Exam 2 Notes
Exam 2 Notes PSYC 331
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Psychology of Personality
Popular in Psychlogy
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisol Murillo on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 331 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Timothy Tran in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Chapter 6: Genetics, Evolution and Personality Basic Approach of Biological Perspective - Personality is genetically determined o Human behavioral tendencies arise from evolutionary processes - Human behavior is the product of a complex biological organism - Underlying genetics and biology influence processes in personality Behavioral Genetics - Key methodologies o Twin studies: § Monozygotic pairs à Genetically identical à correlation (M2) § Dizygotic pairs à not identical à correlation (D2) - Adoption studies: o How adopted children resemble: § Biological parents à genetically related à correlation (BP) § Adopted parents à not related à correlation (AP) § Suggest a genetic component à Biological parents resemble more than adopted parents Temperaments - Inherited personality traits present at birth o Genetically based o Pervasive à affect how and what people do o Fundamental temperaments § Activity level à overall output of behavior • Vigor vs. tempo § Sociability à preference of being with others § Emotionality à ease of being emotionally aroused o More recent views of temperament § Approach and avoidance § Effortful control Inheritance of Traits - Evidence of heritability for a broad range of traits - Evidence for genetic component for all of the “big five” personality traits Other Effects of Genetics - Genetics work through personality to effect: o Risk for divorce o Experiencing a serious life event o Levels of social support o People’s attitudes on various topics - Are these effects of personality and genetics distinct? Molecular Genetics - Much of human genome does not vary from person to person o Longer alleles § DRD4 allele à Dopamine (pleasures/happiness) § DRD2 allele à fun seeking o Shorter Alleles § Serotonin (linked to aggressiveness) - Differences arise at locations where patters of DNA proteins vary - Research has identified a gene location that relates to: o Novelty seeking (high dopamine levelsà DRD4) o Reward pursuit o Impulse vs. constraint Environmental Influences - Environmental effects may be underestimated o Judged as that which is not explained by genetics o Some environmental and genetics effects may have shared influence on an outcome (intelligence) o If shared variance is attributed to genetics, the environmental effect is underestimated o Environmental influences on personality operate primarily at the individual level o Sources of non- shared environmental influences § Peers, friend, social networks § Parental preference § Complementary, but diverging, roles within families Sociobiology - Study of the biological basis of human social behavior - Social behaviors exist because they confer adaptive advantage - Ex: altruism o May confer a biological disadvantage at an individual level o May help others in the same gene pool survival and reproduce (inclusive fitness) o Predicts altruism to members of kinship groups o May form the evolutionary basis for cooperation Genetic Similarity Theory - An extension of the concept of altruism - We are more attached to strangers who genetically resemble is (assorted mating) o Evidence: § Sexually involved couples shared more genetic markers than randomly selected couples § Couples with children shared more genetic markers than those without § Male friend pairs share more markers than ransom pairs o How detected? § Similar facial, physical features § Odor § Culture similarities Mate Selection and Competition - Females o Greater investment in offspring o Generate fewer offspring o Choosier in male selection o Wait for best male o Males= success objects o Attract males with: § Fertility § Youth § Fitness § Beauty - Males o Less investment in offspring o Can generate more offspring o o Less discriminating o Maximize sexual opportunities o Females=sex objects o Attract females with: § Wealth § Power § Status Jealousy - Concerns according to evolutionary theory - Females à family support - Males à Paternity - Jealousy results from: o Females à Emotional bonds o Males à Sexual Infidelity Other gender differences - Females: o Maximize attractiveness o Strategy used more if husband has high income - Males: o Spend money o Give in to wishes o Strategies used more if wife is young or attractive Young Male Syndrome - May have evolutionary roots - Manifest by posturing, risk behavior, or violence in response to sexual selection pressure - Elicited by specific situations o Single, unemployed, low status à poor mating potential - Evidence o Males more likely to commit murder o Men in prime mating age commit more murders o Most killings over status Assessment - Little focus from behavioral genetics - Assessment