CHEM 1030 Cagg Exam 3 Study Guide
CHEM 1030 Cagg Exam 3 Study Guide Chem 1030
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1030 at Auburn University taught by Brett A Cagg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Cagg Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 7 Important Concepts • VSPER model: the way molecular geometry is predicted. - Electron domain geometry: the arrangement of electrons around the central atom. - Molecular geometry: the arrangement of atoms that are bonded. - Bond angle: the angle between 2 electron bonds that are next to each other. - Electrons repel each other and are found in domains—lone pairs, single bonds, double bonds, and triple bonds. o 2 electron domains: linear shape o 3 electron domains: trigonal planar shape o 4 electron domains: tetrahedral shape o 5 electron domains: trigonal bipyramidal shape o 6 electron domains: octahedral shape - When the central atom in a molecule has 1+ lone pairs, then the electron domain geometry and molecular geometry are not the same • Intermolecular forces: the forces between molecules that are next to each other. • Dipole-dipole interactions: the forces between polar molecules. Cagg Exam 3 Study Guide • Hydrogen bonding: a type of dipole-dipole interaction that occurs only in molecules with hydrogen bonded to a very electronegative atom. • Dispersion forces: are due to coulombic attractions between instantaneous dipoles of non-polar molecules. • Ion dipole interactions: coulombic attractions that happen between +/- ions and polar molecules. • Valence bond theory: states that when atomic orbitals overlap, they share electrons. • Hybridization: occurs when atomic orbitals mix to form new ones. The new ones have the same capacity of electrons as the old ones, but the properties and energies are different. Hybridization is essentially the average. There are 2 kinds of bonds that form. - Sigma bonds - Pi bonds Chapter 8 Important Concepts • Balancing equations: adding coefficients to different parts of a chemical equation, so that you have the same number of each element on both sides. - ALWAYS make sure an equation is balanced before doing any kind of chemistry problem!!! • There are 3 reaction types. - Combination reaction: when 2+ reactants combine to form 1 product. - Decomposition: when 2+ products form from 1 reactant. - Combustion: when a substance burns with oxygen present, and produces carbon dioxide and liquid water. • Limiting reactants: the reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction. • Excess reactants: the reactants that are left over (the extras). • Theoretical yield: how much product forms from all the limiting reactants. • Actual yield: how much product you actually get from the reaction. Cagg Exam 3 Study Guide • Percent yield: (actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100% Chapter 9 Important Concepts • Solution: a mixture of 2+ substances. • Solvent: the largest amount of substance in a solution. This dissolves the solute. • Solute: all the other substances that are present. This dissolves in the solvent. • Electrolytes: substance, which dissolve in water to form a solution that can conduct electricity. - Dissociation: when an electron breaks up into constituent ions. o Strong electrolyte: and electrolyte that completely dissociates. o Weak electrolyte: a compound that produces ions when dissolving, but is in a solution in which it exists as molecules that aren’t ionized. • Nonelectrolyte: (opposite of electrolyte) a substance that dissolves in water to form a solution that can’t conduct electricity. • Precipitation reaction: a chemical reaction where precipitate forms. • Hydration: when water molecules steal ions from ionic solids around them so that the solids dissolve. • Solubility: the most solute you need to dissolve a certain amount of solvent at a certain temperature. • Ionic equation: compounds that exist as ions in a solution are then represented as those ions. • Net ionic equation: an equation that has only the species that are involved in the reaction. • Acids and Bases - Arrhenius acid: ionizes in water to produce H+ ions. - Arrhenius base: dissociate sin water to produce OH- ions. - Bronsted acid: proton (H+) donor. o Hydronium ion: (H3O+) formed by protons donated by bronsted acids. - Bronsted base: proton (H+) acceptor. - Monoprotic acid: has a proton to donate (only 1). - Polyprotic acid: has 1+ acidic H atom. - Diprotic acid: has 2 acidic H atoms. • Neutralization reaction: the reaction between acids and bases. • Redox reaction: a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant, to the other reactant. - Oxidation: loss of electrons. - Reduction: gain of electrons - Here is a way to remember: OIL RIG (Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain) • Oxidation number: the charge an atom would have if the electrons were all transferred.
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