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R.A notes for week 4

by: Kiara Ulmer

R.A notes for week 4 RA101 003

Kiara Ulmer

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About this Document

This cover the chapters 1-4 in the RA book. It talks about the different types of arguments such as inductive, deductive, sound, etc. It also reviews the different forms of arguments (A,E,I,O form)
Reasoning and Argumentation
Raymond Darr
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Ulmer on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RA101 003 at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville taught by Raymond Darr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Reasoning and Argumentation in PHIL-Philosophy at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

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Date Created: 04/11/16
 A-form- total universal inclusion =All (d)  Original- Every student must be immunized are(u) SCF-All students are people that who should  I-form- Particular partial inclusion= some (u) be immunized. are (u)  Original- Only freshmen are can enroll today  E-form- total universal exclusion= no(d) are SCF- No non-freshmen are students allowed (d) to enroll today  O form- Partial exclusion= some (u) are  CONVERSION EXAMPLES- not(d)  Original- Some sophomores are in the JV  Immediate inference- an argument where a squad-CON- Some members of the JV squad conclusion is drawn from one compromise, are sophomores with reference to any other source  Original- A few exams are easily completed  Middle term- is a term which appears in the CON-Some easily completed items are premises of a categorical syllogism but not exams in the conclusion.  OBVERSION EXAMPLES  Two propositions are sub-contrary  Original- All comedians are entertainers OBV  Premises-The propositions in an argument No non comedians are entertainers.  Original- Some mystery novels are not that support the conclusion.  Fallacy- an unreliable inference or error in historically accurate OBV-Some mystery reasoning novels are non historically accurate pieces  Undistributed- only a portion of class objects of literature  Distributed- the entire class of objects  This plant must be certified, because only  In the I-from the subject term is distributed. inspected plants have been and this plant FALSE because it partial inclusion has definitely been inspected INVALID,UNDISTRIBUTED MID. TERM  A valid argument can have a false conclusion if the premises are true FALSE  Because Martha Stewart is not a politician  Conversion is a valid operation for all four and all politicians must raise large sums of types of categorical propositions TRUE money. Martha Stewart does not have to raise large sums of money. INVALID, ILLICIT  In valid categorical syllogism, the middle term must be distributed once FALSE DISTRIBUTION  A valid categorical syllogism must have  All politicians are non-careful planners FALSE three terms, each used twice for the same class FALSE  Some careful planners are not politicians  In a valid categorical syllogism, every term UND distributed in the conclusion must be  Only politicians are careful planners UND  All careful planners are politicians UND distributed in the proposition in which occurs TRUE  Some politicians are not careful planners  Any categorical proposition is equivalent to  Only non-careful planners are politicians the converse FALSE  All non-careful planners are non-politicians  If a conversion is valid, not term in the  A few instructors are free from financial converse can be distributed can be worry. Ray Dar is an instructor. He is free distributed unless it was distributed unless it from it INVALID UND MID TERM was distributed in the original one TRUE  “all or no’ – quantifiers  Conclusions can be valid or invalid FALSE  A person who created logic 2000 years ago  A strong deductive argument is which the –Aristtotle premises of the argument establish a  “to be” – cobula relatively high degree of probability that the  Major premise – predicate from deductive conclusion is true FALSE argument  Syllogism- an inductive argument with two premises and one conclusion  All valid arguments must have true conclusion FALSE  The middle term is distributed ONCE  If the premises are true, then the conclusion is true FALSE  True premises=valid argument FALSE  Premises and conclusion true= valid argument FALSE  All four standards have logical equivalent TRUE  All categorical propositions may be validity converted FALSE  STANDARD CATEGORICAL FORM EXAMPLES  All assumptions are hidden FALSE  Factual –scientific method  Subjectivism is the view that truth is relative  Publishing –solution to a problem, add and varies from person to person dimension  Deductive argument – is a type of argument  They also defraud online advertisers by that incorporates the claim that’s impossible using these zombie computers to visit pay for the conclusion to be false if the premises per click ads. ARGUMENT /CONCLUSION its are true and the argument is put together more important properly  So how a neuron works and how neurons  Etymology- the history of the word communicate are crucial pieces of  Extension – the set of words of objects information in solving the puzzle of denoted by a term psychology ARGUMENT CONCLUSION how a  A valid argument can have a false neuron works conclusion   A sound argument must have a true  conclusion   All cogent arguments have a true conclusion  FALSE   An argument is a group statements, one or more of which premises are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe etc  Conclusions can implied but unstated  A deductive argument is intended to provide logically conclusive support  A cogent argument is an inductive that is both strong and has all true premises  Inductive arguments admit to varying degrees of strength and weakness  It’s not hard to substantiate a premise  Conclusion= thesis  Functional =persuasive  Structural = set of assertions  Sound= valid argument and true premises  Explicit assumptions aren’t hidden assumptions  Every conditional statement is NOT made up of two component statements  Cognitive meaning conveys info  Extension = dentote, points to  Ostensive= example  Stipulative- assigns meaning of word to certain context  Lexical –reports within community users  Intensional- connotes  Informative – language making claims  All valid arguments must have true conclusion FALSE  Conclusions can be valid/invalid FASLE  Valid argument can’t have false premises FALSE  A strong inductive may have a uncertain conclusion  Tautology is logical truth  An inductive argument, the premises are intended to make the conclusion inevitable FALSE  Contingent truth – empirical evidence  Democracy dictatorship and monarchy are all forms of government OSTENSIVE  Sonnet is a moment’s monument METAPHOR  World view- self-regulating system


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