Chapter 23 Quiz Terms
Chapter 23 Quiz Terms History 104
Popular in American Civilization Since 1865
Popular in History
This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paula Ramirez on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari Frederickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see American Civilization Since 1865 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Containment: The United States' commitment to preventing any further expansion of Soviet power. Long Telegram: George Kennan's telegram laid the foundation for what became known as the policy of "containment," accroding to which the United States commited itself to preventing any further expansion of Soviet power. “iron curtain” speech: A Winston Churchill speech, given in Missouri, polularizing the idea of an impending long-term struggle between the United States and the Soviets. Truman Doctrine: In 1947, President Harry S. Truman announced a program to give aid to European countries—particularly Greece and Turkey—threatened by communism. Marshall Plan: U.S. program for the reconstruction of post-World War II Europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies; proposed by General George C. Marshall in 1947. National Security Council: A national security body immune from democratic oversight. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: Proposed to stimulate freer trade among the participants, creating an enormous market for American goods and investment. North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Alliance founded in 1949 by ten western European nations, the United States, and Canada to deter Soviet expansion in Europe. NSC-68: This 1950 manifesto described the Cold War as an epic struggle between "the idea of freedom" and the "idea of slavery under the grim oligarchy of the Kremlin." At stake in the world conflict, it insisted, was nothing less than "the survival of the free world." One of the most important policy statements of the early Cold War, NSC-68 helped to spur a dramatic increase in American military spending. Decolonization: Liberal Demoracts and black leaders, urged the Truman administration to take the lead in promoting worldwide decolonization, insisting that a Free World worthy of the name should not include colonies and empires. “Militant Liberty”: Under the code name "Militant Liberty," national security agencies encouraged Hollywood to produce anticommunist movies. Totalitarianism: According to the theory of totalitarianism, there was no room for individual rights or alternative values in a country and therefore could never change from within. The Fair Deal: Domestic reform proposals of the Truman administration; included civil rights legislation, national health insurance, and repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act, but only extensions of some New Deal programs were enacted. Taft-Hartley Act: Passed over President Harry Truman's veto, the law contained a number of provisions to weaken labor unions, including the banning of closed shops. Dixiecrats: Deep South delegates who walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention in protest of the party's support for civil rights legislation and later formed the States' Rights Democratic (Dixiecrat) Party, which nominated Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for president. Loyaltry review system: In 1947, less than two weeks after announcing the Truman Doctrine, the president established a loyalty review system in which government employees were required to demonstrate their patriotism without being allowed to confront accusers or, in some cases, knowing the charges against them. Hollywood Ten: Ten "unfriendly witnesses" who refused to answer questions at hearings questioning communist influence in Hollywood. They were charged with contempt of Congress and served jail terms of six months to a year. Army-McCarthy hearings: Televised U.S. Senate hearings in 1954 on Senator Joseph McCarthy's charges of disloyalty in the army; his tactics contributed to his censure by the Senate. Conformity: As the historian Henry Steele Commager argued in a 1947 magazine article, the anticommunist crusade promoted a new definition of loyalty— conformity. McCarran-Walter Act: Passed over President Harry S. Truman's veto, the law required registration of American Communist Party members, denied them passports, and allowed them to be detained as suspected subversives.
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