General Chemistry II Exam III Study Guide 4/15/2016
General Chemistry II Exam III Study Guide 4/15/2016 1041
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paul Murdock on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1041 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Waddell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Paul Murdock General Chemistry II Exam III Dr. Waddell, University of Cincinnati Chapter 19 Acid/base terms: Monoprotic: one ionizable proton. Acid with one hydrogen Ex. HCl Polyprotic: more than one H, such as H2SO4 Monobasic: accepts one proton, such as NH3 or NaOH 3- Polybasic: accepts more than one proton, such as PO4 Equilibria of slightly soluble ionic compounds: At equilibrium the solution is saturated and Qsp= Ksp Larger Ksp means that there is more salt in the saturated solution LeChatelier If you add ions (product side) the reaction shifts to the left towards the solid and makes more solid (reactant) which decreases solubility Chapter 20 Spontaneous Change vs. Equilibrium Spontaneous change occurs without continuous input of energy Nonspontaneous only occurs if surroundings supply energy Delta E= q + w Total energy of universe is constant Entropy Refers to the state of order Entropy always moves from more ordered to less ordered More to less ordered can be thought as from solid, to liquid, to gas S (entropy)= k ln W Large W indicates more disorder, thus higher entropy Thermodynamics st 1 law states that the change in E of the universe equals the change in E of the system plus the change in energy of the surroundings, which equals zero nd 2 law states that the change in entropy of the universe equals the change in entropy of the surroundings plus the change in entropy of the system, which is greater than zero rd 3 law states that as entropy moves towards zero the temperature also moves towards zero for a perfect crystal Changes in Entropy Increase T= Increase in Entropy Solid to liquid Liquid to vapor More moles of gas Decrease pressure Entropy is decreased when a gas dissolves in liquid or solid Spontaneity Favored by decrease in energy of system and increase in entropy Delta S (entropy) of universe > 0; delta G < 0; T delta S > 0 Higher temperature means more spontaneity For nonspontaneous reaction, delta G is the minimum work done to a system in order for the process to take place Chapter 21 Number of electrons gained= number of electrons lost When looking at a voltaic cell, remember the anode is negative and gets oxidized and the cathode is positive and it gets reduced E of a cell is greater than zero for a spontaneous process Delta G= -nFE cell F= 96,485 C per mole e - When electrolyzed the strongest oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized Concentration cell uses effect of concentration changes on cell potential E of cell cannot be greater than zero for concentration cells if the half-cell concentrations are the same Battery consists of individual voltaic cells arranged in a series Primary battery cannot be recharged, secondary can though
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