BIOS 1030 Exam 1 Study Guide
BIOS 1030 Exam 1 Study Guide 1748
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BIOS 1030 Exam 1 Study Guide CHAPTER 1 HUMAN BIOLOGY SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 11 The Characteristics of Life 1 Living things have a different molecular composition than nonliving things do 0 Living organisms combine elements in unique ways creating molecules that nonliving things cannot create 2 Living things require energy and raw materials 0 Metabolism the physical and chemical processes involved in transforming energy and molecules to maintain life 3 Living things are composed of cells 0 A cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all the characteristics of life 0 Unicellular only one cell 0 Multicellular composed of many cells 4 Living things maintain homeostasis o Homeostasis the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment 0 Unicellular organisms surrounded by a membrane used a barrier to the entry and exit of various substances 0 Multicellular organisms tissues organs and organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis 5 Living things respond to their external environment 0 If you are cold you move to a warm room 0 Plants turn their leaves toward light 6 Living things can grow and reproduce 0 Ability to grow and reproduce is determined by DNA 7 Populations of living things evolve 0 Various forms of life change over many generations 12 How Humans Fit Into the Natural World 0 Living things are grouped according to their characteristics 5 kingdoms o Monera prokaryotes no nucleus bacteria 0 Animalia eukaryotes nucleus animals humans 0 Plantae eukaryotes plants 0 Fungi eukaryotes mushrooms 0 Protista eukaryotes protozoa algae slime molds 3 Domain System 0 Bacteria o Archaea o Eukarya o Humans Animalia l Eukarya lVertebrates lMammals l Primates l Homo Sapiens Species smallest unit of any classi cation system one or more populations of organisms with similar physical and functional characteristics that interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions Genus second smallest unit of classi cation 0 The de ning features of humans 0 Bipedalism ability to stand upright and walk on two legs 0 Opposable Thumbs thumbs move into position to oppose ngertips 0 Large Brain humans have a large brain mass relative to body size 0 Capacity for Complex Language vocalize or produce sounds to warn threaten or identify other members of their species 0 Human biology can be studied on any level of biological organization 0 Atoms and Molecules l Cells l Tissues Organ Organ System Organisms Communities Ecosystems l Biosphere 13 Science is Both a Body of Knowledge and a Process 0 The scienti c method is a process for testing ideas 0 Scienti c Method the process of science or the way scienti c knowledge is acquired Step 1 Observe and Generalize observe the world around us make generalizations from what we learn inductive reasoning Step 2 Formulate a Hypothesis a hypothesis is a tentative statement about the natural world a statement that can lead to testable deductions can never be proven only supported or disproved Step 3 Make a Testable Prediction predictions employ deductive reasoning applying the general case to the speci c Step 4 Experiment or Observe an experiment is a carefully planned and executed manipulation of the natural world to test your prediction Variables are factors that might vary during the course of the experiment Step 5 Modify the Hypothesis as Necessary and Repeat Steps 3 and 4 lf your prediction turns out to be false modify your hypothesis to t the new ndings then repeat previous steps 0 Making the Findings Known 0 Scientists let others know of their ndings experts must approve articles before they can be published peer reviewed journals 0 Complete documentation allows other scientists to repeat the experiments themselves or develop and test their own predictions based on the ndings of others 0 A WellTested Hypothesis Becomes a Theory 0 Theory a broad hypothesis that has been extensively tested and supported over time and that explains a broad range of scienti c facts with a high degree of reliability 0 A theory is the highest status that any hypothesis can achieve 14 Sources of Scienti c Information Vary in Style and Quality 0 Different sources of scienti c information may have very different goals 0 Some scienti c knowledge is highly technical scientists communicate most often by means of articles in specialized peerreview journals 0 The Internet has opened new sources of scienti c information and is accessible to the general public 15 Learning to be a Critical Thinker Become a skeptic 0 Good scientists combine creativity and imagination with skepticism a questioning attitude Appreciate the value of statistics 0 Statistics is the mathematics of organizing and interpreting numerical information or data 0 Learn how to read graphs 0 Graphs display data obtained from observations and