from genes unlikely o Behavior probably involves many genes o Ethical implications Behavior Genetics and Disorders - Schizophrenia o Rate of concordance in twins § M2 à 50% § D2 à 9% - Bipolar o Twin research suggests genetic contribution o Possible links to specific chromosomes - Alcohol Abuse o Possible link to gene for dopamine - Antisocial Behavior o Higher concordance rates M2 twins on childhood behavior problems and adult crimes Another View of Behavior Problems - Premise: Two Evolutionary Processes Influence Behavior o Biological Evolution à slow o Cultural Evolution à much faster - Problems arise when the behavioral tendency from biological evolution conflicts with current cultural environment Chapter 7: Biological Processes and Personality Extraversion - Hans Eysenck: level of extraversion/introversion reflects differences in cerebral cortex activation - Introverts o Higher basal cortical activation o More alert when nothing happening o Withdraw to avoid overstimulation o Fewer mistakes on tasks requiring vigilance o Require more depressant drugs to reach given index of alertness - Extroverts o Lower basal cortical activation o Less alert when nothing happening o Seek Stimulation to elevate arousal o More bored by repetitive tasks o Require more stimulants to reach given level of arousal Neuroticism - High neuroticism reflects someone who is easily aroused from emotion centers in the brain o Emotional arousal exaggerates behavioral responses of introverts and extroverts Behavioral Approach System (BAS) - Regulates movement toward desired states or objects (incentive) - Responsible for positive emotions (left prefrontal cortex) - Relates to conditioning involving positive outcomes, but not negative outcomes - People with different levels of BAS sensitivity demonstrate differences in behavioral and emotional responses to incentives - Maybe related to dopamine activity Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) - Regulates movement away from undesired states or objects - Associated with anxiety (right prefrontal cortex) - Relates to conditioning involving negative outcomes, but not positive outcomes - People with different levels of BIS sensitivity demonstrate differences in behavioral and emotional responses to punishment - May be related to serotonin and/or GABA activity Approach and Inhibition and Traits - BIS related neuroticism/emotionality o Anxiety at core of emotionality o High BIS sensitive people respond to anxiety manipulations - BAS related to extraversion o High BAS sensitive people respond to positive manipulations Areas of Disagreement - Social qualities of extraversion? o Useful to think of social incentives as an important class of rewards to which extraverts are drawn are drawn in order to experience positive affect § Role of impulsivity • Is it linked to extraversion? • Is it a separate trait? • Impulsivity with positive affect belongs with extraversion • Impulsivity items do not load with BAS or extraversion items in a factor analysis Sensation Seeking - Marvin Zuckerman - High sensation seekers are in search of new, varied, and exciting experiences o Drive faster o More likely to use drugs and increase alcohol use over time o More high risk sports o Riskier antisocial behavior o More sexually experienced and responsive o More dissatisfied with relationships (get bored) Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) - Related to levels of sensation seeking - Associated with social dominance, aggression and gene linked to impulsivity Function of Sensation Seeking - Regulates exposure to stimulus intensity o High intention seekers (HSS) open themselves up to stimulation o HSS do well in over stimulating conditions o Low sensation seekers (LSS) adapt better to most ordinary circumstances, but may shut down under intense conditions o Impulsive un-socialized sensation seeking (IUSS) à inability to inhibit behavior appropriate to social constraints Impulsiveness - Issue: How best to account for impulsiveness - Approach and inhibition systems o High BAS o Low BIS o Combination (high BAS and low BIS) - Serotonin o Most studies relate serotonin to negative emotion o Low serotonin function associated with anger, impulsive aggression o Serotonin levels positively related to conscientiousness o Suggestive that impulsiveness derives from a separate biological system Hormones and Personality - Testosterone: o Higher prenatal levels weeks 8-24, months 1-5 after birth and after puberty for normal males § Developmental default is female § Exposure to androgens results in male physical and neurological development § Exposure to higher levels of prenatal androgens: • Associated with higher self reported physical aggression scores in response to hypothetical situation (boys and girls) • Associated with cross-gender toy selection along girls Testosterone and Adult Personality - Focus on associations with dominance and antisocial behavior o Positive associations with: § Violation of prison rules among