Anthro 131 Midterm Study Guide
Anthro 131 Midterm Study Guide ANTH131
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Midterm Study Guide Culture area geographic area where tribal groups are more similar to each other than culture areas surrounding them Culture area environmentally homo genous Adaptations to different areas create different ways of life California subarctic arctic southeast great basin southwest northwest coast Language diversity approximately 10 major language groups on the map shown Over 1000 languages spoken in north America Differences in language broadly reflect social differences Less linguistic diversity in the great basin because tribes are more nomadic need to travel to find food California39s linguistic diversity maybe due to natural boundaries Different types of anthropology 1 Cultural Anthropology Socio cultural analytical study of culture 2 Anthropological linguistics study of languages of traditional people 3 Archaeology study of past cultures through material remains 4 Ethnography description of cultures based on direct observationinterviews 5 Ethnohistory description of cultures based on written historical documents Ethnic North American languages are dying rapidly as elders die Language tied to culture losing a language means you lose unique cultural terms and ways of describing things East coast settled very early by Europeans Natives died of disease had their cultures changed drastically early on Southwest has very vibrant native cultures Memory ethnography Based on interviewing individuals who remembered traditional culture even though it no longer eXisted Fernando Librado Kitsepawit Chumash informant to John P Harrington parents born on chumash villages on eastern Santa Cruz Island Harrington got a huge amount of information from Kitsepawit published little but took prolific notes Culturalenthnograpgy entails immersing yourself in the culture you39re studying Missions would ask specific questions to Natives about geneologies and social status Some of the most reliable records we have Some records were lost to burning missions caused by native results based on shitty treatment Anthropological linguistics John Wesley Powell First widely accepted classification of n American native languages 1st head of Bureau of American Ethnology Lots of village sites on Channel Islands Lewis Henry Morgan began studying Iroquois in 1840s seen as father of anthropology in US Differing views on him cultural evolutionist thought societies went through evolution until civilized Studied social and political organization of Iroquois Franz Boaz super important Founded first anthropology department in n America at Columbia university fought scientific racism cultural evolution ethnographerlinguist worked extensively on native peoples of n America Scientific racism was prevalent the idea that some races are better than others Boaz looked at cultures on their own terms Cultural relativism we do not judge one culture being better than another IMPORTANT Realized some native languages were more complicated than English how can we claim English is better than those dialects Responsible for many early ethnographers extremely influential to this day Alfred L Kroeber founded Berkeley department of anthropology student of Boaz Acculturation process by which a culture becomes modified through contact with a dominant population and its culture Contemporary studies Focus on native cultures as they are now Respect for concerns of people they study Some saw things that observed tribes told him to never tell anyone mostly keep their word Early enthnograhy evaluated in light of contemporary method and study Ex some focused on men without writing about women Movement from Asia to North America Population expansions probably occurred both during the existence of the Bering land bridge and after possibly before the Bering Strait was formed 0 Some suggest 3 main migrations happened at different times in prehistory Hypothesized migration routes through North America 0 Through icefree corridor that formed once glaciers started to melt I Great hunters following mammoth big game I Came across land bridge as hunters o Alternately along the west coast on boats One theory came on boats from Europe 0 Unlikely Some of the earliest recorded NA artifacts are from South America Some think people crossed sea ice from Europe to North America 0 Also unlikely Early Sites in North America Early NA archaeological site Arlington Springs Santa Rosa Island Meadowcroft PA an interesting site 0 May have been contaminated by coal mines in the area Evidence for Asiatic Origins Asian and NA prehistoric skeletal remains show similar physical characteristics Modern NA and Asian populations also share many distinctive physical characteristics 0 Ex shovelshaped incisor teeth DNA analysis indicates that NA populations originated in Asia Kennewick Man 9000 year old man found buried not alive in Washington state Unique skeletal structure Looks Caucasoid instead of Asiatic Found spear point embedded in his back NA in the area were very offended the anthropologists were disturbing their ancestor s grave site Lawsuit over Kennewick Man remains dug up cannot be connected to NAs in the area Started European migration theory Environment South of Continental Glaciers Lots of megafauna mammoths giant sloths etc o Died off about 12000 years ago 0 Overkill by NA one possibility was widely accepted 0 People are now saying it might have been due to climate changes natural disasters Cooler and wetter climate allowed large lakes to exist in currently arid areas of western US Water contained in glaciers sea level about 300 feet lower 0 4 Channel Islands were one giant island Santa Rosae Island 0 Eastern tip was very close to land 0 Found early sites of NA activity mammoth remains 0 Living on an island alters evolution for animals especially on the Channel Island where there are no predators o Mammoths became smaller about 6 ft high no need to really defend themselves Paleoindians First welldocumented occupation of North America began about 13000 years ago Known as Clovis people Identifiable by Clovis spear points 0 Giant flakes removed from the base 0 Highly distinctive Hunted mammoth Attached to large wooden spear shafts Date to about 1120010900 BP Caches of these have been found Several problems with evidence of early occupation in North America Lack of clearly defined stratigraphy 0 Dating artifacts from different strata layers of sediment underground because they are relatively close 0 Different