experimental results in a way that is economical and easy to grasp Independent variable located on xaxis Dependent variable located on yaxis Distinguish anecdotes from scienti c evidence 0 Anecdotal evidence takes the form of a testimonial or short unveri ed report but it does not imply scienti c or statistical certainty Separate facts from conclusions 0 Fact a veri able piece of information 0 Conclusion judgment based on facts 0 Understand the difference between correlation and causation 0 Correlation a close pattern or relationship between two variables does not necessarily mean that one causes the other 16 The Role of Science in Society 0 Science improves technology and the human physical condition 0 Technology the application of science 0 Science gives us information about the natural world upon which we can base our societal decisions 0 Science has limits 0 Scienti c knowledge is limited to physical explanations for observable events in the natural world 0 Science cannot provide us with the quotrightquot answers to political economic social legal or ethical problems 0 The importance of making informed choices 0 We live in a scienceoriented society and with that we make decisions about how we choose to use the knowledge that science gives us CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS 21 All Matter Consists of Elements Atoms are the smallest functional units of an element 0 Element a fundamental pure form of matter that cannot be broken down to a simpler form 0 Atom the smallest unit of any element that still retains the physical and chemical properties of that element Protons positively charged particles nucleus Neutrons neutral particles nucleus Electrons negatively charged particles outside nucleus lsotopes have a different number of neutrons o lsotopes atoms with either more or fewer neutrons than the usual number for that element 0 lsotopes have the same atomic number but a different atomic mass 22 Atoms Combine to Form Molecules 0 Energy fuels life s activities 0 Molecule consists of a stable association between two or more atoms 0 Energy the capacity to quotdo workquot or cause some change in matter Potential energy stored energy Kinetic energy energy doing work energy in motion 0 Chemical bonds link atoms to form molecules 0 Chemical bonds attractive forces that bind atoms together Covalent bonds An electronsharing bond between atoms strongest chemical bonds in nature H2 H H lonic bonds occur between oppositely charged ions atoms give up electrons or take electrons from other atoms 0 Ion electrically charged atom or molecule Hydrogen bonds the weak attractive force between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules that contain covalently bonded hydrogen H2 0 0 Living organisms contain only certain elements 0 99 of our body weight consists of 6 elements oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen calcium and phosphorus 23 Life Depends on Water 0 Properties of water that are important to living organisms 0 Water molecules are polar 0 Water is a liquid at body temperature 0 Water can absorb and hold heat energy 0 Water is the biological solvent 0 Solvent a liquid in which other substances dissolve o Solute any dissolved substance 0 Polar molecules that are attracted to water and interact with it easily are called hydrophilic molecules 0 Nonpolar neutral molecules such as cooking oils do not interact easily with water and generally won t dissolve in it are called hydrophobic Water helps regulate body temperature 0 Water prevents large increases in body temperature when excess heat is produced also holds heat when there is a danger of too much heat loss wearing shorts in the cold 0 Our bodies generate heat during metabolism Acids donate hydrogen ions bases accept them 0 Acid any molecule that can give up or donate an H ion pH lt7 0 Base any molecule that can accept combine with an H ion pH gt7 0 The pH scale expresses hydrogen ion concentration 0 pH scale a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution ranges from 014 with water being neutral 7 o Buffers minimize changes in pH 0 Buffer any substance that tends to minimize the changes in pH that might otherwise occur when an acid or base is added to a solution 0 Buffers are present as pairs of related molecules that have opposite effects 25 The Organic Molecules of Living Organisms Organic molecules molecules that contain carbon and other elements held together by covalent bonds 0 Carbon is the common building block of organic molecules 0 Carbon can form strong covalent bonds with other atoms its natural tendency is to form 4 covalent bonds with other molecules making carbon an ideal structural component 0 Macromolecules consisting of thousands or even millions of smaller molecules Macromolecules are synthesized and broken down within the cell 0 Dehydration synthesis smaller molecules called subunits are joined by covalent bonds Each time a subunit is added the