inmates and likelihood of having committed violent crimes § Trouble with parents, teachers, classmates when growing up (increased effects among low SES) § More dominant and confident social interactions § Not being married, getting divorced, having an affair and domestic abuse among men testosterone data loaded with impulsiveness, sensation seeking and dominance Chapter 8: The Psychoanalytic Perspective Basic Themes - Conflict between aspects of personality - Defense mechanisms to manage threat - Human experience suffused with lust, aggression, sexuality, and death - Perspective is highly metaphorical Topographical Model of the Mind - The mind is organized into levels of functioning o Common characterization: § Conscious level § Preconscious level o Freud’s contribution § Unconscious level The Conscious Level - Contains elements about which a person is currently aware - Contents can be articulated verbally - Contents can be thought about in a rational/logical manner The Preconscious Level - Represents elements in ordinary memory o Those outside current attention - Contents are easily brought to current awareness - Examples: o What you had last night o Grandmother’s first name The Unconscious Level - Elements of the mind that are actively kept from consciousness - Generally, a repository for images, feelings and ideas associated with anxiety, fear and pain - Contents cannot be brought to consciousness directly, but can only enter awareness in distorted form - Even though they are outside of awareness, the contents of the unconscious can have a dynamic influence on personality The Structural Model - Complements to Topographical Model - Describes the three components of personality functioning o ID o Ego o Superego The ID - Original part of personality; present at birth - Embodies inherited, instinctive and primitive aspects of personality - Tied to biological functions - Operates entirely in the unconscious - Functions as the engine of personality, through which all psychic energy comes - Conforms to the “pleasure principle” o Wants what it wants, no matter the place/time o Wants to be pleased Pleasure Principle - Asserts that the true purpose of life is the immediate satisfaction of all needs - Gives no consideration to risk, environment, social constraints or problems in satisfying needs - Unmet needs result in a state of aversive tension - Mechanism for discharge of tension à Primary Process Primary Process - Primary way for ID to satisfy needs - Formation of mental image of desired object, activity that would meet need - Act of forming such an image à Wish fulfillment o Examples: § Hunger à Cheeseburger/pizza § Thirst à Lemonade, cool stream - Problems: o Can’t distinguish between objective and subjective states o Doesn’t care how needs are met o Can be irrational, reckless, immoral The Ego - Evolves out of the ID because ID functions cannot deal effectively with objective reality - Operates primarily at the conscious and preconscious, but also at the unconscious - Operates according to the “Reality Principle” - No moral sense, simply wants to fulfill needs given the constraints of reality The Superego - Embodiment of parental and societal values - Arises from complex feeling resulting from relationship with parents o Love and affection à obtained by doing what parents think is right o Punishment and disapproval à obtained by avoiding what parents think is wrong - Introjection: the process of incorporating values from an external source o Mostly parents, sometimes society - Operates at all levels of consciousness o Interesting implication à feelings of guilt for no apparent reason Components of the Superego - Ego ideal o Consists of rules about good behavior and standards of excellence o Conforming behavior results in feeling of pride and worthiness - Conscience o Consists of rules about bad and prohibited behavior o Non-conforming behavior results in feelings of guilt and change Goals of Superego - Inhibit any ID impulse that would cause disapproval from parents - Force ego to act morally, rather than rationally - Guide person toward perfection in thought, word and behavior - Problem: While it exerts a civilizing effect, its perfectionism is not realistic Balancing the Forces - Must find a way to release tension (id demand) immediately, in a way that is socially acceptable (superego demand) and realistic (external environment) - Ability to function effectively, despite these conflicting forcesà ego strength o Little ego strength à torn among conflicting pressure o Too much ego strength à Very rational and efficient but boring/ distance ****Balance is key**** Two Classes of Drives - Life or sexual instincts (Eros) o Deal with: § Survival § Reproduction § Pleasure - Death instincts (Thanatos) o “Goal of all life is death” o Today’s biology assumes a death instinct in human physiology o Active gene- directed suicide process (apoptosis) Catharsis - Release of tension in such an experience o Engaging in aggression should reduce tension