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Quiz 4 Review

by: Amy Brogan

Quiz 4 Review HIST 2051-001

Amy Brogan
GPA 3.7

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Reviewing the African and Asian Theater in WWII, The Cold War, and Korea and Vietnam.
American Military History
James Streckfuss
Study Guide
WWII; Cold War; Vietnam; Korea
50 ?




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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 04/11/16
Sreckfuss Amy Brogan Quiz 4 Review World War II: North Africa and Europe (1943-1945) o Why was North Africa important?  By controlling North Africa, the British could protect shipping on theMed. Sea. They needed the ability to ship oil from the Middle East through the Suez Canal.  British have to control both sides of the Mediterranean o What was the result of fighting in North Africa?  Italy could not drive the British from Egypt.  Hitler sent troops (under Erwin Rommel)  After back-and-forth battle for North Africa, the Allied forces handed the Germans a major defeat at the Battle of El Alamein o What happened in Italy?  British and American forces invaded Italy in1943  The Italian people forced Mussolini from power, but Hitler rushed into Italy to stop the Allies o 1 step is driving Italians out of North Africa. German sent their tank commander to keep that from happening, and the British sent their best.  Status Report Part1 o Deployment time: 47 months o Continents: Africa, Europe o Nations/colonies: Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, France, Germany, Austria  Part 2 o Types of Operations  Amphibious Assault: Morocco, Sicily, (Salerno), Anzio, Riviera  Mountain (Apennines, Alps)  River Crossings: Volturno, Moselle, Rhine, Main o MOUT:Military Operations in Urban Terrain  Operation Torch:Campaign to moveGermany out of Africa  MediterraneanTheatre: could use the African side of the sea to attack Sicily o ItalianMilitary folded quickly once Alliesattacked o Hitler had to send reinforcements  ItalianCampaign (sept. – Nov. 43) o Stalled in Salerno, kept from breaking out into the interior o June ’44 we were able to take Rome (2 days before D-day) o Got: foothold on Southern Europe o Bombing Ball-bearing factories  Bombing Strategy o Node Theory: there are thousands of potential targets, I’ve got to get by fighter planes, there are also tanks in the field and factories making their parts, railroads and enemy headquarters, etc. How to choose? Incapable of taking out everything.  Other hand: what do submarines, planes, and tanks all have in common? They all need ball bearings. Only 50 placesmaking the resources that can beattacked and take out the armyat the root o Impact onGermany  2/3 ofGerman fighters combating bombers (number went up, not what we wanted)  1944 absenteeism in key industries as high as25%  Workers not working in factories because they fear the bombs and production slows or stops  Bombing + diversion of resources cost German“half” its potential frontline weapons by 1944  Hurt, but not knocked out. Numbers of fighters goes up during the war instead of down. Wasn’t what we hoped for o Morality  Strategic bombing  Goals: break the enemy’s resolve  Methods: annihilation  Terrorism  Goals: break the enemy’s resolve  Methods: annihilation  German Defense in Normandy Hedgerows o Hedgerow: a lane of closely spaced shrubsand tree species, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundaryof an area. o Natural defense system – battle of the Hedgerows o Bocage: area of intermittent woods and open areas o Hedgerow combined Arms: Task organization  M4 Sherman Tank + hedgerow cutter  Ardennes: 1944 o Doctrine: both mechanized combined arms o Mobility: advantage US  Doubled strength in four days (to 180,000) o Airpower: advantageUS o Logistics: Advantage US  Germans had supplies, inadequate transport  Battle of the Bulge: April 16-25 o Marks Hitler’s last stand o End of the war sets up for the Cold War  4 Millionground troops World War II: Asian Theater  The Road to War o Japan sought to control all of “East Asia” for additionalmarketsand sources of raw materials  Invades China 1931  Invades French Indochina 1940 o “Colonial”governments began imposing embargoes to put brakes on Japanese expansion o Japanese armed forces argue that they must strike to relieve pressure of embargoes  Expect conflict, but buy time and surprise through negotiations o US and UK focused on war in Europe  Japanese Strategy o Three Phases  Phase 1: surprise attacks, then strategic defense  Knock out US fleet; seize vital areas, establish defensive perimeter  Destroyed a quarter of the US fleet (for a little while) and put us on the defensive instead of the half that they were aiming for  Attacked North of Malay peninsula 1 dayafter attack on Pearl Harbor  Phase 2: strengthen perimeter; makeany offensive action by US prohibitively costly.  Phase 3: Defeat and destroy any forces that attempt to penetrate the perimeter o Long US LOC and natural strength of defense should almost guarantee success  Comparison of Major Vessels (December, 1941) o All Japanese fleet in the pacific o Half of US fleet in Pacific, other half in the Atlantic  Why we built the Panama Canal so we could move our ships faster than sailing them around the southern tip of South America o Defensive perimeter  Japan puts ships in islandsall throughout the Pacific  American perimeter includesCuba, Panama Canal, Alaska, etc. o Japan was succeeding in their plan  Pearl Harbor o Success for Japan?  