equivalent of a water molecule is removed dehydration o Hydrolysis organic molecules are broken down the equivalent of a water molecule is added each time a covalent bond between single subunits in the chain is broken reverse of dehydration synthesis 26 Carbohydrates Used for Energy and Structural Support Monosaccharides are simple sugars o The simplest kind of carbohydrate is called a monosaccharide meaning quotone sugarquot Consists of carbon hydrogen and oxygen in a 121 ratio 0 Four most important monosaccharides in humans are ribose deoxyribose glucose and fructose Oligosaccharides More than one monosaccharide linked together 0 Oligosaccharides are short strings of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis sucrose table sugar Polysaccharides store energy 0 Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates and form when thousands of monosaccharides are joined together into straight or branched chains by dehydration synthesis 0 The most important polysaccharides in living organisms consist of long chains of glucose monosaccharides Glycogen the storage polysaccharide in animals Starch the storage polysaccharide in plants 0 Cellulose a different form of glucose polysaccharide plants use it for structural support rather than energy 00 27 Lipids Insoluble in Water Lipids class of organic molecules that are relatively insoluble Most important subclasses of lipids in our bodies are triglycerides phospholipids and steroids Triglycerides are energystorage molecules 0 Triglycerides neutral fats that are synthesized from a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids 0 Fatty acids chains of hydrocarbons that end in the carboxyl group COOH Saturated fats have two hydrogen atoms for each carbon in their tails Tails are fairly straight allowing them to pack closely together Unsaturated fats also called oils have fewer than two hydrogen atoms in one or more of the carbon atoms in the tails Double bonds form between adjacent carbons creating kinks in the tails and preventing them from packing closely together 0 Phospholipids are the primary component of cell membranes 0 Phospholipids are a modi ed form of lipids they are the primary structural component of cell mebmranes 0 Has glycerol as backbone but only two fatty acid tails Replacing the third tail is a negatively charged phosphate group PO439 0 One end of the molecule is polar and soluble in water while the other end is neutral and insoluble in water Steroids are composed of 4 rings 0 Steroids are relatively insoluble in water 0 Consists of a backbone of three 6membered carbon rings and one 5membered carbon ring to which any number of different groups may be attached 0 Cholesterol steroid in which high levels in the blood can cause cardiovascular disease 28 Proteins Complex Structures Constructed of Amino Acids Proteins are macromolecules constructed from long strings of single units called amino acids 0 All human proteins are constructed from only 20 different amino acids Each amino acid has an amino group NH3 on one end a carboxyl group on the other a C H group in the middle and an additional group R that represents everything else O O Polypeptide a single string of 3100 amino acids A polypeptide is generally referred to as a protein when it is longer than 100 amino acids and has a complex structure and a function 0 Protein function depends on structure 0 O O O 0 Primary structure amino acid sequence Secondary structure how the chain of amino acids is oriented in space alpha helix beta sheet etc Tertiary structure how the protein folds and twists to form a threedimensional shape Quaternary structure how many polypeptide chains make up the protein and how they associate with each other Denaturation refers to permanent disruption of protein structure leading to a loss of biological function high temps changes in pH Enzymes facilitate biochemical reactions 0 0 Enzyme a protein that functions as a biological catalyst Catalyst a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being altered or consumed by the reaction Enzymes take one or more reactants and turns them into one or more products 29 Nucleic Acids Store Genetic Information 0 Nucleic acids DNA and RNA 0 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid the genetic material in living things directs everything the cell does RNA a closely related macromolecule responsible for carrying out the instructions of DNA and in some cases regulating the activity of DNA itself DNA contains the instructions for producing RNA RNA contains the instructions for producing proteins Proteins direct most of life s processes Nucleotides smaller molecular subunits in DNA and RNA consist of 1 a 5carbon sugar 2 a single or double ringed structure containing nitrogen called a base and 3 one or more phosphate groups 8 different nucleotides 4 in DNA 4 in RNA Four nitrogencontaining base molecules Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine A T C G