because the aggressive urge in no loner bottled up Anxiety - Aversive inner motivation state - Freud saw it as a warning signal to the ego - Types of Anxiety o Reality anxiety: fear of something real in the world o Neurotic anxiety: fear of punishment resulting from ID impulses getting out of control o Moral anxiety: fear of violating moral/ethical codes arising from the superego Responses to Anxiety - Increase rational problem-oriented coping o Conscious activity to deal with threat o Works best with reality anxiety - Activate defense mechanisms o Tactics developed by ego to deal with anxiety o Can operate unconsciously o All distort, transform or falsify reality in some way Repression - Act of forcing something out of consciousness - Important in restraining ID impulses - Applies to painful or upsetting info, memories, and behavior - Can have partial repression o Some info is “leaked out” Denial - Refusal to believe an event took place or condition exists - Generally, deal with threats that originate outside the dynamics of the mind - Effective at keeping anxiety at bay, but requires constant psychic energy - Because of the energy cost of repression and denial, other strategies have developed to free up energy Projection - Ascription of unacceptable impulses, desires, or qualities to someone else - Serves to express the IDs desire, thus releasing energy required to suppress it - Makes the expression of an impulse in such a way that is not recognized by the ego or superego Rationalization - Making excuses for unacceptable behavior - After a failure, rationalization maintains self-esteem - Common response to success and failure experiences (Fundamental attribution error) Intellectualization - Thinking in a cold analytical or detached way about things that normally evoke distress - Allows disassociation of thought from feelings - Suggest that the intellect part of an idea can exist in the conscious mind, while the emotional quality remains the same Displacement (most adaptive/less neurotic) - Shifting an impulse from one target to another - New target is less threatening, thus anxiety is reduced Sublimation (most adaptive/less neurotic) - Transforms the impulse into a more socially acceptable form - The expressed impulse is more acceptable, anxiety is reduced - Considered the most mature defense mechanism Psychosexual Development - Oral, anal, phallic latency, genital - Adult personality is influenced by how crises are resolved at each age Oral Stage (birth-18months) - Crisis à Being weaned from mother - Mouth is source of tension reduction - Two phases: o Oral incorporative à dependency, gullibility, jealousy o Oral sadistic à verbal aggressiveness - Oral personalities o Preoccupied with food and drink o When stressed, reduced tension through oral activities (smoking, nail biting) o When angry, engage in verbal aggression Anal Stage (18 months-3years) - Anus is the source of pleasure from stimulation that results from defecation - Crisis à toilet training - Two orientation of toilet training: o Praise for successful elimination at desired time and place § Basis for adult productivity/creativity o Punishment for failure § Anal expulsiveà child acts with rebellion (messy, cruel, destructive, hostility) § Anal retentiveà child reacts by withholding (rigid, obsessive, stingy, orderliness) Phallic Stage (3-5 years) - Genitals become source of pleasure - Crisis à attraction toward opposite sex parent o Boys § Attracted to mother, wants to replace father (Oedipus complex) § Fears retaliation on part of father (castration anxiety) § Repress feelings toward mother, begins to identify with father § Identification with father gives rise to superego o Girls § Attracted to father abandons love for mother (Electra complex) § Wants father because he possesses a penis (penis envy) § Repress feelings towards father, begins to identify with mother § Identification with mother gives rise to superego Latency Period (6 years-teens) - Period of relative calm, no new developmental conflicts - Attention is focused on other pursuits (intellectual or social) Genital Stage - Late adolescence and adulthood - Libidinal energy still organized around the genitals - Focus on mutual sexual gratification - Develop the ability to share in warm and caring relationships and have concern for other’s welfare - Demonstrate greater control over impulses - Represents an ideal, rather than an absolute endpoint of development Psychopathology of Everyday - Not random, but arises from impulses/urges in the unconscious - Error of memory, word mix ups and accidents (parapaxes à faulty achievement) o “Forgetting” = repression o Slips of tongue or pen = unsuccessful repression Dreams - “Royal road to the unconscious” –Freud - Two aspects o Manifest content à actual sensory images o Latent content à the source of the manifest content; meaning underlying the dream § Sources • Concurrent sensory stimulation (barking dog, ringing phone) à guardians of sleep • Current concerns (thoughts, feelings, concerns in life) • Unconscious ID impulses à present in all dreams Projective Assessment Techniques - Represent formal approaches to assessing unconscious processes - Projective hypothesis: provide people with ambiguous, unstructured stimuli and they will apply projection in their interpretations of what they see o Low validity, low reliability o Provide more qualitative data Rorschach Inkblot Test - Chosen for ability to evoke different responses from different psychiatric patients - 10 bilaterally symmetrical blots o 5 all black, 2 red and black, 3 pastels - Administration in predetermined order - Administration in two stages o Free response formatà indicates what is seen o Systematic questioning à reminded of previous responses and request to indicate what about the blur made that person say what they did Rorschach Scoring - Based on three factors o Location of response à part vs. whole, commonly noted detail vs rarely noted detail § Blot vs. space surrounding § Response based on whole blot indicative of conceptual thinking o Determinants of response à form, shading, color, texture or perceived movement in location of response § Response based on color indicative of emotionality § Response based on human movement indicative of imagination o Content of response à subject matter § Conveys overt meaning and symbolic meaning Problems and Behavior Change - Problems arise from overuse of defenses o Unresolved conflict resulting in fixation o Broad libidinal repression of basic needs o Repressed trauma - Goal of therapy is to free up energy by releasing need to repress through awareness and in sight o Consequences of therapy § Resistance àactively fighting against awareness of represented conflicts and impulses § Transference à Displacements onto therapists Problems and Prospects - Controversial o Prominent sexual themes o Many determinants of behavior that are outside of awareness - Difficult to test empirically o Ambiguous terms or ill defined concepts - Heavy reliance on a small number of potentially biased studies - Confusion of fact with inferences - Even so, Freud offers a significant and important contribution to the discussion of personality and human behavior Chapter 9: Psychosocial Theories Object Relation Theories - Focusing on relation with others - Primary tasks in life focus on relations with others - Many theories with some overlap: o Patterns of relating to others established in early childhood o Patterns recur throughout life Mahler’s Theory - Initial state of infant à fusion of symbiosis with mother o Differentiation between self and mother does not exist - Development represents a process of separation0individuation o This need is in conflict with the need to be taken care of o If process goes too fast à separation anxiety o At age 3, stable representation of mother develops, which is derived from experiences o Uses image as lens to view mother in future o Uses image to generalize to other people - These patterns from the core of adult patterns of relationships Self Psychology (Kohut) - Relationships create the structure for the self - Initial needs involving others (self object) are narcissistic - Responding to a child’s narcissistic needs in an empathetic accepting way establishes a sense of self - Initial sense of self is grandiose - Grandiosity eventually evolves into ambition and self-esteem - Love illustrates an adult form of mirroring- people represent self objects for each other and demonstrate mutual mirroring Attachment Theory - Attachment: basic human element of human nature involving an emotional connection to others - Infant attachment o Carries survival benefits (proximity maintenance) o Develops as mother (caretaker) responds to infants needs and provides a dependence base from which the infant can explore the world and retreat from threat o Patterns of infant attachmentà Strange situation § Secure attachment à distress at mother’s departure and happy enthusiasm at return § Insecure attachments: • Ambivalent: anger at return, upset at departure • Avoidant: Calm at departure; avoidance and rejection at return Adult Attachment Patters - Relationships of Secure People o Happier, friendly, trusting o Mental model of loveà it’s real and it stays - Relationships of Avoidant People o Less accepting of lover’s imperfections o Mental model of love à cynical, romantic love doesn’t last - Relationships of Ambivalent People o Obsessive; preoccupied, extremes of emotions, sexual attraction and jealousy, love at first sight o Mental model of loveà Falling in love is easy, but doesn’t last Alternative Conceptualization of Adult Attachment - Two dimensional Approach o Self (positive vs. negative)/others (trustworthy vs. not trustworthy) Stability and Specificity - Stability o Mixed findings that suggest overall a moderate level of stability across time o Review of literature suggests a prototype for close relationships arise in infancy and persists in the face of new experiences o Those who show