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# CD411- Quiz 2 CD 411

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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leah Larabee on Tuesday February 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CD 411 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Buhr in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 342 views. For similar materials see Speech Science in Language at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/10/15

Quiz 2 Study Guide Simple Harmonic Motion Hooke s Law 0 Magnitude of restoring force is proportional to distance displaced o Restoring force is equal to the amount displaced 0 Fr oc x o Magnitude of restoring force must change over time AKA so does the distance displaced Values 0 Displacement x Velocity c 0 Acceleration a Force F 0 Pressure p Momentum M Displacement The display is called a time wave form or wave form 0 the wave I Air does not actually do this its just a representation SHM simple harmonic motion 0 A uniform circular motion The concept of SHM 0 Simple harmonic motion the type of motion that the spring mass system and the air molecule undergoes It can also be called sinusoidal motion Uniform circular motion Occurs when a body moves around the circumference of a circle at a consistence number of degrees of rotation per second 0 A wheel rotates clockwise o The piston moves back and forth to move the wheel I Rectilinear motion Mass spring system 0 Motion is rectilinear not circular Displacement Waveform 90 and 270 correspond to Xmax 0 180 and 360 corresponds to equilibrium 0 One full rotation through 3600 is one cycle Sine of a triangle The ratio X r is a constant for any given angle 0 Xr the Sine ofthe angle 0 b r the cosine of the angle 0 Xb the tangent ofthe angle 0 The height of each projection is now the sine 0 of the angle 0 Not X displacement o Projections are superimposed because the ratio Xr is constant To find the sine of angle Given the angle ex 45 0 o Sin45 707 The sine of the angle corresponds to the percentage of maximum displacement XMAx o 707 X 100 707 OfXMAX Sinusoidal Motion Five dimensions of sine waves 1 Amplitude 2 Frequency 3 Period 4 Phase 5 Wavelength Amplitude Slide 14 practice a 0 Measure of the strength magnitude of the sound wave 0 In most examples amplitude will refer to the sound pressure 0 As more molecules are pushed outward there is an increased number of molecules per unit space which qa a Dspfacemem m 988 o m decrees Angle 81 0 0 45 0707 90 1 135 0707 180 0 225 0707 270 1 315 0707 360 0 results in increased density compression As the balloon de ates the molecules move back toward their original position spreading out causing a region of decreased density rarefaction Instantaneous Amplitude a o The amplitude of the waveform at some specified instant in time or at some specified angle of rotation o The mean instantaneous amplitude will normally be 0 0 Maximum Amplitude A o The instantaneous amplitude that corresponds to 90 or 270 0 PeaktoPeakAmplitude 0 Absolute difference between the maximum amplitude at 90 and 270 RootMeanSquare Amplitude o rms a o o rms is the standard deviation of all instantaneous amplitudes I rms A 707 I Mean Square 0 Rms A 2 o A2 2 FullWave Rectified Average I FWAVG A 636 HalfWave Average 39 HWAVG A 318 Amplitude 0 Particle velocity leads particle displacement by 900 0 Because displacement is at 900 and velocity is at 0 at the 14 mark Particle acceleration leads particle displacement by 180 0 Newton s 2nd law Fi ma 0 Hooke s law Fr kx o Newton s 3rd law FiFr I k is a constant and does not change Refer to sllde 32 I mass also does not change a and x must be opposites I Pressure and Velocity are in phase together Comparisons Among Metrics 0 While the instantaneous amplitudes vary sinusoidally over time the other metrics are described by straight lines horizontal to the base line and do not vary These values remain constant over time because they are timeaveraged Characteristic of a wave that you can measure 0 Frequency Hz I Hz to KHz 1000 Hz 0 Reciprocal of this is a Period T I Inverse of each other Sec to ms 001 s x 1000 Frequency 0 The rate in Hz at which a sinusoid repeats itself I The number of cycles per second 0 The frequency with which a system oscillates freely is fnat O Fnat I FnatlS proportional to k I FnatiS inversely proportional to m 0 Guitar string example I F 1 2L t m t tension 0 only applies to the lowest frequency of fundamental freq 0 This concept is important to voice production because the frequency of the vocal folds depends mainly on the length crosssectional mass and tension of the folds I The natural frequency of vibration of a guitar string is inversely proportional to the square root of the cross sectional mass TRUE 0 Alternate ways to express frequency I Degreess 1 Hz 360 s 0 10 Hz 36000 s I 2H Radians s 0 Circle divided into 2H 2 x 314 62832 o 1 Hz 2H Radians s I it is a quotpie slicequot 1 radian 573 0 360 217quot 0 ZHf Phase 4 o The four points in a circle I A 0 I B 90 I C 180 I D 2700 0 Starting phase the displacement in degrees at the instant the Vibration or rotation begins 0 Instantaneous Phase I Angle of rotation at some specified moment in time I Can also be called the phase angle 0 When frequencies are different they mirror each other I Relations all by 90 unless on opposite sides then 180 0 B leads A by 90 0 C leads B by 90 180 C leads A by 180 0 D leads B by 180 0 B lags C by 90 Wavelength A A Distance traveled during one period 0 Unit is meters I Directly proportional to the speed of sound I Inversely proportional to frequency 0 Two quantities are measured with respect to m 0 Frequency f 0 Speed of sound 5 I k sf I Example in air 0 f 1100 Hz S 340 ms 0 7 o 3401100 3m 90quot

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