Portions of the DNA molecule are transcribed into smaller fragments of RNA RNA is structurally like DNA but with exceonns The sugar unit in RNA is ribose rather than deoxydbose Uracil is substituted for thymine RNA is singlestranded represents one strand of DNA RNA is shorter representing the only segment of DNA that codes for one or more proteins 210 ATP Carries Energy 0 ATP Adenosine triphosphate nucleotide in RNA consisting of two additional phosphate groups Adenine base 5carbon sugar ribose adenosine and 3 phosphate groups triphosphate Breakdown of ATP produces ADP adenosine diphosphate plus an inorganic phosphate group which is not attached to an organic molecule plus energy that is now available to do work ATP l ADP P energy CHAPTER 3 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS 31 Cells are classi ed according to their internal organization 0 Cell doctrine has 3 basic principles 0 1 All living things are composed of cells and cell products 0 2 A single cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all the characteristics of life 0 All cells come from only preexisting cells Eukaryotes have a nucleus cytoplasm and organelles 0 Has plasma membrane forms the outer covering of the cell 0 Has a nucleus core of the cell houses genetic information 0 Has cytoplasm everything inside the cell except the nucleus Composed of cytosol soft gellike uid containing organelles microscopic structures that carry out specialized functions Prokaryotes lack a nucleus and organelles o Prokaryotes are bacteria has a plasma membrane that is surrounded by a rigid cell wall 0 Genetic material is concentrated in a particular region but is not enclosed within a membranebound nucleus 32 Cell structure re ects cell function 0 Cells remain small to stay efficient due to 3 principles 0 The total metabolic activities of a cell are proportional to its volume of cytoplasm which is in effect its size o All raw materials energy and waste can enter or leave the cell only by crossing the plasma membrane 0 As objects get larger their volume increases more than their surface area 0 The larger a cell gets its growth and metabolism will be limited by its ability to supply itself across the plasma membrane 0 Microvilli numerous microscopic projections of the plasma membrane increases surface area relative to volume 33 A plasma membrane surrounds the cell The exterior structure of a living cell is its plasma membrane allows movement of some substances in and out of the cell while restricting the movement of others also allows the transfer of genetic information across the membrane 0 The plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer o Lipid bilayer two layers of phospholipids plus cholesterol and proteins 0 3 components contributing to the membrane s structural and functional properties 0 Phospholipids type of lipid with a polar head and neutral nonpolar tails nonpolar tails meet in center of the membrane one layer of polar heads faces outside of the cell other layer faces cytoplasm 0 Cholesterol increases mechanical strength of the membrane by preventing it from becoming too rigid or too exible anchors proteins and prevents phospholipids from moving around 0 Proteins transports molecules and information across the membrane proteins have one region that is neutral other region that is charged or that extends out of the membrane 0 2 key differences 0 Plasma membrane of animal cells is not rigid Cells maintain a certain shape due to a supporting network of bers the uid and limitations imposed by surrounding cells 0 The phospholipids and proteins are not anchored to speci c positions in the plasma membrane 34 Molecules Cross the Plasma Membrane in Several Ways Molecules and ions cross the plasma membrane in 3 ways 0 Passive transport transports molecules without requiring the cell to expend any energy relies on diffusion o Diffusion the movement of molecules from one region to another as a result of random motion colliding with each other and changing direction Net diffusion molecules tend to diffuse from area of high concentration to low Difference in concentration is the concentration gradient 0 Osmosis the net diffusion of water across a selectively permeable allowing some substances to cross by diffusion but not other membrane Osmotic pressure the uid pressure required to exactly oppose osmosis o 3 forms of passive transport Through the lipid biayer slows passage of some molecules while restricting others some pass through some dissolve Lipid soluble molecules 02 C02 urea Diffusion through channels channels constructed of proteins sizes and shapes determine which molecules can pass through some are open some are gated open and close Facilitated Transport molecules do not pass through channels at all but attaches to a transport protein which transfers the molecule to the other side of the membrane and releases it returning it to its original form moves from area of high concentration