strata different time periods Lack of reliable radiocarbon dates Artifact assemblages are often not accepted as artifacts 0 Sometimes what are thought to be stone tools are just rocks that have been smashed together with other rocks over the centuries until they merely look like stone tools Lack of evidence from other disciplines to support chronological claims 0 Anthropology requires input from various fields one person can t do it all Monte Verde site in southern Chile Possible preClovis site One layer is about 1270012300 BP Another is 33000 BP Most scholars don t believe the 33k dates but most believe the 127k Earliest houses anyone has found in the Americas Found tent stakes made out of bone tents themselves made out of skin Child s footprint also found Fairly close to the coast No Clovis points Artifacts vs Geofacts Supposed finds on Santa Rosa Island Someone thought they found 40000 year old site on Santa Rosa Thought he found tools near firereddened areas dating 14000 plus years ago 0 Huge fire areas bigger than a hearth Thought they belonged to pygmy mammoth hunters Found geofact resembling a chopper thought it was a chopper We ve never found an arrow point in a pygmy mammoth bone Found evidence pygmies were around the same time as humans Two major sites on Channel Islands Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Daisy Cave on San Miguel Human remains in both Arlington Springs c 1300012000 years ago Daisy Cave c 11500 years ago Calico Claims the site is 50000 to 200000 years old Geofacts mistaken for artifacts Folsom People of the Plains 1927 discovered spears points with extinct bison bones near Folsom New Mexico Dated to 10500 BP BP 2000BC Beginning around 11500 years ago Folsom hunters used spear points similar to the Clovis people Archaeologists have found many kill sites where many bison were killed 0 Beds of bison bones 0 First find NAs corralled the bison off a cliff into an arroyo o Bison have good sense of smell hunters had to wait until the wind was blowing away from them to sneak up on them 0 Frighten the herd the herd runs off the cliff profit 0 People would sometimes eat 10 lbs a day after bison hunts Arctic Culture Area Population 28000 along Arctic coast from north Alaska to Greenland 0 20000 in western and southwestern Alaska Arctic one of the harshest environments to live in Native people s adaptation is incredible Languages spoken in Arctic Culture Area Aleut language spoken on the Aleutian Islands Eskimoan spoken throughout the rest of the culture area Precontact Period of the Arctic Culture Area Earliest known occupation is about 1100013000 years old similar to Clovis Paleoindian occupation to the south Technological innovations allowed for more effective adaptation to the Arctic environment over time Expansion of nuit people known as Thule Eskimo eastward across Arctic began about AD 1000 and reached the eastern high Arctic about 100 years later Permanent Dwellings Some are occupied only during the cold months of the year Permanent Dwellings of the Arctic NAs Some occupied only during cold months of the year King Island Village 0 Right against the coast teetering on the bluffs 0 Homes built on stilts Typical settlements log houses built in dirt o Semisubterranean built into the earth 0 Made of huge logs center posts in the homes Used driftwood to build houses 0 Almost no trees to cut down Some walls lined with whale skull parts Will enter the hut and crawl through winter passageway into the earth under an inner wall to enter the main area of the home 0 Inner wall guards against harsh Arctic winter winds Slept on benches it s warmer if you re up high Usually heat with just an oil lamp Some homes had rooftop doorways Variety of house designs 0 All somewhat subterranean 0 Usually have a winter passageway Summer Dwellings Covered with animal skins 0 Seal caribou etc Easily taken apart and moved Rocks surround skin tent hold it down against winds Snow Houses or Igloos Snow knives made of ivory are used to cut blocks of snow Knives appear in archaeological record about 2700 years ago Made for when Inuit go hunting need to build a house to protect against a storm when your village is too far away Has to be a certain type of snow Building igloos is an ancient skill Snow must be hard and dry 2 Inuit can build an igloo in 30 minutes Daylight can shine through wind is kept out Inside of igloo can get up to several degrees above freezing Snow houses can be ornate 0 Can have passages separate rooms o More suitable for hunting trips spanning several days 0 Skin lining keeps in the warmth separates snow from interior 0 Has meat storage 0 Sometimes make mini igloos for the dogs No way to build a fire in an igloo Made sealoil lamps using moss wicks Often ate sea mammals raw Sealoil lamps occur in the archaeological record beginning about 4000 years ago Social and Political Organization Anthropological family 0 Nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children 0 Extended family consists of married couple and their children as well the grandparents or aunts and uncles 0 Successful men sometimes practiced polygyny marrying more than one woman I Also had larger homes supposedly to accommodate their larger family Social organization 0 May be nuclear or extended family 0 Villages included one or nuclearextended families I Up to a few hundred people in West Arctic I Around 50in central and eastern Arctic sometimes only in one house I Larger villages often had separate men s meeting houses Societies groups of villages within a geographic region 0 Members of a society spoke a distinct dialect Wore a distinctive style of clothing Populations ranged between 150 and 2000 people average 450 About 200 societies existed within the culture area Technologically advanced NAs o The Arctic is remote pretty much untouched by Europe traditional ways live on Political organization 0 Political authority generally was based on seniority and leadership qualities I Usually good hunters 0 Village headman was a senior male with demonstrated wisdom I Know what ice not to walk across I Know when a big storm is coming 0 Among whalehunting people of north Alaska the headman was the umialik the owner of a whaling boat umiak I Hunt whales in cold conditions without motors I Really impressive I Umialik was always very revered 0000 Why did people even live in the Arctic when there were so many milder climates available Incredible amounts of fish and sea mammals to hunt 0 Not a lot of vegetables 0 Maybe kelp Sea mammal hunting 0 Would go out in