Postponement: failed to hit the carriers and submarines, failed to take out fuel lines, and failed to follow up  America went from isolationist to a country of action o Surprise  Deception operations  First significant use of carriers  Spring of ‘42 o Japan turns to IndianOcean to occupy Burma and cut off China’s last link to allies (Burma Road) o Intended to weaken British hold and strengthen Japan’s  Held all of Burma by the 15 of April  Flying the Hump: fling over the Himalayas th o 18 of April: Revenge of Pearl Harbor: Tokyo Raid  Carriers close only enough for a symbolic raid of Japanese military holds  Planes flew over targets, but because there wasn’t enough fuel for a return trip, they over shot Tokyo to land in China. Planes so stripped down for the trip, they didn’t have protective machineguns (used black-painted broom handles togive the look of guns)  Not much damage, but a moral boost o Chester Nimitz (navy commander) with/vs. MacArthur  Problems with unity of command  Goal: establish base in Hong Kong for an invasion of Japanese mainland  Japanese Empire 1942 o Moved to fast: completed what they intended to do in 6 months in 90 days o General Army staff dug in and focused on China o American fleet still alive, and made the Japanese lose a little face with the attack on Tokyo o Go after Midwayand pull US fleet into a trap and destroy it (Phase 3)  Logistics o Naval war makes it hard to live off the land in the same manner of a foot army o Island hopping: way of conserving resources, don’t hit all of the islands, just hit the ones that offer strategic value o Qualitative edge inmilitary hardware to Japanat the beginning of the war  US was quantity andcould build quickly: could absorb loses better than Japan o US is a master of mass production  Average quality, tremendous quantity  Implement ideas from captured equipment. o US subs operate independently and sink Japanese ships faster than Japan can produce them  June 4-7, 1942 o Midway o Plan: US carriers wouldreply to this and the main force of battle ships would enter and finish off the Americans  Not a simple plan, separated force and dependability on US replying as they wanted them to.  US was reading their codes, so they knewwhat they were planning and wouldn’t do what the Japanese wanted them to do as a reply  American fleets waited, Yorktown (almost destroyed, which had a month’s worth of work in48 hours) joined the battle o Japanese ships were broken into many parts  Forces scattered out of range of help from the others  Dawn 4 of June – Japanese attacksmidway  Hits Yorktown (agthn) and heavily attacksit  Saratoga arrives 6 of June  7 – Japanese located Yorktown and sankher  Japanese lost several shipsand 3500 people  America lost less than half of ships, and less than1/10 of lives comparatively  Lessons: don’t underestimate the enemy, keep plans secure, keep plans simple, don’t take enemy part of decision cycle (don’t trust enemy to do what you want them to), don’t ignore principle of mass (don’t scatter your forces)  Guadalcanal:1 American Action of the War o 7 August 1942 o 1 offensive action of the war o Criticalairfield o Navy bugs out, taking majority of supplies with them  Redeemed themselves during critical 12 November naval battle when they turn back major Japanese force o Japanese piecemeal counterattacks o Jungle causes significant causulties  Malaria: illness becomesa problem during military operations o Armycomes in to mop up inNovember  Results o Island “secured” in February1943 o Japan suffers critical loss inall areas o Japanese is nowhere near American production, Japanese running out of steam o Institution of CATF/CLF  CATF:Commander Amphibious Task Force  CLF: Commander Landing Force  Moving towardsJapan o 1943  March: Bismark Sea (limited Japanese reinforcement of southern Pacific)  November: Tarawa andMakin (Gilberts) o 1944  February: Kwajalein & Eniwetok (Marshalls)  Feb.- June: New Guinea  June-Aug.: Saipan, Tinan, Guam (Marianas)  October: Leyte Gulf  Destroyed much of Japanese Navy  1945 o February-March: Iwo Jima o March: Tokyo raids  Low level incendiary bombing runs withmuch destruction. Designed to force surrender but it didn’t. o April-June: Okinawa  A New Formula for TotalWar: Japan warned, but refused to surrender o Planners estimated invasionwould result in 3-5x asmay casualties as atOkinawa (38k US/ 150kJapanese) o Hiroshima:6 August 1945  60-70k killed or missing o Nagasaki:9 August  40k killed  Oppenheimer/Groves:Manhattan Project o Bomb: designed for the immediate force the Japanese to surrender Other theories: simple revenge for Pearl Harbor, more convincing: demonstrating to the Russiansthat we have the bomb. Everyone was working on it, but we were the only/first ones to make it work. Post-war world: we don’t want any trouble. If there had been trouble, we wouldn’t have been able to do anything because we only had three and we tested one and used two, but nobody knows this. The Cold War 1945-1950 1870:Germany had just unified; prior Germany wasa collection of 28 separate jurisdictions. They set off immediately to attack France to announce their intent to be a powerful country in Europe. The th MulticentricWorld Power Model wasdeveloped as of the beginning of the 20 century with the powers of England, France, Russia, OttomanEmpire, Austria-Hungary, andAmerica among others. At the end of WorldWar I, theOttoman Empireand Austria-Hungarywere completely obliterated, and others were weakened. WWII further hones this and England is ended as a world power by theend of the war. The United states and the Soviet Union are the only two powers remaining, a bi-polar power model.  