to low concentration Active transport moves substances through the plasma membrane against the concentration gradient requires energy 0 Active transport proteins must have some source of energy to transport molecules ATP 0 ATP is broken down to ADP a phosphate group P and uses energy to transport molecules across the membrane against concentration gradient 0 Sodiumpotassium pump uses energy derived from breaking down ATP to transport sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell not all pumps use ATP as energy source Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis moves material into the cell exocytosis moves material out of the cell 0 ln endocytosis molecules dissolved in the extracellular uid are surrounded by a pocket formed by an infolding of the membrane Pocket pinches off forming a membrane bound vesicle o In exocytosis a vesicle already present within the cell fuses with plasma membrane and releases its contents into the uid surrounding the cell 0 Information can be transferred across the plasma membrane 0 Receptor proteins receive and transmit information across the membrane Molecules bind to receptor proteins causes a series of chemical reactions in the cell then a cellular product is produced from the substrate molecules SodiumPotassium pump maintains cell volume 0 lsotonic extracellular uid also maintains cell volume 0 Tonicity the relative concentrations of solutes in two uids lsotonic has same solute concentration as the intracellular uid Hypertonic concentration of solutes is higher than the intracellular uid cell shrinks Hypotonic concentration of solutes is lower than the intracellular uid pure water cell swells 35 Internal Structures Carry Out Speci c Instructions Nucleus controls the cell 0 Contains genetic material of the cell as DNA consists of nuclear membrane keeps DNA within nucleus nuclear pores allows passage of proteins and RNA and nucleolus ribosomes are synthesized Ribosomes responsible for protein synthesis 0 Ribosomes are small structures composed of RNA and certain proteins that assemble amino acids into proteins 0 Endoplasmic Reticulum the manufacturing center 0 ER synthesizes most of the chemical compounds made by the cell Rough ER regions with ribosomes granular appearance synthesizes proteins Smooth ER regions with no ribosomes synthesizes macromolecules other than proteins packages proteins for transfer Golgi Apparatus re nes packages ships 0 Contains enzymes that further re ne the products of the ER into nal form moves outward by slow but continuous process Vesicles membranebound storage and shipping containers 0 Vesicles that ship and store cellular products Encloses and transports products of ER and Golgi Apparatus o Secretory Vesicles Contain products destined for export from the cell moves to plasma membrane and releases contents by exocytosis o Endocytotic Vesicles Enclose bacteria and raw materials from extracellular environment brings them in through endocytosis o Peroxisomes and Lysosomes Peroxisomes destroys various toxic wastes produced in the cell such as hydrogen peroxide H202 Lysosomes contains powerful digestive enzymes to digest bacteria and other large objects Mitochondria provide energy 0 Organelles responsible for providing most of this usable energy often called quotpower plantsquot of the cell 0 Fat and Glycogen sources of energy 0 Some cell store energy as lipids fat such as fat cells 0 Other cells store energy as glycogen granules such as muscle cells 36 Cells Have Structures for Support and Movement 0 The cytoskeleton supports the cell 0 Cytoskeleton Loosely structured network of bers made up of microtubules and micro laments both composed of protein and forma a framework for the soft plasma membrane Microtubules tiny hollow tubes Micro laments thin solid bers Cilia and agella are specialized for movement 0 Cilia hairlike structures extending from surface of the cell 0 Flagella longer cilia o Composed of protein microtubules linkages between adjacent pairs cause them to slide past each other using energy in the form of ATP Centrioles are involved in cell division 0 Centrioles short rodlike microtubular structures located near the nucleus aligns and divides genetic material of the cell 37 Cells Use and Transform Matter and Energy 0 Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism Chemical reactions in a cell are organized as metabolic pathways in which one reaction follows after another in orderly patterns 0 Linear the product from one chemical reaction becomes the substrate starting material for the next 2 types of metabolic pathways 0 Anabolism molecules are assembled into larger molecules that contain more energy process requires energy eg assembling a protein from amino acids Catabolism larger molecules are broken down process releases energy eg breakdown of glucose into water C02 and energy 2 important facts about metabolic pathways 0 Nearly every chemical reaction requires a speci