kayaks made of skins 0 Would harpoon animals from the kayaks 0 Need to penetrate thick outer layer of blubber Fishing Developed toggling bone points for harpoons Harpoon point penetrates blubber and then turns 90 degrees Allows hunters to drag mammal to shore Pretty brutal Toggle technology at least 4000 years old n ocean near shore and rivers Lots of salmon other types of fish ce fishing Gorges a type of fishhook used in ice fishing Big traps used in large holes in river ice Big fish were hunted with leisters tridents Spear carvings Believed you needed certain powers to be a good hunterfisher Would carve animals on spear heads hooks to obtain these powers Transportation Used sleds 0 Bone and ivory sleds preserved for archaeologists wood doesn t preserve Kayaks and umiaks o Equipped with gear 0 Lacings to keep hunting gear secure 0 Skincovered boats o Umiak much bigger than a kayak Foot wear for travel over snow and ice 0 Ice creepers are cleats attached to the bottom of shoes for walking on ice 0 Ice creepers begin to occur in the archaeological record about 2700 years ago 0 Snowshoes made for walking on deep snow Eye protection from glare from snowfields and ocean waters OOOOO Clothing Visors and snow goggles important Original sunglasses Made out of wood or ivory Little slit of goggles kept out most of the sun visor provided even more protection Hunters said it would give them power and success animal images on eye wear as well InuitYupik and Aleut peoples made tailored clothing from animal skins Parkas and boots had fancy parkas for special occasions Raingear Rain parkas made of strips of seal intestine 0 It s kind of translucent o Sown with bone needles natural materials for thread Tailored clothing appeared about 4000 years ago Good for hunting whales as well Containers for storage and other purposes Wood bowls and boxes Usually decorated Twined baskets Writing on some of them Dance masks Used by Yupik groups in Western Alaska Birds on masks were known for leading hunters to pray o Hunters believed these masks gave them greater luck for that reason nuit believed every object and being had a spirit Dances would get people in touch with these spirits Masks had transformational qualities wear them and dance you enter the spirit world Different spirit realms based off different animals 0 Ex Grizzly Bear Spirit Realm Dancing and Singing Inside large dwellings Hole in the bottom where people could emerge Large drums Shamans wore masks while healing Acquired spiritual power through isolated quests nuit Throat Singers Performers usually women who ding duets in entertaining contests Mostly a game seeing who can outlast who nuksuit Rocks piled to imitate an Inuit markers Watched film Nanook of the North Old silent film from about 1920 A little patronizing of Eskimos and Nanook but well intentioned Nanook was a great Eskimo hunter and the subject of this silent documentary Nanook died on a hunting trip on the mainland after filming was finished Films one of Nanook s hunting trips With large group of people Transfer from kyak to omiak Trip to trade furs at white man s trading post Barters for quotknives and beads and bright colored candy A drifting ice field locks up a hundred miles of coastline Nanook still manages to find some suitable fishing ground and catch some food Then they hunt for walrus which apparently quotspells out fortune Eat the walrus raw right on the spot Make two day journey over the ice in dog sleds quotDeep snow packed hard by the wind good igloo snow Create windows with clearer ice Also mini igloo for the sled dogs Temperature in the igloo from be kept at below freezing so the walls don t melt Sleds must be glazed with ice to slide quickly since Arctic snow is dry as sand Shows them cutting up a seal they fished for meat Seal meat quotaffords maximum warmth and sustenance the Eskimo use blubber as we use butter Dogs keep fighting slows down the Eskimo on their journey home Forced to find shelter in an abandoned igloo All of the Nanook hunting scenes were real ce storm was terrifying scared the filmmakers Nanook died after the film was made either from starvation while hunting deer on the mainland or disease Filmmakers were sensitive for the 1920s Nanook was recognized for his hunting skills Flaherty went out into the harsh Arctic wilderness with limited food supplies living with a people who didn t have that much food to go around nuksuit Piled to look like an individual Markers for hunters usually Cultural Variations within the Culture Areas Whale hunting practiced along north Alaska coast but mostly absent elsewhere Nanook filmmakers went out on a whaling boat in the film in an umiak Yupik people living along rivers emphasized salmon fishing not on marine resources Aleuts and Inuit living on islands focused almost exclusively on marine resources Interior north Alaskan Inuit and a few other Inuit groups focused on terrestrial resources such as caribou rather than marine resources Many nuit of the central and eastern Arctic moved inland during summer lived on coast during the winter Snow houses igloos were used only along the Arctic coast east of Alaska Social political organization was more complex and artistic expression greater in western Alaska than elsewhere 0 Living was a little bit better more resources 0 More time to focus on societal organization art Unifying Characteristics of the Arctic Culture Area Low population density although higher in the western Arctic Primarily egalitarian and relatively flexible social organization helps you survive Leadership positions often based on recognized wisdom and seniority Subsistence with a maritime organization except the river Yupik peoples Sophisticated technology for o Adapting to very cold temperatures ex water proof moccasins 0 Moving over very long distances during winter ex dog sleds o Obtaining food resources from the sea ex harpoons with horizontal hooks Subarctic Two major language families 0 Athapaskan o Algonquian Subarctic Settlement Aggregated in the summer Lived in teepees hide covered dwellings Lived along lakes where they could fish Made canoes out of birch bark known for its thickness 0 Homes sometimes made of birch bark too Subarctic Subsistence Fantastic fishing gear Large net like salmon traps dugout canoes Lived along area where salmon went to spawn Also made moosehidecovered boats larger than birch bark Defining Characteristics of the Subarctic Culture Area Low population density high density Main food land game lake and river fish Populations aggregated during