Containment o George Kennan  Deputy head of Mission USSR o 6000-word Telegram – “Long Telegram” / Foreign Affairs (1946) by “Mr. X”  playbook for the Cold War, outlined “Russia’saggressive tendencies” and submitted containment policies o Options: could come to peaceful agreement or we could blow them off the earth (war)  Kennan’s offered third option: simply contain Russians were they were. Stifle their world domination tendencies  NSC-68 – 14 April1950 o Position paper by Paul Nitze and othersabout Kennan’s proposition managing the budget of putting the idea through  Recommended a massive buildup of an increase in funding for the armed forces in an effort to contain the Soviets o Based on the assumption that Soviet Union had a systematic strategyaimed at the spread of Communism around the world o President Truman signed it in August  Shaping the Post War World o Yalta Conference (Feb 4-11, 1945)  President died 2 months later, he was called weak and sickas an explanation for his inability to stand up to Stalin o Potsdam Conference: July 17-August 2, 1945  Truman comes away with the idea that he will have to be tougher with Stalin o Both meetings for peace because war is almost over, to outline what happens after war is over o Race to Berlin: After the war, Germany is divided by where the armies of the remaining world powers end up. Berlin divided inroughly the same lines. Korea also dived in similar fashion: 38 parallel is the divide between North and South.  The New Structure of our Military o National Security Act of 1947 o Did WWII prove to be a strategic bombing theorist example?  Yes: Atomic bombs dropped andJapanese quit  But alreadyafter a long and life-heavy war  No: Bombing of Germanyand Britainonly made the people want to fight back more. Small bombings not the knock-out bombing to make the war end like the atomic bombs o Get rid of the army andgive all funding to atomic bomb?  No: if no army then all skirmisheswill be at an atomic battle because there won’t be anybody to fight the small battles  Can’t nukeMoscow for every small battle, maybe for larger issues  1949: Russians haveatomic bombs  Cheaper in1920’s to fund air force than others  Spending 5 billion dollars tomake bomb and plane and it is no longer cheaper  New argument: spend it here to make war quick vs. not and losing a war to the Russians (All dead, or all turned into communists)  Cheaper in lives  Until Russiansgot the bomb too  Strategic Aircommand: the only thing that could deter the Russians from starting a war in the first place  Now: Army so big and impressive so that no one will attack us just by our image of force  Revolt of the Admirals o Reaction to cancelation of new aircraft carrier inthe budget, money instead wheninto the air force.  Not about just one carrier, it’sabout the replacement of the navy with the air force, scrapping the carriers’ scraps “all of us” at once  Berlin Airlift 1948 o Russians cut of Allied roads into Berlin so they couldn’t give supplies to the trapped people o Allies toyed with the idea of attacking Russia then o Instead they airlifted food and supplies into Berlin for almost a year before the Russians re-opened land access  Considered a public relations victory  Fall 1949 o 25 September – Trumanannounces Soviet atomic bomb o 5 October – “super bomb” (fusion) bomb discussions begin o 17 October – Truman approves the enlargement of the nuclear stockpile  The Cold War 1954-1989 o Cuban revolution (Castro) o Launch of Sputnik o Reagan resides over the end of the Cold War  Periods o The GlobalConfrontation 1950-1960  Dulles Massive Retaliation Speech – 12 January1954: ability to launcha second strike, even if the Soviet wipe out all the major cities, membersneed to still be able to launch the bombers - Mutually insured destruction (we can still bomb you even if you take us out)  GenevaConference Final Declaration – July 1954  SEATO –8 September 1954  Warsaw Pact – 14 May1955  Peaceful Coexistence – 14 February 1956  Hungarian Revolution – October -November 1956  Suez Crisis – July-November 1956  Cuban Revolution – 1 January 1959  U-2 Affair –1 May1960 o Crisisand Conflict 1961-1969  Berlin Crisis – Summer 1961  Cubanmissile crisis – October 1962– closest we ever came to war. Both sides learned just how far they could push the other before hitting the button and how to avoid these things  Sino-Soviet Split – 1960 -1963  Nuclear Test BanTreaty – August 1963  Vietnam –1961-1968  Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty –July 1968  Invasion of Czechoslovakia – August 1968  Brezhnev Doctrine – Fall 1968 o Era of Détente 1969-1979  Nixon Doctrine – Summer-Fall1969  Nixon’s visit to China – February1972  Strategic Arms Talks (SALT) AND Anti-BallisticMissile Treaty –May1972  Helsinki Act – August 1975  Normalization of US-China Relations – 1973-1976  SALT II Agreement – June 1979 o The Cold war wasa nuanced conflict, viewed from multiple angels. Military cold war, economic cold war, religious, social, and culturalcold war.  