c enzyme 0 Metabolic activities of a living cell require a lot of energy ATP ll ADP P energy 0 Pi inorganic phosphate PO4392 Glucose provides the cell with energy 0 Glucose most readily available fuel to make ATP 0 Pg 70 diagrams 0 Production of ATP from glucose occurs in 4 stages Glycolysis requires energy glucose C6H1206 is split into two 3carbon pyruvate molecules The preparatory step pyruvate enters mitochondria series of chemical reactions yields acetyl CoA energy The citric acid cycle CoA is completely broken down by mitochondria and its energy is released Electron transport system most of the energy derived from the original glucose molecule is used to phosphorylate ADP producing highenergy ATP 0 Cellular respiration requires oxygen to complete chemical reactions of citric acid cycle and electron transport Fats and proteins are additional energy sources 0 O 78 of total energy in body stored as fats 21 proteins 1 glycogen Fat catabolism triglycerides are broken down to glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol is converted to glucose or pyruvic acid entering citric acid cycle Enzymes break down fatty acids to 2carbon acetyl groups also entering citric acid cycle Each molecule yields a great deal of ATP Anaerobic pathways make energy available without oxygen 0 A small amount of ATP can be made by anaerobic O metabolism for brief periods of time In absence of oxygen glycolysis is broken down to pyruvate but cannot proceed through citric acid cycle and electron transport chain Instead it is converted to lactic acid CHAPTER 4 FROM CELLS TO ORGAN SYSTEMS 41 Tissues are groups of cells with a common function 0 All cells in a multicellular organism have a specialized function that bene ts the organism in some way Tissues groups of specialized cells that are similar in structure and that perform common functions 0 3 types of tissue 0 Epithelial o Connective 0 Muscle 42 Epithelial tissues cover body surfaces and cavities Epithelial tissues consist of sheets of cells that line or cover various surfaces and body cavities skin lining of mouth digestive tract lungs bladder blood vessels and tubules of kidneys Protects underlying tissues 0 Glandular epithelia forms the body s glands glands are tissues that are specialized to synthesize and secrete a product Exocrine glands secretes products outside or outward Endocrine glands secretes hormones into the bloodstream 3 types of epithelial tissues according to cell shape 0 Squamous consists of one or more layers of attened cells Lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs Permits exchange of nutrients wastes and gases 0 Cuboidal composed of cubeshaped cells Lines kidney tubules and glands Secretes and reabsorbs water and small molecules 0 Columnar composed of tall rectangular columnshaped cells Lines most digestive organs Absorbs nutrients produces mucus Simple 1 layer Strati ed 2 or more layers 0 Basement membrane supporting noncellular layer beneath the cells of an epithelial tissue composed of protein secreted by epithelial cells 0 Cell junctions connects epithelial cells 3 types 0 O Tightjunctions seals plasma membranes of adjacent cells so tightly together that nothing passes between the cells controls movement of substances into and out of the body Adhesion junctions looser in structure protein laments allow for some movement between cells so the tissues can stretch and bend Gapjunctions connecting channels made of proteins that permit movement of ions or water between 2 adjacent cells 43 Connective tissue supports and connects body parts Connective tissue supports the softer organs of the body against gravity and connects parts of the body together also stores fat and produces blood cells 0 Matrix nonliving extracellular material that makes up the structure of connective tissue Fibrous connective tissues connect various body parts providing strength support and exibility made up by several types of bers 0 O O Collagen bers made of protein confer strength and are slightly exible Elastic bers made of elastin which can stretch without breaking Reticuar bers thinner bers of collagen interconnects with each other and serves as an internal structural framework for some of the soft organs Fibroblasts the cells responsible for producing and secreting the proteins that compose the collagen elastic and reticular bers 0 4 types of connective tissue according to ber types 0 Loose connective tissue most common surrounds many internal organs muscles and blood vessels contains collagen and elastic bers very exible modest amount of strength Dense connective tissue found in tendons ligaments and lower layers of skin has more collagen bers strongest connective tissue when pulled in the same direction as orientation of the bers Elastic connective tissue surrounds organs that have to change shape or size regularly contains high proportion of elastic bers which stretch and recoil easily Reticuar connective tissue internal