the summer separated in the winter for hunting Several extended families smallest social group Band was largest social unit consisted of people who spoke a specific dialect o Bands associated with huntergatherers especially living in harsh environments 0 Don t necessarily need strong leaders 0 Tend to be egalitarian Southwest Culture Area Hot and dry environment cold and snowy at higher altitudes Lake Tahoe Santa Fe Rio Grande and Colorado River runs through the culture area Culture groups Western Pueblos and Eastern Pueblos Western Pueblos often lived on Mesas Eastern Pueblos did Prehistory of Pueblo Peoples Used to be called Anasazi but the Pueblo people view it as derogatory Basketmaker Period 1750 AD Pueblo Period 750 ADEuropean contact Round subterranean houses Pithouse with hole to let the fire out also only entrance to the house Treedating a common way to find ages of settlements in southwest 0 Way more accurate than radiocarbon dating Pueblo Period people begin moving above ground into pueblos o Pithouses still exist but they become kivas sacred andor ceremonial structures Pueblo have still maintained a lot of their traditions through the years Growth of large Pueblo settlements AD 10001150 Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon New Mexico huge former Pueblo settlement 0 Not very touristy as of yet 0 Rough dirt road keep outsiders away Semicircle shaped looks like it was built all at once 0 Positioned so the sun will warm homes at all times Made of thick adobe 0 Keeps the warmth of a fire in during winter 0 Comfortable and sturdy Chaco Canyon abandoned around 11501220 AD Incredibly rich archaeological area Might have been abandoned because of huge drought around 1220 AD Suggested people went there for pilgrimages Chaco Canyon is a national park Cliffhouse Pueblos ca 11501300 AD Moved from Chaco Canyon to cliffhouse pueblos Living on sheer cliffs Defensive strategy can t be attacked from the back or above 0 Some cannibal activity in the area Fairly close to drainages Prehistory Pueblo Pottery Began ca 500 AD and has been made continuously into today Mimbres pottery distinctive black and white pottery line patterns Designs include geometric motifs stylized animal and human figures Every pueblo has a slightly distinctive style of pottery Can sometimes discover date and origin of potteryjust from design Pottery made out of clay Random note Anthropology is super specialized Hopi Pueblos Oraibi Walpi major city on First Mesa First Second and Third Mesas 9 major settlements 0 Distributed on 3 adjacent mesas Multistory dwellings Stored dry corn within settlements Much denser population than Arctic Subarctic Homes made of adobe and stone Anasazi means quotenemy ancestors Entrances to homes often on 2ncl story reach entrances by climbing ladders Considered oldest continuously inhabited village in the US since at least 1150 AD On Third Mesa Important to Hopi history 15003000 people living in Oraibi when Spanish found it Some people eventually relocated to New Oraibi Zuni Pueblo Acoma Multistory living structures Thick walls roof timbers allow us to date structures based on tree rings Living rooms eventually started using big flagstones as floors Large rooms Started using fireplaces inside probably historic introduction chimney makes it so you don t breathe in as much smoke as an open firepit Right next to Zuni Also one the oldest continuously occupied sites in the US 0 Vying with Zuni for the title Catholicism was adopted by many southwest groups but they continued with their traditional practices as well 0 Traditional religious artwork incorporated into Catholic chapels Acoma Pueblo Used to have to climb up until close to present day People protected by natural barriers enemies had to climb up to them Hornos cooking ovens 0 Used from prehistoric times to present day Eastern Pueblos Style of making pots says where you re from who you are Rio Grande River goes right through Eastern Pueblo Rio Grande Pueblos Except for Taos Pueblo Eastern Pueblos much more spread out than Western Lots of one story buildings 0 Contrasting Western Pueblos Large kivas Pueblo Subsistence Principle Staples Corn beans and squash Mostly farmers Maize another name for corn Grow multi colored corn Don t eat it off the cob dry it and grind it down then make it into cornmeal That way they can store it for a while Summer monsoonal rains irrigate cornfields Corn ground with manos and metates metates are two handed in Southwest Metates are set within slablined bins made out of rocks or stone Women usually ground the corn Zuni Waffle Garden quotKitchen garden close to home Pueblo Pottery Each village has distinctive style of pottery One way to adapt to changes to natural way of life displacement from traditional lands was by selling traditional crafts like pottery Sometimes men take women s roles in society highly respected amongst community Nampeyo from Hopi village of Hano on First Mesa 0 One of the most famous Eastern potters o Nampeyo s descendants are also well known potters Pueblo Attire Men adopted western clothing during the 19th century Zuni necklaces shell beads stone beads carved in animals Big hoop earrings bandana Unmarried women do their hair into a woven up Princess Leia type style Matrilineal inheritance passed on through mother s line husband moves to wife s area after marriage women own the fields 0 Gives them leverage over bad husbands women can easily kick them out Men will be spiritual leaders 0 Ex hold family medicine bundle Other Pueblo Crafts Clans Weaving of cotton cloth 0 Men did the weaving 0 Sheep very important 0 Pueblo weavers probably taught the Navajo how to weave o Pueblo and Navajo upright looms are essentially identical I Suspended from rafters by ropes Basket weaving 0 Has become less important to Pueblo during historic times 0 Hopi plaques mostly flat baskets sometimes sold to tourists Jewelrymaking o Necklaces and earrings Silverworking introduced during the historic period derived from silver coins Shell jewelry goes way back usually from California coast Mined turquoise in nearby deposits for jewelry Zuni jewelry is very distinctive 0000 Western Pueblos Hopi and Zuni o Matrilineal clans and lineages o Phratries one level of organization above a clan into which clans are grouped 0 Weak village leadership 0 Secret societies Eastern Pueblos 0 Weak clans or none 0 Moieties derived from French world for dual people divided up into 2 lineages o Curing societies 0 Strong village leadership All Pueblo societies egalitarian political