patterns of change overtime may be those who are insecure, but have periods of security - Specificity o People demonstrate different patterns for relationships in different contexts (close friends, groups) Other Implications of Adult Attachment - Avoidant: o Socialize less at work; greater desire to keep busy o Seek less support to stress partners o Less responsive caregiving o Greater use of distancing coping - Ambivalent: o Unhappiness with job recognition and security o Higher levels of compulsive caregiving o Higher levels of self criticism and wishful thinking, coping - Pairing o Stable à secure-secure; avoidant men-ambivalent women o Unstable à Ambivalent-ambivalent; avoidant-avoidant (women)-ambivalent (men) Psychosocial Development (Erik Erikson) - Stages from birth to old age (lifespan development) o Each stage characterized by a central conflict around which growth potential and vulnerability are high - No single stage is more important than another - Central themes o Ego identity and its development is critically important § Develops from transactions with social reality § Changes in response to events in social environment o Competency and personal adequacy § Key motivator of behavior § Results from mastery of a stage Early Psychosocial Stages - Infancy (Trust vs. Mistrust) o Developing the ego strength of hope - Early childhood (Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt) o Feelings of control and developing the ego strength of will o Toilet training - Preschool (Initiative vs. Guilt) o Basis for a sense of power in the world and developing the ego strength purpose - School Age (Industry vs. Inferiority) o Basis for sense of value, citizenship and developing the ego strength of competence o Social roles o Gender roles - Adolescence (Identity vs. Role Confusion) o Basis for an integrated sense of private and social self and developing the ego strength of fidelity o Role confusion can create difficulties o Selecting a career and cause the person to identify with popular heroes and groups - Young Adulthood (Intimacy vs. Isolation) o Basis for close, warm relationships and developing the ego strength for love - Adulthood (Generativity vs. Stagnation) o Basis for positively influencing the future and developing the ego strength of care - Old Age (Ego Identity vs. Despair) o Basis of sense of order and meaning in life and developing the ego strength of wisdom Erikson’s Link to Other Psychosocial Theories - Issues of trust permeate all theories o Object relation theories imply a sense of trust required for an investment of energy in others o Trust is a key issue in secure attachment Chapter 10: The Learning Perspective Classical Conditioning - Pavalovian Conditioning - Response acquired by associating one stimulus with another - Basic elements o Existing Reflex o Pairing of Stimuli o Development of conditioned response o Completed conditioning - Present conditioned stimulus before unconditioned stimulus Issues affecting Classical Conditioning - Conditioned response is generally less intense than the unconditioned response - The greater the frequency of CS-US pairings, the more likely conditioning will take place - If US is very strong, conditioning will take place rapidly - Discrimination: differential responding between classes of stimuli - Generalization: experience of a less intense CR to classes of stimuli similar to CS - Extinction: gradual weakening of CR in response to presentation of CS without US Emotional Conditioning - Situations of classical conditioning in which the conditioned response is an emotional reaction o Gives rise to likes and dislikes, preferences and biases § Associations of neutral stimuli with events that reflexively cause good or bad feelings Instrumental Conditioning (Operant Conditioning) - Behavior that is rewarded is more likely to be done again in a similar situation o Links an action, an outcome and the likelihood of future action o Recognizes contingency between response and its consequences o “Law of effect” à Thorndike - Reinforcers à increase behavior o Primary: diminishes biological needs § Hunger, thirst, pain o Secondary: psychological reinforcers § Money, good grades, high five § Product of classical conditioning o Positive Reinforcement: receipt of something positive o Negative reinforcement: removal of something negative § Pain, sound car makes when seatbelt isn’t on à gone when seatbelt is on - Punishment à decrease behavior o Negative or aversive stimuli o Receipt of something negative o Removal of something positive o Positive punishment o Negative punishment - Discriminative stimulus: stimulus that is present when a behavior is followed by a reinforcer o Stimulus acts as a switch to turn behavior on and off (cue function) o Important in personality because it provides a mechanism for behavioral complexity - Generalization: responding in a similar way to classes of similar discriminative stimuli - Extinction: gradual weakening of response from lack of reinforcer