framework of soft organs consists of thin branched reticular bers composed of collagen that form an interconnected network Specialized connective tissues serve special functions 0 Cartilage transition tissue from which bone develops consists primarily of collagen bers 0 Bone specialized connective tissue that contains only a few living cells consists of hard mineral deposits of calcium and phosphate 0 Blood consists of cells suspended in a uid matrix called plasma 0 Adipose tissue highly specialized for fat storage has few connective tissue bers and almost no ground substance located under the skin 44 Muscle tissues contract to produce movement 0 Muscle tissue consists of cells that are specialized to shorten or contract resulting in movement of some kind Composed of tightly packed cells called muscle bers 0 Long and thin 0 Parallel to each other 0 3 types of muscle tissue 0 Skeletal connects to tendons which connects to bones when they contract it causes body parts to move voluntary muscle 0 Cardiac found only in the heart individual cells are much shorter then skeletal muscle bers short and bluntended involuntary 0 Smooth surrounds hollow organs and tubes including blood vessels digestive tract uterus and bladder slim cells are much smaller than skeletal cells aligned parallel to each other involuntary 45 Nervous tissue transmits impulses Nervous tissue consists primarily of cells that are specialized for generating and transmitting electrical impulses throughout the body Neurons electrical impulses 3 basic parts 0 Cell body where the nucleus is located 0 Dendrites numerous cytoplasmic extensions that extend from the cell body and receive signals from other neurons 0 Axon long extension that transmits electrical impulses over long distances Glial cell does not transmit electrical impulses but plays a supporting role by surrounding and protecting neurons and supplying them with nutrients 46 Organs and organ systems perform complex functions Organs structures composed of two or more tissue types joined together that perform a speci c function or functions 0 Organ systems groups of organs that together serve a broad function that is important to survival either of the individual organism or of the species 0 Tissue membranes consists of a layer of epithelial tissue and a layer of connective tissue that line each body cavity and form our skin 0 Serous membranes line and lubricate body cavities to reduce friction between internal organs 0 Mucous membranes line the airways digestive tract and reproductive passages goblet cells secrete mucus which lubricates the membrane s surface and entraps foreign particles 0 Cutaneous membrane our outer covering skin 47 The skin as an organ system 0 The skin is known as the integumentary system 0 Functions of the skin 0 Protection from dehydration prevents bodies from dying out Protection from injury Defense against invasion by bacteria and viruses Regulation of body temperature Synthesis of an inactive form of vitamin D Sensation touch vibration pain temperature OOOOO Dermis inner layer of connective tissue 0 Structures in the dermis Hair shaft root follicle composed of keratinocytes Smooth muscle attached to base of hair follicle causes hair to erect when you are frightened or scared Sebaceous glands oil glands that secretes and oily uid that moistens and softens hair and skin Blood vessels supplies dermis and epidermis cells with nutrients and remove their wastes o Epidermis outer layer of skin s epithelial tissue 0 Consists of multiple layers of squamous epithelial cells constantly being replaced as cells near the base of the epidermis divide repeatedly pushing older cells toward the surface 0 Made up of 2 types of cells Keratinocytes produces keratin as they move toward the skin surface they atten and become squamous Melanocytes produces melanin protects us against the UV rays from the sun 48 Multicellular organisms must maintain homeostasis 0 Internal environment environment that surrounds the cells of a muticeuar organism is a uid called the interstitial uid Homeostasis relative constancy of the conditions within the internal environment 0 Negative feedback maintains homeostasis in such a way that deviations from the desired condition are automatically detected and counteracted Controlled variable focal point of any negative feedback control loop any physical or chemical property that varies from time to time blood pressure body temperature Sensor receptor monitors the current value of the controlled variable and sends information to the control center Control center receives input from the sensor compares it to the set point Effector takes necessary action to correct the imbalance 0 Positive feedback relatively uncommon in living organisms a change in the controlled variable sets in motion a series of events that simplify the original change rather than returning it to normal
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