FULL STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 3t
FULL STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 3t BIOL 243 001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Johnson on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Study Guide for Exam 3 I. Chapter 9 Mechanism of Contraction 1. What occurs in the absence of Ca+? 2. What occurs in the presence of Ca+? 3. What is TNC? 4. What happens during the formation of the crossbridge? 5. What is the crossbridge also known as? 6. What does ADP + Pi create? 7. What happens during the “powerstroke” stage? 8. Where does the actual contraction of the muscle take place? 9. What occurs during the phase of “crossbridge” detachment? 10. What happens in the stage named “cocking of myosin head”? 11. What is needed to restart the cycle? 12. Define rigor mortis 13. What are the 2 causes of rigor mortis? Regulation of Contraction 1. Which type of muscle is stimulated by nerves? 2. What does regulation of contraction also regulate? 3. Define neuromuscular junction. 4. What are the steps of neuromuscular junction? 5. Define axon terminal. 6. Explain synaptic vesicles found in axon terminal. 7. Where is the synaptic cleft? 8. What is the synapse? 9. List the 5 steps of Action potential Reset 1. What are the steps to reset the contraction? 2. How does enzymes affect the reset? 3. What does the ATP pump do? 4. What is endocytosis? Twitch Contraction 1. What are the steps to reset the contraction? 2. What occurs during the latent period? 3. Muscles differ in periods of _____. 4. Provide a picture of a single twitch. Smooth Contractions 1. Steps of smooth contraction? 2. Define tetanus. 3. What stimulates muscles very fast and has no relaxation at all between stimuli? 4. What does the motor unit consist of? 5. Around how many muscle fibers are within a motor unit? 6. How many motor units per muscle? 7. Are fibers of a motor unit clustered together? 8. What alternates to create constant tension? 9. What is the difference between isometric and isotonic contraction? 10. Most contractions are ____. 11. Name the factors that affect force (tension) of a contraction. 12. When is max force of a muscle generated? Energy 1. What is the formula for creating energy? 2. What is soluble in the cytoplasm and how long does it last? 3. Where is Creatin-P found? 4. What is the fomula for Creatin-P? How long does it last? 5. What makes up creatine phosphokinase? 6. What is the formula for Aerobic respiration? 7. Glucose is not broken down during Aerobic Respiration? T or F 8. During what is glucose the main thing that glycogen is broken down to? 9. When there is plenty of O2 what occurs? 10. Name the steps of the Aerobic Pathway 11. Where does glycolysis take place? 12. What is the formula for glycolysis? 13. What happens during Oxidative phosphorylation mitochondrion? 14. Of the two; which one has more ATP? How much more? 15. What happens when there is no O2, enlarge and engorge muscles, pinching of blood vessels? 16. Name the two steps of anaerobic pathway. 17. Name the differences between anaerobic and aerobic pathways. 18. What is pyruvic acid? 19. When is ATP very quickly created? 20. What are the characteristics of a small 15 second exercise? 21. What are the characteristics of a small 60 second exercise? 22. What happens during hours of exercise? 23. Define oxygen debt 24. Describe ATP production in muscle fatique 25. Define a cramp 26. What must happen in order for a cramp to be released? 27. What happens when you have an accumulation of lactic acid? 28. Name the salts that are necessary for conduction of action potentials. Fiber Types 1. Which fibers are fatigue resistant? 2. Which fiber has low amounts of glycogen and runs on glucose? 3. Which type of fiber can be brought to the cell via blood stream? 4. Name the characteristics of Slow Oxidative Fibers 5. What does it mean for a fiber to be slow or fast? 6. What does it mean for a fiber to be oxidative? 7. What does it mean for a fiber to have myoglobin? 8. What type of fiber do sprinters have? 9. Which fiber has large amounts of glycolytic enzymes, not so many mitochondria? 10. What is the effect of a fiber having no myoglobin? 11. What is the intermediate fiber? 