Economic: Gattis argues that the Cold War was really won in 1952 because we won it economically with the Marshal plan and byrebuilding eastern Europe. When the world looked at the comparison between capitalism and communism (good German cars and bad cardboard-lined cars), the battle was done.  The Religious ColdWar was marked by high churchattendance in the states, “One NationUnder God”added to the Pledge of Allegiance further showing the better side vs. the communist side which was closing down churches  Socio-cultural: WWII started unions and they gave“no strike pledges” during the war, benefits continued through after the war. This showed whatwas possible under capitalism vs. communism (taking shots at the government).  Race relations: 1954 supreme court with Brownvs. Board of Education (segregates schools), argued that this was a ColdWar ployto sow that arguments could be solved peacefully. Also free-speech movement, Rock-N-Roll, vs. highlyregimented life behind the Iron Curtain  Technologically: none more symbolicallyimportant than space race. Bormann (early astronaut) many people thought it was aboutmoon rocks, none were worried about the rocks, they were worried about beating the Soviets.  Proxy Wars: Korea andVietnam o The Denouement of the Cold War 1980-1989  Carter Doctrine – January 1980  Polish Imposition of Marshal Law – December 1981  Reagan’s SDI Speech – March 1983  Geneva Summit – November 1985  Reykjavik Summit –October 1986  INF Treaty – December 1987  Soviet Union leaves Afghanistan – February1989  Opening of the BerlinWall – November 1989  German Unification – July1990  Division of Europe 1950-1991  NATO – created to give us options. The immediate focus after the war was thee air force (creation atomic strike force, but that limits options of attack). Return of convention ground forces to Europe and less-deadly options  Warsaw Pact: RussianPact  Pattern of the Cold War o Action – Reaction; Policy – Counter Polity o COMECON – committee for economic assistance – Russian version of Marshal plan, not nearly as successful o NATO – Warsaw Pact (1953) o Both superpowers prepared nuclear arsenal as a determent  Soviet Atomic Bomb (1949)  US HydrogenBomb (1951)  Soviet Hydrogen Bomb (1953) o From this point forward, the weapons technically available for use in any type of conflict o 1954 – Secretary of State Dulles promised “massiveretaliation” in response to Soviet aggression.  Evolution of US Nuclear Strategy o 1954-1956 MassiveRetaliation o 1962-1968 Flexible response: Assured destruction, Mutualassured destruction o 1968-1976 Limited Nuclear Options o 1977-1980 Counterveiling/Decapitation o 1981-1990 Counterforce/Strategic Defense  Cold War and American Society – broader cultural fears o Cold War affected American attitudes about larger world o Environment often led to fear and paranoia o Sen. Joseph McCarthyand House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) –1947- 1954 –Committee tried to root out real and perceived communists in Hollywood, US Dept. of State, and US Army o Bunkers/backyard bomb shelters, duck andcover practices at schools  Korea – ProxyWar o Couldn’t afford to confront Russian face-on, so the idea of a limited war/proxy war, removed from both countries territories we couldn’t be hurt directly. o Background – Old unified state since 7 century  Proved tempting target for the Japanese during WWII, and occupied Korea from 1910 to 1945  Civil war elements between north and south left over from WWII  Armyof South Korea largely composed of Koreanswho collaborated with the Japanese during occupation  Armyof North Korea leadershad previously foughtas guerillas against the Japanese  Split Korea same way Europe was split  Soviet Union occupied Korea north of the 38 parallel andUnited States occupied south of the line  Soviet imposed a communist government o Democratic People’sRepublic of Korea (DPRK) o Lead by Kim Il Sung; Pyongyang as capital  The United States put in place a nationalist/capitalist democracy o Republic of Korea (ROK) o Led by Syngman Rhee; Seoul as capital o Original intent was to put the country back together, toreunify and then get out, this didn’t work out o Fighting Begins  Test of new UN (purpose was to provide collective security), first involved by calling a ceasefire. UN consists of two bodies, generalassembly (everybody isa member) realpower in security council (15 member countries, 10 serve one year terms, 5 permanentmembersmade of countries who wonWWII + Nationalist Chinese andRussians).  ’49 Mao had runChiang Kai-Shek out of China. Who should be the China seat? New Mao or nationalistgovernment in Taiwan. Theyargue that Mao staged a Coup d'état, and UNrefused to recognize Mao’s government. In response, the Soviets are boycotting the UNat the time of the invasion. Each of the 5 seats has veto power, discussions of sending a peace treatyand Resolution 82 passed because Russians could not veto. UN goes to war in Korea o North Korea Attacks  June 25, 1950 – North Korea attacks South Korea  June 28, 1950 – The capital of Seoul had fallen, the ROK army was in disarray  The UN became involved and called for animmediate ceasefire o Support for South Korea  US sponsored the resolution that North Korea was the aggressor  US Forces entered South Korea under the direction of GeneralMcArthur  15 other countriesgavemilitaryand monetary support; however, no other country gave the same support that the US did. o Pusan Perimeter – grisliest fighting of the war, goes on till September, situation becomes hot, defending generalWalker issues an order “The will be no retreat.” o Inchon – amphibious launch byMcArthur, changed course of the war, cut off North Korean supply line, our troopsand ROK break out of perimeter and pursue fleeing North Korean troops. Seoul is recovered within days, cutting the North Korean supply line. o Korean War  On to the Yalu – Sept-Nov, 1950 – ground forces didn’t cross the river, but the air force did on a regular business  Chinese Intervention – 26 Nov 1950 – UN starts to lose ground whenChina joins war until they relaunch.  