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Unit Three Key Terms

by: Crystal Florman

Unit Three Key Terms HUM 1022-08

Crystal Florman
GPA 3.64

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All the terms on that you need to know about the third unit.
Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment
Mr. Micheal Prahl
Study Guide
unit three, unit III, key terms
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HUM 1022-08 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Mr. Micheal Prahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment in Arts and Humanities at University of Northern Iowa.

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Date Created: 04/10/16
Unit III Key Terms  Jean Bodin o Wrote “Six Books of Commonwealth” o Family oriented communities and maintain order o Head of state could make and enforce laws without subjects’ consent o People had no right to rise up against it  Artemisia Gentileschi o Her father greatly influenced her paintings  Peace of Augsburg o League of Augsburg forced King Louis in 1697 to make peace because his country is in shambles  Restoration of Monarchy o Transition from commonwealth to monarchy again o Charles asked to come back from France  Christopher Marlow o May have been a spy for Elizabeth’s government o “Tamberlaine” and Doctor Faustus- created characters that pursue larger than life adventures but are limited because they are human  Thomas Hobbes o “Leviathan” 1657 o Need a strong state to protect people’s lives and property- not just property o Believed in absolutism and social contract o Splits Divine Right (bad) and Absolutism (good) o Two criteria for a society to exist: peace and security o Give up some rights and live by certain rules to maintain peace and security  Jansenism o Created by Blaise Pascal o Established the truth of Christianity by appealing simultaneously to intellect and emotion  Louis XIV of France o Longest reigning king in European history o Came to power at a young age o Promised aristocracy wouldn’t get out of hand o Most effective absolute monarch in Europe  Gian Lorenzo Bernini o Chief architect of the Vatican o Higher alter Baldacchino o Alter of Cornaro Chapel  Versailles o Started by Louis XIII in 1623 as a hunting lodge o Expanded by many kings after him  Rembrant van Rijn o Painted in many different styles- baroque and realism o Famous piece- “Isaac and Rebekah”  Diego Velaquez o Spanish painter o Leading artist in the court of Philip IV  Cardinal Mazarin o King Louis came to power at 9 years old- so Mazarin was in power o Aristocrats did not like him  John Milton o English poet, polemicist, man of letters o Civil servant for the commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell  Junkers o German noblemen or aristocrats, especially a member of the Prussian aristocracy  The Fronde o String of rebellions by aristocrats because foreigners took power in France o Main target was Mazarin  Aristocratic Baroque o Art commissioned by aristocracy o Palace of Versailles  Ivan the Great o The first to lay down a distinctive imperial agenda o Launched a series of conquests that annexed the independent principalities between Moscow and Poland- Lithuania o Married the niece of the last Byzanite Emperor o Built the Kremlin  Rococo o Round, shell shapes- C o Light colors, mirrors, rounded doors, ornate and detailed  Witches o Increasing threat because those people could do what they did because of the devil o Tried and tortured more than the regular criminal o Church could not execute- so the state did most of the speculation, hunting, and killing  Peace of Westphalia o 1648- Habsburgs were forced to give their territory up o France is the predominant force in Europe now  Battle of Boyne o William’s army won against James’ army over the Boyne river- proved William’s authority  War of Spanish Succession o First world war of modern times o King Charles II died in 1700 with no heirs- left the throne to Philip IV  Thirty Year’s War o Started as a religious conflict  1618- Ferdinand (Catholic) was named the heir of Bohemia (Protestant) o Escalated to a struggle of dominance  Oliver Cromwell o Puritan- forced all the non- puritans out of parliament o Tried and convicted King Charles for treason against his subjects o Established Commonwealth and disbanded parliament- Protectorate  Gustavus Adolphus o Protestant king of Sweden o Championed German Lutheran states and his own nation’s sovereignty- army secretly subsidized by Catholic France o Great leader- one of the best armies and countries  Peter the Great o 1689- overthrew half-sister Sophia and became the sole ruler of Russia o Traveled to Europe to learn o Attempted to westernize Russia o Took over Russian Orthodox Church by appointing an official to manage it o Foreign policies to secure year round ports on the Black and Baltic Seas  Charles I of England o Believed in absolute divine right o Pushed parliament too far o Lost his power when he declared war on Spain to Oliver Cromwell  Cardinal Richelieu o The man who ran France when Louis XIV was young  Ben Jonson o Wrote dark comedies o Alchemist- science  William and Mary of England o Mary was James’ oldest daughter o She married William of Orange o Parliament asked them to come back and rule England when James was exiled  Mannerism o Emphasized balance, proportion, and ideal beauty- almost unrealistic  Convivencia o Living together or harmonious coexistence o Muslim leaders in Spain were very religiously tolerant  Jean Antoine Watteau o French Painter o Sparked a revival in the use of color  Mercantilism o Trade that generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances  Michelangelo Merisi o Italian Painter in Rome o “Martyrdom of Saint Matthew” and “Judith Beheading Holofernes”  Divine Right o The belief that a king is in power because God wants him there o If He didn’t want them there they would have been born to a different family  Jean- Batiste Colbert o In charge of the king’s finances o Less tax farming o Imposed tariffs on foreign goods  Judith Leyster o Frans Hal’s student o Signed her paintings with her family crest  Counter reformation baroque o Mostly religious art commissioned by the Catholic Church  Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra o Spanish writer o “Don Quixote”  Glorious Revolution o Shift in government without bloodshed in England o Fighting in Ireland between James and William  Treaty of Utrecht o 1713- treaty between England, France, and Spain  Jan Vermeer o Worked in Delft, Holland o Ordinary people o “Girl with the Pearl Earring”  Commonwealth o Parliament governing for the common good o Social contract o Magna Carta- cannot rule without consent of subjects  Stenka Razin o Cossack leader who led a major uprising against nobility and tsarist bureaucracy in southern Prussia in 1670-1671  James I of England o King of Scotland and England o Believes completely in divine right o Glorious Revolution  Russian Imperialism o Peter grew Russia into a strong nation o Great Norther War against Sweden  Dutch Untied Provinces o Gained independence from Spain in 1648 o Huge in trade o Diverse trade brought diverse people- mostly tolerant  Louis XIII of France o Became king at 9 years old o Depended on Richelieu  Michel Montaigne o “Essays” o Evoked skepticism to all traditional ways of knowing the world- introspective  El Greco o Greek painter o So advanced for his time most people didn’t like his work o “View of Toledo”  Frederick Wilhelm o Obtained eastern Prussia by helping them in war against Sweden o Built huge army, mobilized well o Didn’t tax aristocracy to keep them on his side  Absolutism o The king is the sole ruler of the state and has the ultimate say  Whig o Opposition to absolute monarchy- in favor of constitutional monarchy  Il Gesu o Prominent religious architecture  Bourgeois baroque o Primarily Dutch  Penal Laws o Laws imposed on the Catholic people of Ireland o Eventually getting rid of Catholicism in Ireland  Blaise Pascal o Jansenism o “Pensees” (Thoughts)- argued that only faith could resolve the contradictions of the world  Frans Hals o Always in debt o Painted ladies in a boarding house so he could stay there o Painted for middle class and taught Judith Leyster  Revocation of the Edict of Nantes o Louis XIV got rid of it o Huguenots left France with their trades o Left France’s economy very fragile


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