12. What does it mean to have a relatively fast myosin? 13. What effects does an intermediate amount of myoglobin create? 14. Which fiber has low levels of glycogen? 15. Name the characteristics of Fast Oxidative Fiber. 16. Name the characteristics of Fast Glycolytic Fibers. 17. Most muscles will contain what type of fiber? 18. All the muscle fibers of a different motor unit are ____. Smooth Muscle 1. Compare smooth muscle and skeletal muscle with striations. 2. What is the ratio of thick and thin filaments in smooth and skeletal muscle? 3. What does smooth muscle NOT contain? 4. Are there bundle of filaments in smooth muscle? 5. Describe the bundle of thin filaments in smooth muscle 6. Define Caveolae 7. Does smooth muscle have elaborate coverings? 8. How many layers of smooth muscle? Name them. 9. What sheet wraps around tube? 10. What sheet is parallel to the axis of the tube? 11. Name some examples of smooth muscle locations. 12. Describe the neuromusclular junction of smooth muscle 13. Describe the synaptic cleft in smooth muscle 14. Define varicosities Characteristics of Contraction for Smooth Muscle 1. Describe the sheets 2. What are cells connected by? 3. What is the contraction regulated by? 4. Where does most Ca+ come from? 5. Where does SOME of the Ca+ come from? 6. Smooth muscles are also known as ______. 7. Compare the latent period and period of contraction between skeletal and smooth muscle. 8. Does smooth muscle require a lot of energy to contract? Regulation of Smooth Muscle 1. What is it regulated by? 2. Define nervous stimulation 3. What does acetylcholine do in nervous stimulation? 4. What does norepinephrine do in nervous stimulation? 5. What does it mean for it to be NOT nervous? 6. What will pacemaker cells do if the stimulation is NOT nervous? 7. What does hormone/chemical do is the stimulation is NOT nervous? Types of Smooth Muscle 1. Describe the sheets in a single unit smooth muscle. 2. Why can cells respond as a single sheet? 3. Describe multiunit smooth muscle. 4. What does the arrector pilli create? 5. What controls the size of pupil? Terms/Pathology 1. Define the following: Flaccid, Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Muscular Dystrophies 2. What are the characteristics of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy? 3. X*Y is a __ __. 4. X*X is a ___________ ___________. 5. X*X* is a ________ __________. 6. What does it mean for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy to go in spells? Development 1. Describe the nucleated cells and nuclei in skeletal muscle. 2. What is the formula of skeletal cells that creates things? 3. What doe adult’s muscles have? 4. What happens in an adult skeletal muscle if there is injury? 5. What is limited in adult skeletal muscle? 6. What happens if a cardiac muscle is injured? 7. Does cardiac muscle have good regeneration? 8. Can smooth muscle regenerate? 9. What is smooth muscles relationship to the response control center and stimuli? 10. Describe the pathway. II. Chapter 11 Central Nervous System 1. What body system is considered the major control system of the body? 2. What does it take to decide whether a response is necessary? 3. What does the Central Nervous System consist of? Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 1. What are the two parts of the PNS? 2. What does the Sensory (Afferent) Division do? 3. What two types of nerves are in the sensory division? 4. Define Somatic Sensory Nerves 5. What carries info from various organs toward CNS? 6. What does Motor (Efferent) Division do? 7. What two systems are a part of the Motor Division? 8. What does the Somatic Nervous System supply? 9. What nervous system supplies smooth, cardiac muscle and some glands? 10. What is the name for a fight or flight response? 11. What are Autonomic Nervous system not consciouslyaware of? 12. What does parasympathetic do? Nerve Cells 1. Define neurons 2. What transmits action potentials from one part of the body to the other? 3. Name 4 characteristics of neurons. 4. What does it mean to have extreme longevity? 5. Define amitotic 6. What happens if there are defects in mitochondria? 7. Do neurons use a lot of energy? 