Relief of MacArthur – 11 April1951 –McArthur is finally canned for being blatantly insubordinate around Truman to congress  UN Counteroffensive – Spring 1951  Negotiations and Stalemate – 1951-1953  China’sInvolvement  China aided North Korea in late November  Due to China’s involvement, MacArthur called for a major expansion of the war. His proposal included: Blockading China’s coast, Invading the interior of China  Solid support for driving North Koreans out of the south, but taking on the Chinese was another matter entirely  Conflict regarding the plan – could escalate into a world war  Chinese Offensive  US forces unexpectedly ran into approximately 180,000 Chinese troops. The right flank of the Eighth Army (US) shattered and the XCorps (US) fought a desperate struggle near the ChosinReservoir  The UN troops were evacuated back to the Pusan perimeter and Seoul was captured by theChinese forces  November 28, 1951 – a shakenMacArthur informed the Joint Chiefs of Staff that the UN forces faced an “entirely new war” End of Korean War  Chanjin/Chosin Reservoir (November 1950) o Truman’s Response  President Truman opposedMacArthur’s plan  TrumanremovedMacArthur from his position in April1951  The war hadreached a stalemate by the summer of 1951  Fighting fell into a stalemate on the 38 parallel, right wherewe started  The war became a hot button issue in election of 1952  Law comes into effect that limits the number of presidential terms to two or ten years (a nod to Truman’s president dying in office to make him president).  The Law wouldn’t havean effect on his term because he was already in office, but he chose not to run again  Election of 1952 o Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower o Democrat candidate Adlai Stevenson o Eisenhower promised to end the Korean war yet still resist the spread of Communism o Eisenhower credited with having won the war in Europe, good with public, several veterans still regard him as their commanding officer o Wins electoral college442-89  The Shooting War Ends o Eisenhower stayed true his word to end the war o Bombinthraids increased by the US in North Korea inMay of1953 o July 27 , 1953 an armistice wasagreed upon o The outcome of the war was he same dividing line before the start of the war, th approximately around the 38 parallel  Armistice – July27, 1953 o Provided for a suspension of open hostilities and fixed a demilitarized zone to serve as a buffer between the North and South Korea that remains today o Korean war has never ended, onlyan armistice, not a peace treaty  Consequences of the War o Defense pacts to contain communism o Buildup of conventional forces o Civilian control of the military reaffirmed o Theory of limited war introduced  Limit of war – we’re not alwaysgoing to go allout with declaration of congress, mobilization of all forces; need to look for a limited objective Vietnam Borders onChina and North China Sea, strategicallylocated.  Phase 1: AWar of ColonialIndependence from the French o Vietnam had been a French colony under the name French Indochina (along with Cambodia and Laos) o “Geography is Destiny”  2 monsoon seasons, one in North and one in South  Pretty much all jungle  A Thousand Years ofChinese Rule o 100 BC – Han rulers sent army to conquer Nam Viet o Viets resisted Chinese rule  Several revolts against the Chinese and their attempt to civilize them. Resulted in guerilla warfare where some workedand others didn’t  French Invasion o European powers competing for colonial power, mostly between English and French o Da Nang expedition, 1857-58 o Seizure of Saigon, 17 February 1859 o Fall of Cochin-China, 1860-69 o Annexation of Cambodia, 1863 o Conquest of Tonkin and Annexation of Laos, 1873-93  The Vietnam War Timeline o 1950-1954: US support of French during 1 Indochina War o 1954-1956: cooperative advisory effort with French o 1956-1964: earlyUS advisory period o 1965-1967: US buildup o 1968: TetOffensive o 1969-1973: US withdrawal o 1973-1975: Fall of South Vietnam  Background o Vietnam began to fight for its independence from France during WWII (When France was preoccupied with European conflict) o Vietnamese revolutionary leader was Ho ChiMinh, a Communist  Ho ChiMinh tried to plead his case at the end of WWI, but the French and the British were too greedy togive him full control. If they had given him rule, Vietnam may have been avoided. He wanted to be the leader of an independent, communist Vietnam; Horeceived support from both the USSR and “Red” China  War Termination Indochina, 1945 o 9 March – Japanese seize control of Vietnam from French o 7 August – Tran Trong Kim installed by Japanese o 16 August – Vietminh march into Hanoi o 2 September – Ho ChiMinh declares