positions based on wisdom and seniority only Possible Reasons for Differences Between Eastern and Western Pueblos Disruption of Eastern Pueblos social organization resulting from Spanish colonization and rapid population decline Eastern emphasis on agriculture need larger workforce closer management than Western dry farming Separate origins of Eastern and Western Pueblo forms of social organization Pueblo Religion and Ceremonialism Kivas enter from ceiling by ladder 0 Where ritual activities occurred Priesthoods Secret societies not supposed to tell what you learn after initiation o Gain powers from their rituals 0 Each performed a ceremony Ceremonial rounds Zuni Ceremonial Rooms Analogous to kivas at other pueblos Trade in macaw feathers from Central America Ceremonial Dances Masked dancers take on role of kachinas supernatural beings who ensure the wellbeing of the village population Kachina Hopi Snake Dance would dance with live rattlesnakes o Requires 2 weeks of ritual preparation 0 Snakes supposed to be emissaries from the Rain Spirit 0 Dance with the snakes in their hands and mouths Contrast between serious and comic 0 Clown dancers I Unique function I Come out and make fun of ceremonies in the middle of the ceremonies I Serve as negative example of what should not be done I Humiliate the dancers those in attendance I Say annoying and rude things I Allowed to strip someone naked and then point and ridicule them I They will paint their bodies usually white with black stripes like a zebra I Acrobatic Yucca leaves allow you to be a prophet in dances Shalako super tall messenger 0 Don t stand on stilts 0 Hold head up with pole under robes peep through skirt 0 Heads are 10 feet high Mudhead 0 Another clown 0 Makes fun of spectators kachinas and priests o Lewd and obscene gestures 0 Work with bodily excrements Katsina meant to teach what is right is wrong 0 Clowns teach you what you should never do I But they are also a comedic outlet I Everyone laughs at the clowns I Cultural norm to not be too proud I Clowns usually pick on the boastful those who haven t been acting right Mudhead s rope called a bullroarer 0 Makes unworldly sound when twirled 0 Used by traditional societies around the world 0 Interesting item 0 20s and 30s diffusion was a popular theory but we now know it was independent invention in many civilizations Katsina Dolls Remind children of cultural norms of society 0 How to act right Made from single piece of cottonwood mineral paints Carved representation of spiritual beings Sometimes decorated with feathers Southwest Church at Laguna Pueblo Sacred paintings of First People mixed in with Christian imagery of the church Syncretism cultural traits are combined ex Laguna Pueblo Church Navajo Moved into Southwest c AD 1500 Major presence 0 Radio stations 0 Most widely spoken North American First People s language Moved into Southwest from the Plains with the Apache Impacted the Hopi Peabody Coal Mine 0 Played off other groups with Navajo groups 0 Increase mining there Also uranium mining in 1950s70s Large corporations give reservations lots of needed money Didn t say the tailings were highly toxic Left the tailings all over Some made adobe out of tainted material 0000 o All became very ill 0 Photographs of daycare centers all toddlers deformed I Damn near sounds like Chernobyl but on a smaller scale Pueblo People in the Modern Era Trade goods things they have made including art for staples and supplies Navajos and Apaches 17001864 Prereservation Hopi had large swath of land with smaller Navajo territory 18681882 Reservations made after return of Navajo from internment at Bosco Redondo BR didn t work at all Navajo given larger plot of land than Hopi right on 4 corners 1962 Creation of Jointuse area Navajo area completely surrounds the tiny Hopi area almost entirely in Arizona none of it spills into Colorado anymore NavajoApache origins Expanded relatively late from Western Subarctic Came to Southwest from the Plains beginning after 1500 AD but not apparent until after the Coronado Expedition in early 1540s Early Navajo Dwellings Hogans Forkedstick structure I 3 major poles coming out through hole in the roof I Look at interior made of a lot of wood Late 19thearl 20th 0 Octagonal in ground plan 0 Long side and a cribbed log roof cover with soil Sweat lodges smaller hogans Navajo Residential Complexes No clustered houses all spread out Canyon de Chelly National Monument Traditional Navajo Social Organization Newly married couple may live with either the husband s or wife s family a quotbilocalquot marriage pattern Extended family forms a residence group of one or a few closelyspaced hogans Residence groups are widely spaced because of sheepgrazing requirements 0 Navajo rely on sheep ate the mutton and used the wool o Grazing property around their homesteads Navajo social organization is matrilineal The senior woman within an extended family has a good deal of authority Relocation causes some Navajo families to leave their homes 0 Some matriarchs refuse to leave their hogans the family has to stay with them Traditional Navajo Attire Women living rurally still wear the velveteen longsleeved blouse and long skirt Men s clothing generally has been EuroAmerican since the mid19th century although they too may wear velveteen shirts Navajo Subsistence Activities Herd sheep Plant cornfields 0 Dry corn to make cornmeal like the Pueblo people Farmers and herders o The Pueblo aren t herders only farmers Navajo Rug Weaving Before c 1900 Navajo wove serapes wearing blankets rather than rugs Weaving rugs connected many Navajo families to the cash economy of tourism Use similar loom to Pueblos 0 Frame on the ground 0 Can also hang blankets as you weave them Sold to tourists 0 High prices thousands of dollars in art galleries Contemporary Navajo Economy Coal mining on Black Mesa Window Rock capital of Navajo nation Strip malls Mystery Novels by Tony Hillerman 18 novels on the Navajo since 1970 Contemporary life on Zuni and Navajo reservations depicted Really knew the landscape Mystery novels with 2 Navajo tribal policemen as protagonists No author with the respect or accuracy with which he describes Navajo life Apaches Western Chiricahua Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches About 1000 people living in each tribal area at time of Spanish contact Subsistence Jicarilla huntergatherers small time farmers Southern Apaches around Texas were mainly huntergatherers Apache Social Organization Matrilocal extended families 1020 extended families