8. Explain the nerve cells of neurons? Neurons 1. Define “ganglia” in PNS 2. Define “Nuclei” and “clusters” of CNS. 3. Name two systems of the neurons 4. Where are neurons located in the cell body? 5. What two things are processes of neurons? 6. Explain the length of a dendrite. 7. Which process carries information toward the cell body? 8. Explain the region location of an axon and dendrite. 9. Axons are typically short in length. T or F. 10. What process carries information AWAY from the cell body? Axonal Transport 1. What is the speed of axonal transport? 2. Does axonal transport require energy? 3. Axonal transport involves _____ and _____. And requires ______. 4. In which direction does AT carry signals? Supporting Cells 1. Supporting cells are about ____________. 2. How many types of supporting cells are there? Name them. 3. Describe the Myelin sheath of PNS. 4. What myelinates axons in PNS? 5. Name 4 characteristics of Schwann Cells. 6. What does the outer layer of Schwann Cells contain? And what is it called? 7. What is the Node of Ranvier? 8. What increases speed of conduction? 9. What is the formula for nerve fibers? 10. Describe the difference of nerve fibers in CNS and PNS? 11. Name the cells that myelinate axons in the CNS. 12. Who acts the same in the CNS as Schwann cells act in the PNS? 13. Define astrocytes of the CNS. 14. What is most numerous CNS neuroglia (cells)? 15. Describe the “Blood-Brain Barrier”. 16. Name the 4 things that readily diffuse capillaries in the BBB? 17. Describe the effect of therapeutic drugs in the BBB? 18. Define microglial. 19. Ependymal Cells line the ______. 20. Define ventricles. Classification of Neurons 1. What is the name for one, two, and many processes connected to the cell body? 2. What is the process that is rare? 3. Which one is found in the senses, and name the exact locations? 4. What process has motor association? 5. What process is the most sensory? 6. What is the most common process? 7. Define motor efferent function. 8. Define sensory afferent function. 9. Define accessory internunctional function. 10. What function describes action potential carried toward CNS? 11. What function is almost always found in CNS? Other Neuron Information 1. What charges have potential information associated with them? 2. Describe the relationship of measure and voltage. 3. Define current. 4. Define ions. 5. What is involved with transferring action potential down an axon? 6. Membranes are ______. 7. What is the resting membrane potential? 8. What means negative charges on the inside? 9. Where is there a separation of charge? Ion Channels 1. What are ion channels? 2. What will permit the ions to pass through the membrane? 3. How selective are ion channels? 4. Describe passive/leakage channels 5. What are the two types of active/gated channels? 6. What type of channel describes molecules binding to ions? 7. Define voltage and chemically gated 8. What happens once the ion channel opens? Sodium/Potassium Pump 1. Describe the amount of Na and K inside and outside of the cell. Differences? 2. If you open the Na channel, flowing NA into the cell is ____? Why? 3. Why is chemical gradient favorable if you open the NA channel? 4. What makes electrical gradient favorable if you open the NA Channel? 5. Where is there more Cl? 6. What is favorable and not favorable when it comes to Cl? Membrane Potential 1. How does membrane potential rest? 2. Define Depolarization 3. Define hyperpolarization 4. What makes the inside become more or less negative? 5. What are the two types of signals? Define them 6. Which signal is only a few millimeters? 7. What requires voltage gated ions? 8. Describe the steps of depolarization and repolarization of action potentials. 9. When is the whole polarity of the membrane reversed? 10. Describe the propagation of action potential? 11. Action potentials can go a number of ways. T or F 12. Why does membrane potential take a stronger signal? 13. What is the threshold of action potential? 14. Action potential is all or none. T or F 15. Define the intensity of action potential. 16. What is intensity coded by? 17. When can the nerve not be stimulated? 18. What is it called when the Na voltage channels are just closed or already open? 19. What happens in the relative refractory periods? 