Democratic republic of Vietnam o 12 September – British arrive to take Japanese surrender o 21 September – British General Gracey declares martial law o 24 September – FrenchGeneral LeClercand French occupation troops arrive in Saigon  Sequence of Events o 6 March - Agreement to permit DVR to be a free and independent member of the French Union o d’Argenlieu underminesMarchagreement o 18 April – Ho meets with French representatives at Da Lat o 31 May – Ho travels to France to find a better place for Vietnam in the FrenchUnion o 20 October – no accommodation reached; Ho returns to Vietnam  First Indochina War 1946-1949  First Vietnam War 1946-1949 o Viet Minh withdraw to reorganize, equip, and prepare for operations  Viet Minh priors to VietCong o French launch Operation Lea, Oct-Dec 1947 o French close to victory by late 1949 o 1949 – The Year of Shocks  September – Soviets explode atom bomb  Fall - China becomes communist o US Involvement  May1, 1950 – Truman signed bill authorizing $10M in military aid for French Veitnam  July, 1950 –Melby-ErskineMission  September 1950 –Military AssistanceAdvisoryGroup Indochina (MAAG-I) established  December 1950 - Penta-LateralAgreement signed  By end of 1952 –US underwriting 40% of the cost of the war in Indochina  By end of 1954 –US underwriting 80% of war cost  From local conflict to broader war against communism  Battle of Dien Bien Phu – March 13-May8, 1954 o French are important to us in Europe. Epicenter of ColdWar is Europe, participation by the French Military iscritical to contain communism to present borders in Europe. IF we wanted to keep their help, we had to help them hold their colonies in Asia o They respond by sending 12 battalions to a village called Dien Bien Phu out on the Laotian Border  Pulled troops out of areas where they were concentrated to empower other places  Fighting a situation exactly to what we will do when US joins against Ho Chi Mhin o This colonial war raged from 1946-54, culminating in the French defeat at Deinbeinphu o Aftermath: French wanted out  Peace conference – Geneva Accords, 21 July1954  France, Vietnam, US, and the USSR  Vietnam dividedat 17 parallel  Elections to be held in two years  300 daysallowed for free movement between North and South  French depart Hanoi on 9 October 1954  Viet Minh formally take over Hanoi andNorth Vietnam on 11 October 1954  Operation “Passage to Freedom”: 900,000 peoplemove from North to South  About 5,000 Vietminh left in the South to act as cadre in reunification failed  French write 4 volumes of “Lessons learned” – but we make the samemistakes  The Domino Theory o “You have a row of dominoes set up; you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is that it will go over very quickly. So you have the beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profound influences.” -President DwightD. Eisenhower, 7 April 1954; on the impending fall ofVietnam toCommunism  Idea that communism isan evil force out to conquer the world all in this little speech and why we have to watch the small battles in remote parts of the world  US Involvement o Politically: provide support for Government of Ngo DinhDiem o Militarily: buildmilitary capability of republic of Vietnam’sarmed forces  The early Advisory Effort o US Military Assistance Program (MAP) December 1954 o LTG John “IronMike”O’Daniel assigned asChief of MAAG – January 1955  MilitaryAssistance Advisory Program o French Expeditionary Corps departs – April1956 o French starting to dial back, and US being toadd more  MilitaryAssistance AdvisoryGroup –Vietnam o Objectives  Create anarmy and supporting forces by 1 January1956  Establish follow-through programs to increase andmaintain the efficiency of the force  Problems with South Vietnamese Military, 1956 o Colonial heritage of Vietnamese National Army, Motivation questionable, Organized in small units, Lack of Senior command experience, Politicized senior officer ranks, Only rudimentary logistics structure, Officer ranks were severely politicized, andarmywas rife with corruption  Building the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces o Mission: From Vietnamese National Army, build: Navy, Air Force, Army  Looked like ours – but not one appropriate to the situation  Vietnam was totally aguerilla war, not large set-piece battles, small instances in the jungle, traditional battlefield army not one that will work well.  Problems Throughout the War o In spite of ongoing escalation throughout the 1960’s, the US experienced a lack of success against the Vietnamese guerilla forces in S. Vietnam (the Vietcong) as theUS Armywas unprepared for their tactics andmentality o The US was also never entirely successful in shutting down the Ho ChiMinh Trail, a supply line that ran between North and South Vietnam via difficult jungle terrain, often underground and through neighboring nations likeCambodia  Viet Cong Insurgency o Hanoi leadership decides to turn to force of arms to reunite Vietnams o Assassinations and other terrorist acts on the increase o 26 September 59:2 Liberation Battalionambushes 23 ARVN Div o 17 January 60: VC uprising in Ben Tre o 26 January 60: VC overrun Trang Sup o Infiltrators flow into the South from North Vietnam to fightas replacements with VC o December 60: National Liberation Front established in the South  By Late 1962 –Military Situation o ARVN still plagued by:  Poor leadership (especially at the senior levels), Lackof aggressiveness, Corruption, Politics, Losing toViet Cong  JFK and Diem o 4 July63: South Vietnamese generalsinform CIA that they are contemplating coup o JFK and advisors debate what to do o General agreement that situation wasn’t going to improve, so they agreed to look the other way  Diem and Nhuassassinated 1-2 November 1963  Kennedy assassinated in Dallas - 22 November 1963 o Early conspiracy theory: retribution for Diem assassination a short time before Johnson’s War  Situation in Vietnam 1963-64 o 21 December 63:McNamara memo to LBJ o 30 January 64: General Khan overthrows Big Minh o 3-7 February 64: VC attack Central Highlands, Mekong Delta, and Saigon o 17 March 64: LBJ approvesNASM 288  Johnson signed 288 to send message to Henoi that we were serious to keep involvement o 6 June 64: RF-8 shot down over Laos o 20 June64:GenWilliam C. Westmoreland replaces HarkinsasCOMUSMACV o 23 June64:Maxwell D. Taylor replaces Lodge asAmbassador to RVN  What is the Gulf of Tonkin Incident? August 1964 o Official Record:  2 August: VC attack Maddox  4 August: VC attack Maddoxand C. Turner Joy? (Did this really happen?)  5 August: Operation PIERCE ARROW  7 August: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed o Attacks at night, visibility was low, what happened if it did happen? Did LBJ makeup what happened? Similar occurrence to 1840’s with American Mexicanwar with journalists and yellow-journalism  Escalation Late 1964 o 15 August 64: Politburo ordersmain force PAVN units south o 11 October 64: VC attack TayNinh o 31 Oct-1 Nov64:VC attackBlen Hoa AFB  1964 Presidential Election – Johnston vs. Goldwater (R) o Johnson had to run for election, only briefly touches on Vietnam, but not vigorousanti- war movement just yet. Johnston promised not to send American boys where Asian boys should be doing the job themselves. o Goldwater viewed asextreme, thought that he couldn’t be trusted with nuclear launch codes. Johnston ran daisy cutter adsagainstGoldwater o Johnston wins in monumental landslide. Johnston viewed having inherited presidency from Murder of Kennedy. Resulted in democratic majority in congress  Back inVietnam o 12 November 64:VC launch major attack inBinh Tuy Province o 24 December 64: VC attack Brinks BOQ in Saigon  BachelorsOfficers Quarters (BOQ) o 28December 64:VC inflict major defeat on ARVNat BinhGia o South is unstable, army is weak, andViet Cong growing stronger  National Strategy o Guns andButter  Protect Great Society programs  Expand draft, but no major call up of reserves  Lack of candor with the news media and public concerning military commitment in SE Asia o “Out of Country” – graduated escalation throughairpower o “In Country” – troop buildup and logistic expansion o This is the same flexile response developed in Europe at beginning of ColdWar tonot escalate everything on a nuclear level  US Response Early1965 o 24 December 64:Operation BARRELROLL o 7 February 65: Operation FLAMING DART o 2 March65:ROLLING THUNDER begins  on and off bombing of Hanoi  Off to give them opportunity to surrender  March 1965 o To protect airfields o Enclave strategy – range sufficient to reserve enclaves  Situation in Vietnam – Summer 1965 o Viability of South Vietnam in question  Government by coup d’ eat  Regimes ofminh, Khan, Khlem et al, short-lived and inept  Militarysituation critical  ARVN losing – incapable of stopping the VC o North Vietnamese troopsmoving down Ho ChiMinh Trail in units  Us Response – Sumer 1965 o 6 April: NSAM 328 approved– authorized offensive combat operations; initiated buildup of own momentum  Asked for 17 battalions, this eventually went up to 44 o May4 Marines landat Chu Lai rd o May:173 AbnBde commences combat operations in War Zone D  Abn Bde – Airborne Brigade o 1 July65:2 Brigade, 1 Infantry Division, and1 Brigade, 101 Abn Div deploy toRVN st o August 65: 1 CalvaryDiv begins deployment to RVN o Brigades rendered inoperative due to losses  Battle of the La Drang Valley: 14-18 November 1965 o North Vietnamese learned they could stand a fight own if they choose, could negate American technologies o Westmoreland learned they could kill enemy in large numbers – used this to claim advancement in the war, becomesa problem as the media focuses more on the war b/c people stopped believing the numbers  North used the number to try to get US to abandon the war  Westmorland’s strategy o Two-fold approach started by Harkins: pacification and attrition, but withmost emphasis on attrition  Three Stages of RevolutionaryWar Theoryand Practice – Vietnam o Phase I – organization, consolidation, and Preservation of Base Areas o Phase II – progressive expansion andattacks on isolated enemy units o Phase III – decision or destruction of the enemy in battle o Mao – Defensive, Equilibrium, Counteroffensive  We had a similar plan toChinses ruler  Strategy of RevolutionaryWar o Total war uses allfacets of power  Military, political, diplomatic, economic, and psychological  We were not at total war, but the North was o Total unity of effort  They had unity of effort, we never had that here o Protracted war (exhaust the enemy’s will to continue) o Gain andkeep the initiative o Move in and out of phases a required  Ho ChiMinh Trail – Truong SonCorridor o Major supply line for communist forces in South Vietnam o Footpaths grew to trails, trails to roads, roadsto multi-lane