would occupy a territory No clan organization Multifamily units often grouped into bands of a few hundred organizations Tribe consisted of multiple bands One of the most famous Apaches Geronimo Apaches mid to late 19th century Most Apache bands settled on reservations during late 19th century Geronimo refused 0 0000000 Would steal horses Tried to escape to Mexico to avoid reservation system Would fight Spanish and settlers Government viewed him as a powerful force Would convince families to live in hiding and run from reservations But it was a hard life some returned to reservations Eventually caught deported to Florida in 1886 Told his people they could not live in hiding anymore fight the US government Pima and Papago Thatch covered houses 0 Dome shaped Lived in Southern Arizona and Northern Mexico Cultures were essentially the same Hohokam O odham people were ancestors of PimaPapago O O O 0 Made beautiful pottery Looters raid properties and dig up burials find pots to sell on the market Important for collectors to buy replicas so they don t support looting Looters disturb the ancestors interfere with archaeological work Casa Grande 00000 South of Phoenix Large structures existed late in Hohokam prehistory Hohokam settlements abandoned in ca AD 1450 Practiced irrigation agriculture not dry farming Probably due to climate change irrigation agriculture was no longer viable PimaPapago Dwellings Thatch houses top covered in earth Village consisted of loose cluster of extended families based on patrilocality and marriage Dry area besides monsoonal rains in summer Mesquite Bean Processing Small tree grows along desert washes Important resource Mesquite bean flour is nutritious good source of protein Found in southern California too Grinded down with mortar and pestles Put beans in a basket throw it up in the air the parts you don t want will blow away Saguaro Cactus Fruit Gathering and Processing Fruits come off of big leaves Gathered with poles with hook at the end Rubbed to remove thorns Boiled in pottery directly over a fire modern metal containers used now as well Irrigation Agriculture Used Gila and Salt Rivers Dug irrigation canals Grew corn beans and squash Today they use modern techniques pipes and stuff Characteristics of Southwest Culture Area Pueblo and PimaPapago long history in area Navajo and Apache arrived around 1500 Farming agriculture important to most groups except for Southern Apache mostly hunter gatherers Sedentary villages except some Apache were relatively mobile Most used pottery for cooking and food storage Social organization often egalitarian but otherwise diverse including lineageclan moiety and extended familyband types of social organization 0 Moiety dual divide all their society into two groups but within that there can be more divisions ex wolf moiety Most political leaders senior members with leadership skills Northwest Coast Culture Area From Northern California through Canada all the way to Alaska Salish Nootka Kwakwaka wakw Kwakiutl Haida Tlingit Environment Many channels and rivers Dense rainforests Glaciers Very productive fisheries 0 Most of our salmon comes from Northwest Coast Precontact Shell midden deposits 0 Same as seen in California 0 Dark greasy soil typical of shell midden deposits Eat lots of shellfish in addition to regular fish Earliest sites about 10000 years old 0 Few sites earlier than 5000 years old Classic Northwest Coast culture began 3k4k years ago Woodworking tools apparent around 2k years ago Village Layout Typically a row of houses directly above a beach Coast is where the resources are Totem poles in front or to one side of the house Huge wooden houses 0 House extended families 0 Marked by clan crest shows ancestral animal Boat landing is the beach in front of the row of houses In clearing flanked by forested land 0 Becomes a rainforestlike environment when abandoned Status acquisition of items was important in Northwest culture Kept slaves Captured enemies Debtors who could not pay became indentured servants House Construction Postandbeam typical throughout region Wood readily available from forest Incredible woodworkers Wooden platforms along the sides of sunken fire pit 0 Would store items treasures underneath the platforms 0 Treasures passed down generation to generation Often had gabled roofs o Needed them to deal with rainfall Almost looks like modern house Planks covered the sides and roof Building these required a lot of skill and knowhow Made large dugout canoes Giant carved vessels for ceremonial oil Potlatch hats new layer or object added onto potlatch hat for every potlatch you throw the wealthiest had the tallest hats Screen dividing upper and lower class of the clan Kinship Composition of the Household Matrilineal lineage occupied a house Family slept upstairs When a girl reached puberty mother kept an eye on her slept in special bedroom area under watchful eye Women have great deal of power Some households contained 50 or more individuals Wife would be of other moiety also of another clan Core of the household would be a group of males who were members of the same moiety and clan Woodworking Acquisition of Planks Red cedar preferred mood Stone tools maul and adze Extract planks from living trees Bentwood Boxes Used for many purposes like food serving and storage Made of one piece of wood Closefitting top Decorated with clan symbols Making Bentwood Boxes Gouge out where they re going to make the box Soften the wood with steam so it will bend into shape without breaking Dugout Canoes Carved Narrow only need one log Others are larger sometimes ceremonial Modern dugouts used for special occasions Decorated in the front Carved wood with other materials attached and used in ceremonies Would wear masks and gain powers of spiritual beings they imitated Some had moving parts Cannibal birds Kwakwaka wakw spirits that gained power through eating other beings 0 Many masks made of them by Southern Kwakwaka wakw Vegetable materials for the mask s hair Paint made out of natural and vegetable materials in the past 0 They use modern paint now they cheatin Some masks were transformation masks o Mask folds in or out to show different image Canadian government outlawed the potlatch system Potlatches so elaborate too many items destroyed Government thought it was a terrible practice religious groups shocked Potlatches went underground Government changed laws made them legal once again Masks and Hats Some hats used in potlatches 0 Larger base top part shows how many potlatches they have thrown