Jefferson Organized northwest Bordered by 1784 and 87 Esta and 1787 territory territories great lakes ohio nor could not become states river and tha39 until same population of Mississippi river esta least pop state set up con territories that were adn almost states and sa outlawed slavery in Uni39 northwest territory ceri Shay s rebellion lmpoverished Shays demanded that mass 1786 Johi backcountry state issue paper gov farmers and rev lighten taxes suspend to r war vets property takeovers nee mass responded with syn small army and put con down rebellion wee Virginia plan James Madison Large state plan two Philadelphia 1787 Set Edmund houses of congress constitution del randolph elected to appointment convention esta based on population pop rep stal New jersey plan William Small state plan one Philadelphia 1787 Tho patterson vote per state rejected constitution esta convention sen VOtl esta ano stal Antifederalists sam adams Devoted to states rights Opposed Sup Patrick henry believed constitution to constitution arti Richard henry be prowealthy class of 1788 con lee worried that president retL backcountry would become a tyrant the and poorest abo Essay questions a Changes in religious role in society between 1700 and 1790 a Religion became denominationally pluralist during this period b Through the great awakening all sects of Protestantism were legitimized more European ethnicities were accepted i Sermons were made more emotional and accessible to people ii Decreased con ict between religious sects c Virginia statute of religious liberty 1779 guaranteed freedom to all religions including catholics and jews i Precursor for rst amendment establishing religious freedom in in the states b Who is the heir ofjohn Winthrop ben franklin jonathan Edwards a Jonathan Edwards 17405 i In uenced great awakening ii Denominational pluralism iii Religious revival iv Acceptance of religions and ethnicities b Ben franklin 17705 i Rarely attended services ii Felt organized religion was necessary to keep people in line iii Franklin supported great awakening not because of theology but because of support of good works iv Continued to support puritan values in education and ethics but also supported all faith champion of general religion 1 Puritan church had become supportive of religious acceptance c John Winthrop i Champion of puritan values and spreading puritan faith c Diversi cation of british America shaped revolt and revolution d Doesn39t exist e What do the structures of government between 1775 and 1790 show about how americans viewed purpose of revolution state and national a Articles of confederation 178189 i Show a distrust in centralized government tyranny ii Hatred of taxation system b Pennsylvania const of 1776 i Interest in states rights and very democratic government ii Recognizes state as separate entity c Virginia and new jersey plans 1787 i Virginia population based jersey 1 vote per state ii Both stressed importance of state representation as more important than central government d Ordinances of 84 and 87 i Stressed importance of exploration out west ii Interest in ending slavery 1 However slavery is far from over and words about liberty are in pursuit of rights of property and not liberty for all f How was the revolution revolutionary Politically socially a Politically i Democracy and states rights triumphs over tyranny 1 Articles of confederation 2 States rights b Socially i Moves made to end savery 1 But people were more concerned with rights of property than actual liberty for all Republican motherhood respects role of women
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