paved highways o Size of PAVN forces operating and securing the trailgrew o Enabled the North Vietnamese to conducts a protected struggle in South Vietnam  America TakesCharge o Late 1965-67  Oct 65: 1 Inf Div arrives in RVN rd th  Dec 65:3 Bde, 25 Inf Divarrives  Jan-Feb 66: 1 Marine Div deployed from CampPendleton  April 66: res of 25 Inf Div arrives  Sept 66: 11 Ar Cav Regt deploys to RVN  Nov 66:199 Lt Inf Bde deploys to RVN  Dec 66:9 Inf Div deploys to RVN from Fort Lewis th  Oct 67: 198 Lt inf Bde arrives in RVN  Dec 67:11 LtInf Bde deployed to RVN from HI o Sending more andmore units abroad into the Vietnam theater o Problems  Emphasis on “body count”results in bloody war of attrition  Could clear, but not hold the land  “firebase psychosis”  Individual replacement policy inhibits unit cohesion  Political restrictions  Casualtiesmounting o “Search and Destroy”  14 September-24 November 66:Operation ATTLEBORO  Largest operation to that date in the war  8-26 January 67:Operation CEDAR FALLS  Roaming patrols o find asmany enemies as possible to kill asmany enemies as possible  Claimed that Viet Cong had suffered 3,000 casualties and that we had destroyed larger base camp o The “Other War” (Winning the Hearts andMinds)  Left to south Vietnamese till Tet Offensive  US role instituted in 1967 under supervision of Robert “Blowtorch Bob” Komer  The Fighting Escalates o Level of combat kept getting more intense o April-May 67: Khe Sanh Hill Battles (Hill 881) o September 67: Siege ofCon Thien o October 67: Battle of Loc Ninh and Song Be o November 67: Battle of Dak To  Political Situation o Increasing military commitments/rising casualties o Waning enthusiasm at home/growth of anti-war movement o Television and Press becoming more hostile o McNamara becomes disillusioned o Public held Johnston responsible for lack of success, approval numberswent down before election of 68  GeneralOffensive o Thousands of soldiers start coming down Trail armed with AK-47s; by end of 67 the people’s army ofVietnam and N. Vietnam total 230 infantryand safer battalions o Tong Cong Kich-Tong Khi Nghia 1968  GeneralOffensive-General Uprising, 1968  Objectives:  Ignite a general uprising of the South Vietnamese people  Shatter the South Vietnamese Army  Topple the Saigon regime  Convince the Americans that the war was unwinnable  Main effort starts the 31 o Tet 1968: The Attack  Key target was newly finished US Embassy  21 January: Khe Sanh besieged by North Vietnamese forces  30 January: attack begins;NVA andVC achieve temporary control of 10 province capitals  31 January: the attacks in Hue and Saigon  15 VC sappersattack US Embassy  5 VC/NVAbattalions attack Saigon (Cho Lon)  4 NVA battalionsand 6 VC battalions attack Hue  The offensive was supposed to start launch 31 January, but there were a set of premature attacks that precede the rest of the attacks by 24 hours  Loss for Communists  MilitaryResults:  All VC/PAVNattacks turned back  ARVN acquit themselves well  VC virtually eliminated as a viable fighting force in most of South Vietnam  Training these people for 8-9 years, war had been about guerilla war till now, but this was a traditional fight so they did better  Public Opinion o With the American people 23%said we were losing, 38%said we were standing still, 33% said we weremaking progress, and 6% had no opinion (Gallup Poll, Feb 1968) o Westmorelandasks for more troops, loses political face. Johnston barely hangingon to defeat Gene McCarthy in primaries  McCarthyregarded asa lefty, not the communist witch hunter, running on Anti- war platform, one issue candidate, almost takesJohnston down. PromptsBobby Kennedy to get into the race, broader race of support, considered anti-war but also support out of African American communityand Hispanic community, generally regarded as a stronger candidate thanMcCarthy. His entryand Johnston’s losing numbersconvinced Johnston to not pursue nomination o Media’srole  The war definably turned against the US in1968, when the NVA’sGeneralGiap began the Tet Offensive, a surprise offensive on a major Vietnamese holiday that saw attacksall over the country, including in Saigon itself  Ongoing US casualties and losses saw an increase in antiwar sentiment on the American Home Front, in large part becauseVietnam was TV War where audiences saw the brutality of the war first hand  Americans using chemical weapons and massacring civilians  Massacre atMyLai  Usage of Napalm and Agent Orange, which devastated the environment  Public stopped believing what the government told them  Increasingly the American people came to perceive the “Credibility Gap”, ie they no longer believed that LBJwas telling the truth about events in the war  1968: Johnston no longer trusted, Johnston steps down and chooses not to run for president  Nixon Elected on a platform of “Peace with Honor” o Political Aftermath  RFK assassinated after winning CA primary  August: Democratic NationalConvention in Chicago  Humphry acritic of the war privately, but because he was inthe Cabinet he was for the war in public – wins democratic nomination  Anti-war movement marched to Chicago. Mayor Daley told police department to control it the coming crowd. Police department attacked the people and they were filmed rioting against protestors. Humphry doesn’t get usual post-convention boost. Nixon Wins.


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