Potlatches Hosted by elite members of a village People come dressed in regalia People would come in canoes to attend potlatch Held for important events 0 Upward change in status 0 Death 0 Marriage 0 Becoming a chief Blankets made of dog hair traditional headdresses Feasting dancing and giftgiving occurred Historic potlatches became competitive due to social disruption brought about by rapid population decline 0 Diseases brought by the Europeans 0 Resources used by Europeans 0 Competitive potlatches to prove none of this has diminished their status and significance Ceremony where hosts send delegates over a wide distance to invite named important guests 0 Travel to lots of different coastal villages Potlatch figure big wooden statue at house entrance to welcome guests removed after potlatch Land of War Canoes Giant animal figures in front of giant canoe o Carried many people all of whom rowed except animal dude Big animal dancing ceremony in the front of the house Drinking oil out of giant ladel Takes weeksmonths to carve out canoes totems Northwest Coast still have professional carvers 0 Sell their works as art usually to tourists Brought a lot of goods to potlatches in big canoes Not attending a potlatch is disrespectful Ceremonies would last for several days maybe over a week not counting prep Prep lasts for over a year need to gather goods Would use drums ornate rattles and transverse flutes Ceremonial Regalia Lots of powwows 0 Result of quotpanIndian culture 0 Powwow dancers from all over US going on powwow circuits 0 Concern of losing traditional dancing to powwow Lots of protocol 0 Don t point 0 Don t call regalia an outfit Button blankets 0 Buttons sown onto felt Women have power shamans and spiritual leaders Kwakwaka wakw dance regalia 0 Almost like wooden plate armor Crafts Wooden rattles containing seeds to make signature sound Spoons made of mountain goat horn o Argillite handle I Black super hard stone I Carved totems into them Basketry Base of Tlingit potlatch hats Can t host a potlatch every year 0 Lucky to host one every 3 or 4 years Basket hats o Nootka basket hats with image of hunters on long canoes hunting whales 0 Other side whale with the canoe in its mouth Silver Working Originated in late 19th century still important today High status women wore silver Silver was carved with metal tools Would pierce septums high class women wore rings in their septums Bring a large pig parscore to the midterm on Thursday Read first 6 readings Northwest Fishing Main source of subsistence Special hooks to catch halibut o Tethered to rocks so they sink to the bottom where the halibut hang out Fish weirs 0 Have to jam posts into the river 0 Set up with traps Fish Processing Smoke the fish Dry the fish Techniques for drying and preparing has not changed significantly during the historic period Keeping fish dry from the rain which happens year round They had no pottery 0 Used dugout canoes to heat up fish 0 Took rocks from the fire put them in water filled canoe when hot 0 Extracted the fish oil that way Annual Round of Subsistence Activities Salmon fishing during summer months most activity in September Deep sea fishing in spring Hunting during spring and fall Herb and root gathering during late spring and summer Shellfish gathering during early spring and at a lower level during fall and winter August is the berry picking months salmonberries blackberries 0 Special berry baskets 0 One has four areas for picking separate berries Lots of hunting in October Food gathering slows down in DecemberFebruary 0 Inside sheltered from the heavy rain 0 Relying on stored food Some groups hunted whales Makah will hunt one whale a year using ancient techniques 0 Greenpeace went after them once 0 Feasting is important to maintain social relationships show off status 0 One whale a year helps keep these traditions alive Social Organization More structured in the north half Tlingit and Haida of the culture area than the south half Two moieties Raven and Wolf totems for Tlingit Wolf and Raven for Haida Each moiety had several clans Clans are next level of organization 0 Each have their own emblems 0 Some have overlapping emblems Houses are next level 0 House names and emblems Lineage is matrilineal 0 Women have lots of power 0 Inheritance is also passed down through the female line House Chief and Subchief Clans represented by many houses in villages Status and Wealth Surprisingly important for a huntergatherer society Lots of regalia Copper made out of native copper 0 Not lots of metalworking in N America except for copper made here and in the Arctic o Circulated at potlatches given to others who have potlatches o Insignia of wealth and status 0 Breaking your own copper shows even greater wealth Lineages and individuals were ranked with respect to social status Elite individuals controlled wealth and owned material goods dances and other forms of property Chilkat Tlingit made many blankets worn by Tsimshian chiefs Types of Totem Poles Back of a mortuary pole o Hollowed out sometimes contain bones Gateway to a house Memorial poles o No dead remains o Memorializing dead chiefs 0 Can be vertical or horizontal Totems in parks in Alaska too Each totem figure is a crest of emblem associated with a lineage clan or moiety You can still see totems today in shopping centers neighborhoods Yurok people 0 Go into a sweat lodge 0 Dream of giant dentalia long valuable shells o If someone sees that then they re bound to have wealth o A good thing Totems in Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria Haida Heritage Center near Skidegate Had to saw and crate them to transport to museums 0 Put them back together at the museum Population Collapse and Village Abandonment Salish Chaa English and American trading ships regularly contacting villages by 1786 Russians build Sitka in 1799 reestablished settlement in 1804 after Tlingit uprising in 1802 Fur trade flourished in 1800s Kwakwaka wakw experience was example of rapid population decline 0 Between 1836 and 1853 their population declined from 23k to 7k 0 Caused by European diseases interrupted seasonal food cycles 0 1858 25k plus American men came to BC to seek gold venereal disease increased thereafter I Gold prospecting was devastating for local peoples 1880s commercial fishing and canning well developed By the time of Franz Boas s ethnographic fieldwork in early 1900s Kwakwaka wakw population was about 2k Today it is about 55k Live in BC and Washington Abandoned Haida village Forest has taken over hard to find the village