20. What happens when there is a larger diameter of the axon in conduction velocity? 21. What happens when the conduction velocity has presence of the myelin sheaf? 22. What is satatory conduction? 23. Desribe fast nerve fibers. 24. Describe intermediate nerve fibers. 25. Describe slow nerve fibers. 26. Define synapse. 27. Describe the electrical and chemical synapse. 28. What is the difference of presynaptic neuron and postsynaptic neuron? 29. Name and describe the Signals travels from dendrites, down the axon? 30. Name and describe the Post Synaptic Potentials. 31. Define graded potential. 32. Define Axodendritic synapse. 33. Define axon hillcock 34. Describe the difference of neuronal and diverging pool 35. Define converging pool. 36. Define Reverberating/Oscillating 37. Describe Parallel After Discharge 38. Pre-Test; Exam 3 1. The central nervous system includes a. Autonomic nervous system b. The brain and spinal cord c. The somatic nervous system d. All of the above 2. The most numerous glial cells that may be involved in establishing the blood brain barrier. a. Microglial cells b. Astrocytes c. Schwann cells d. Oligodendrocyts 3. Damage to the dorsal root would affect the transmission of motor action potentials. T or F. 4. Chemically gated ion channels might open in response to: a. Depolarization of the membrane b. Hyperpolarization of the membrane c. A graded potential d. All of the above e. None of the above 5. Collections of nerve cell bodies in the PNS? a. Nuclei b. Nerves c. Ganglia d. Tracts 6. Which of the following is not an effector of the nervous system? a. Smooth muscle b. Secretory cells of glands c. Skeletal muscle d. All are effectors of the nervous system e. None of the above 7. Both satellite cells and Schwann Cell function to increase the rate at which action potentials are propagated. T or F 8. A defect in the mitochondria might affect a. Glycolysis b. Production of pyruvic acid c. Anaerobic respiration d. None of the above 9. We become conscious of a sensation when the action potential caused by the stimulus reaches the activity? a. Pre-Central gyrus b. Post-Central Gyrus c. Occipital lobe d. Premotor area e. B and C 10.Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy a. Is an X linked genetic disease b. Only occurs in males c. Is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration d. All e. A and C 11.How would an increased flow of potassium through the passive potassium channels affect the resting membrane potential? a. No effect b. It would be more negative c. Less negative d. Start as more negative and then to the normal 12.Electrical Synapses transmit a signal faster than chemical synapses. T or F. 13.Ingesting a toxin that blocked in the calcium ion channels at the axonal terminal would block release of neurotransmitter. T or F. 14.Both channel linked and G protein-linked receptors for neurotransmitters directly affect the opening or closing of ion channels. T or F. 15.What type of muscle is used as a sprint? a. Slow Oxidative b. Fast Glycolytic c. Single unit muscles d. Fast oxidative 16.Saltatory conduction is made possible by a. The myelin sheath b. Large nerve fibers c. Is faster than non saltory conduction d. A and C e. None 17.All muscle fibers in a muscle contract in unison because the stimulation of different motor is precisely controlled. T or F. 18.A very strong stimulus would increase the frequency of action potentials not the magnitude of their depolarization. T or F. 19.What part of the brain is likely affected in a patient having difficulty with precise, slow movements? a. Primary motor area b. Post-Central Gyrus c. Cerebral Cortex d. Basal nuclei 20.Which of the following is true concerning the movement od cerebrospinal fluid? a. Choroid plexus to arachnoid villi to subarachnoid space to dural sinuses b. Choroid plexus to subarachnoid space to arachnoid villi to dural sinuses c. Choroid plexus to subarachnoid space to dural sinuses to arachnoid villi d. Choroid plexus to arachnoid villi to dural sinuses to subarachnoid space 21.The part of the brain that regulates secretion of the pituitary gland, an endocrine gland: a. Hypothalamus b. Basal nuclei c. Cerebellum d. Limbic system e. Non D E 22. In the following diagram, D is: a. Ventricle b. Cerebellum c. Basal Nuclei