Schedules of Reinforcement - Continuous behavior always followed by reinforcement - Partial (random): behavior followed by reinforcement less than every time o More resistant to extinction à partial reinforcement effect - Ratio: based on number of responses - Interval: based on passage of the time - Fixed: stagnant, certain number - Variable: random *****Variable ratio à best for prolonged behavior***** Social Reinforcement - Less focus on physical needs in the reinforcement of human behavior, but rather on the effects of smiles, hugs, praise, approval, love and interest and attention of others - People are most affected by social reinforcement - Social reinforcers don’t require a state of deprivation (biological reinforcers do) - Invoke principles of self- reinforcement o Self reward of desired things o Reaction to own behavior with self approval Vicarious Emotional Learning (empathy) - Experience of emotion from watching another, experience an intense level of the same emotion - Not the same as sympathy (concern or distress at the suffering of another) - Creates opportunities for learning through vicarious reinforcement Vicarious Reinforcement - Seeing a person reinforced for a behavior increases your tendency to do a similar behavior - Seeing a person punished for a behavior decreases your tendency to do a similar behavior - Trial and error is avoided o Preserve self esteem o Allows focus on learning rather than behavior details - Relies on development of expectancies between behavior and outcomes Expectancies Concerning Outcomes - Outcome expectancy à evaluation of whether a behavior will lead to a desired outcome - Behavior determined by: o Expectancy o Incentive: value of desired outcome (goal) - Difference from traditional conditioning point of view: o Traditional perspective doesn’t assume expectancies matter or have casual influence on behavior Efficacy Expectancies (Albert Bandura) - Perceived ability to carry out a desired action àself-efficacy o Have the capabilities to do something - Assumption: it’s not enough to know what needs to be done, one must be confident in ability to do it Observational Learning - Acquisition of ability by watching the behavior of another (modeling) - Requirements o Attention: particularly to the correct aspects of the model’s behavior o Retention: representations in memory § Image coding: creating images and mental pictures § Verbal coding: creating a description - Production competency: possession of skills required to carry out behavior o Influenced by prior skills and knowledge Acquisition vs. Performance - Bobo doll experiment - People don’t always do everything they learn through observation - Issue: What factors influence performance? o Observed rewards increase probability of performance Aggression - Observational learning à may provide examples of innovative aggressive techniques - Vicarious reinforcement à may suggest that violence is an appropriate wat to deal with conflict or disagreement - Desensitization à Extinguishing of negative emotional responses to aggression and violence Assessment (Conditioning Based Approach) - Emphasis on: o Behaviors rather than cognition o Emotional responses being linked to conditioned stimuli and thus are tied to specific contexts - Direct Observation of behavior o Physiological assessment à measures physical aspects of emotional responses (used frequently in research settings) o Behavioral assessment à observations of overt behavior Assessment (Social Cognitive Approach) - Emphasizes self reports - Focus on subjective feelings, thoughts and expectancies, rather than objective aspect of situation - Particular interest in responses to specific categories of situations o Guided by recognition that behavior can vary greatly from situation to situation Problems in Behavior (Conditioning) - Phobias (due to classical conditioning) à intense irrational fears - Behavioral tendencies that are instrumentally conditioned, but are not functional or adaptive Behavioral Therapy - Phobias o Extinction à avoiding phobic stimulus prevents extinction o Systematic desensitization à a form of counter conditioning involving gradual exposure to increasingly threatening stimuli paired with relaxation techniques - Contingency management o Alter reinforcement contingencies Problems in Behavior (Social Cognitive) - Problems arise from inappropriate emotional or behavioral tendencies from vicarious or direct learning - Negative expectancies can have broad influence on behavior, particularly when generalized - Skill deficits can reflect incomplete observational learning or inappropriate models Therapy (Social Cognitive) - Importance of modeling o Therapeutic modeling for persons with skill deficits o Treatment of persons with phobias and fears § Mastery model expresses no fear of feared object § Coping model expresses initial fear, but over comes it - Important role of self efficacy in producing positive treatment outcomes
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