Still some Chaatl totem poles standing as of the 1980s Cultural Change and Persistence during the Historic Period 1880s articulating with EuroAmerican economy Signs on houses made to attract foreign business Advertise chiefs of houses Victorian houses built for native tribes o Totems in front of and traditional art decorating their Victorian houses Example of syncretism natives taking some aspects from European society still keeping to their native practices Angoon contemporary Tlingit community of west coast of Admiralty Island Some parts of Angoon have changed little over the last century Characteristics of Northwest Culture Area Huntergatherersfishers emphasize salmon as a food resource Food storage super important Usually sedentary villages large wellbuilt homes and campsites Lineageclan organization well developed in northern half and simpler in southern half Hereditary status ranking a feature of social organization Strong political leadership hereditary leadership positions Wealth accumulation and display show high status Sophisticated woodworking Emphasis on boat transportation Great Basin Culture Area Covers land between mountain ranges of Western California and the Rocky Mountains Languages Mainly belong to Numic family 0 Language family covers a huge area 0 Each of these tribes have huge swaths of territory Only exception is Washo belongs to Hoken stock Numic family of UtoAztecan stock phylum Numic speaking people expanded outward from southeastern California beginning around AD 1000 Prehistory Clovis points indicating Paleoindian activity found none confidently dated Well documented prehistory started about 10k years ago Precontact people were mobile huntergatherers Numic speaking people used food resources more intensely Danger Cave in northwest Utah was important archaeological find Environment Harsh and dry Limited resources Dwellings Varied in amount of investment in construction Not as sturdy as Northwest homes Used thatch and bent pole framework Don t want to invest that much energy they move every month or two Winter dwellings more substantial Summer dwellings more expedient Dwellings reflected mobile settlement pattern Sometimes made of slabs of wood construction materials based on what was available How long it took to make the house was another consideraton 32 multiple choice 1 essay 1 map Full sheet pink parscore Great Basin Culture Area Dwellings Made of whatever they had available The longer they were using the dwelling the longer they took to build it Temporary summer dwellings were simple and quickly constructed using a few sticks and brush Semisubterranean houses were more substantial Subsistence Broadspectrum diet no focus on one specific or a few specific food resources Almost everything nutritious and edible was part of diet Ate chia seeds caterpillars insects pine nuts as well Very limited food storage for winter 0 Stored seeds used them to plant orjust ate them as they were Hunted large and small game Pighorn sheep were a prize catch increased hunter s social status Occasionally acquired jackrabbits in large numbers more practical Also ate rodents reptiles insect larvae Used duck decoys thule reed boats covered in duck skins to lure ducks into traps Reed boats were important Waterfowl and fish were eaten when available important Used plants found in marshlands Pinyon nuts were very important at elevations over 5000 feet 0 Stored them for winter 0 Not a regular staple trees produce irregularly once every 36 years Regional variation 0 Lived in band level societies 100120 people 0 Names of Northern Paiute bands show differences in food emphases based on what was available locally Settlement patterns 0 Usually people moved to find food often many times a year 0 Didn t trade for food 0 Patterns usually shifted year by year 0 Seasonal availability of a food usually why they moved 0 Went to some places more than others Owens Valley Settlement 0 Summer valley villages high mobility lots of fishing and seed collecting trips in surrounding hills 0 Early autumn still in valley villages low mobility gathered seeds communal rabbit hunts big social gatherings 0 Late autumn stay in bases in mountains population scatters emphasize pinyon nut harvesting 0 Winter still in mountain bases low mobility depending on stored food 0 Late FallWinter Alternative stayed in valley villages if pinyon nuts were not very available 0 Spring go back to valley villages high mobility hunted and fished collected fresh plants SocioPolitical Organization Each tribal group divided into bands A band occupied a territory usually less than 100 people in size 0 Consisted of a set of closely related or nuclear families Patrilocality a couple is married moves to father s home village No formal lineages or clans Nuclear or slightly extended families were mostly economically selfsufficient Egalitarian social organization little status differentiation Band leadership based on seniority and ability as a leader Leadership was weak often unnecessary Aggregations of band or multiband groups during summer were times of socializing and group activities 0 Would play the quothand game called peon similar to gambling game played in California 0 Gambling is a traditional part of Native American culture Crafts Baskets served a variety of purposes Basket weaving almost as sophisticated as it was in California Many groups made blankets of twisted strips of rabbit fur Historic Impacts Escaped direct impact of EuroAmerican expansion until after the Civil War Traditional culture persisted into late 19th century No one messed with them because there wasn t a big reason to move to the Great Basin Ranching intruded on band areas and took away national resources people depended on Native American settlements frequently established near EuroAmerican towns o Became ranch hands other unskilled laborjobs Historic Impacts Population decline until about 1930 population has increased since Reservations scattered throughout Great Basin 0 Most are small Rancherias a few are larger 0 Did not very good land ranchers took all of it Characteristics of Great Basin Culture Area Low population density Widespread linguistic homogeneity Broadspectrum hunting and gathering subsistence little focus on one or a few food resources Flexible settlement systems high mobility Egalitarian social organization Bands largest social unit nuclear family was most stable Weak leadership based on seniority and personal qualities charisma hunting abilities etc
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