d. Thalamus 23. In the following diagram E is a. Projection tract b. Association Tract c. Basal Nuclei d. None 24. A sensory nerve impulse would pass through or by which of the following listed structures thirdly a. Dorsal Root b. Dorsal Horn c. Dorsal Root Ganglion d. The ventral ramus of the spinal nerve 25.The part of the neuron that normally receives stimuli from presynaptic neuron is called: a. An axon b. A dendrite c. Axon Hillcock d. Schwanna Cell 26.What ion gates open during the depolarization phase of the action potential? a. Sodium b. Chloride c. Calcium d. Potassium 27.An inhibitory postsynaptic potential IPSP could be associated with: a. Decreased chloride ion permeability b. Increase sodium permeability c. Decreased potassium ion permeability d. A and C e. None 28.The name of the ridges found on the surface of the cerebrum. a. Fissures b. Gyri c. Sulci d. Cortex 29.Be able to label the cerebral cortex in the brain. 30. White matter of the spinal cord contains a. Motor nerve cells bodies b. Sesnroy nerve cell bodies c. Nerve tracts d. Nuclei 31.Damage to the right cerebral hemisphere would affect the processing of sensations derived from the right arm. T or F. 32.Suppose that Zn++ is present at a higher concentration inside the cell than outside, the chemical gradient is ___ and electrical gradient is ____ for the flow of Zn++. a. Favorable; unfavorable b. Favorable;favorable c. Unfavorable;unfavorable d. Unfavorable;favorable 33.Stretch reflexes help maintain posture and are facilitated by the basal nuclei and cerebellum. T or F. 34.The limbic system consist of many parts of the brain that are involved in determining our emotional response to stimuli. T or F 35.Action potentials can be generated by virtually all cells of the body. T or F. 36. Unipolr neurons are commonly: a. Motor neurons b. Sensory Neuron c. Have many processes d. None 37.When an ion channel on a postsynaptic neuron is opened by a excitatory neurotransmitter and the membrane near the ion chanel depolarizes to - 50 mV, an ation potential is always genertated in the postsynaptic neuron. T or F. 38.What term refers to the spinal nerves extending from the bottom of the spinal cord? a. Cauda equine b. Filum Terminale c. Arachnoid Villus d. A and B 39.A dermatome a. Is the area of skin supplied by a pair of spinal or cranial nerves b. Motor control at the level of spinal cord c. Segmental control circuit d. All 40.Referred pain is the projection of damage (pain) to parts of the body that may not be near the site of the damage. T or F. 41.The muscle surrounding the small intestine a. Can randomly contarct b. Are electrically coupled to one another by gap junction c. Is a single unit muscle d. All e. A and B 42.Smooth and skeletal muscle contraction is primarily stimulated by the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. T or F. 43.Smooth muscle contains tropomyosin which binds calcium to regulate contraction. T or F. 44.Smooth muscle has a longer latent period than skeletal muscle. T or F. 45.Which statement is most correct? a. More Atp is formed during glycolysis as compared to oxidative phosphorylation. b. Atp Is formed faster during oxidative phosphorylation c. Glycolysis requires oxgen d. More ATP is formed in anaerobic respiration that in oxidatice phosphorylation e. None 46.Which receptors are least likely to adapt? a. Light touch mechanoreceptors b. Proprioceptors c. Deep touch mechanoreceptors d. Root hair plexuses (hair Follicle) e. None 47. Which receptor is located in the papillar layer of hairless skin? a. Meissener b. Pacinian c. Ruffini d. Merkel disc 48.Regeneation of neurons can occur a. In the PNS udner optimal circumstances b. In the CNS under optimal circumstances c. In the CNS under optimal circumstances but require schwann cells d. None e. All 49.A disease caused by a virus that can cause paralysis by destroying nerve cell bodies a. Cerebral palsy b. Multiple sclerosis c. Poliomyelitis d. Alzeimers Disease 50.Which of the following helps generate graded, smooth contractions of skeletal muscle? a. Multiple motor unit summation b. Increased frequency of stimulation of muscles c. Activation of troponin d. A and B e. B and C
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