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BU / Biology / BI 315 / What is ventilation in a respiratory system?

What is ventilation in a respiratory system?

What is ventilation in a respiratory system?


School: Boston University
Department: Biology
Course: Systems Physiology
Professor: Widmaier
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Biology and Physiology
Cost: 25
Name: BI 315 Notes 3/31-4/7
Description: These are lecture notes covering lectures 3/31 (Th), 4/5 (T), and 4/7 (Th). There were no notes on 3/29 due to Exam 2. All of these lecture notes will appear on the final exam.
Uploaded: 04/12/2016
8 Pages 47 Views 13 Unlocks


What is ventilation in a respiratory system?

3/31 Respiratory System

- utilization of 2 release their



Oz to metabolize food stuffs & energy

ventilation = the movement of

- containing medium across a respinatay surface

types of ventilation, langs, gils, skin

O2 1


What are the types of ventilation in the respiratory system?



- systems all of the stricters that

contribute to ventilation

AIR Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the electric force between a proton and an electron?
Don't forget about the age old question of How did northerners feel about slavery?


VOCO ces ds


Charyngitis sore throat - Figure 3.1

-O2 enters through mouth & nasal cavity

connect at pharynx

turbinates & conchaea = rigid tissues in nose that create that turbulants in inhaled air (whirlwind so nose hairs/mucus can trap large molecules in air) .

What is the role of mucus escalator?

We also discuss several other topics like How is a vote vetoed in the un security council?

Ilarynxveen pharynx - ernstige → trachea We also discuss several other topics like What are the stages of personality development?

don't need to know cough puts pressure on trachea to push

out whatever is in there mucous escalato moves mucous towards mouth & pushes whatever is stock out * Smoking causes will to redurrerentiate

& lose ciliat become a new type of endothelium (causes coughing b/c mucous Don't forget about the age old question of What causes buffalo hump in cushing's?

escalator isn't working properly) trachea left/right bronchus branching into smaller & smaller tubes bronchioles (smallest) alveoli (gas exchange)



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thorax chest cavity; Surranded by rib cage (connected to intercostal muscles)

helps → contraction of intercostal muscles on

either expansion / contraction of lungs - diaphragm skeletal musck separating the thorax We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of control theory?

& lover abdomen to

inhalation requires expansion of thoracic cavity by moving ribeage out & diaphragm


L THORACIC WALL - in blw lungs &

Thoracic walli - 1 parietal pleura (outside)

& visceral plara (inside) diaphragma

wl intrapleural swid

in blu plaira figure 13.5

protect & glue" lungs to chest (fluid convesive

mechanism) - figure 133

tidal ventilation = air moves in & out (not as efficient as low ventilation like in birds & fish) air moves down bronchioles (small, single-cell width)

- resistance to airflow is proportional to

radius - bronchiodilation + bronchioconstriction -smooth muscle around bronchioles ashthina

occurs when smooth muscle is hyperactive Dia 13.4

13.4 - gas exchange occurs in alveoli e

e type I cells flat this cells that acts CAPILLARY as barrier b/w O2 & Caz diffusion

type I colls secretory cells that secrete surfactant

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H . H. me...0


creates surface tension (water, tries to become

droplet instead of film) can collapse alvedi (like balloons = will deflate unless prevented)

* surfactant prevents alveoli from collapsing

(exponential decrease in H2O-H2o attraction

to decrease surface tension) - respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) = condition

when a baby is bom who surfactant & baby

cannot sustain respiration (used to be fatal, can be prevented by making sure baby's

lungs are ally developed before birth)



& Partial Pressure 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, trace coat other gases each gas contributes a proportional amount of

pressure to how much there is of that gas

atmospheric pressure - Patm (total P of all gases) - Patm @ sea level = ~760 mmtlg (changes wl

altitude & Patm w/ ↑ altitudes

- * %os of all gases do NOT change w/ altitude! partial pressure a part of Path due to a specific gas

ex) Por = (0.21) (760 mmbig) = 160 mmtlg gases move by pressure gradients (high to low)

gas in solution will equilibrate w/ gas in



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- figure 13.8

= Boyle's Law





PV = P2V2




- figure

13.9 =






Pte transmural prestre

as transpulmonary P

Paw - Pipl




You -

pressure chest wall



*lings are able to inflate / deflate besed on

pressure differences (doesn't matter what Patm is because everything is relative) transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) is positive, even when exhaling prevents lungs from fully

collapsing during exhalation * Inhalation - diaphragm contracts, chest wall expands,

Pip t = causes Pty to f & ungs expand (subtracting

a more negative # = adding a bigger number) ne before inhalation: Pep = o-(-4) = t4 .

during inhalation - Pep o-(-5) = +5 = inhale *intercostal nerves nerves from brainstem/spinal cond

that innervate lings * phrenic nerves nerves from brainstem that innervate


Study pup


chronic disease =

gets worse every day t

never goes away (ex. emphesema)

il more in

Nerves that innervate lungs

come from brainstem (pons, medulla) 'rhythm generator : Rusotondo controis rate of

breathing (typically 12-15x per min)

sleep causes &

opiates causes & ethanol causes & progesterone causes I (esement

lesppregnant) barbituates causes exereise causes ? * conscious control can ↑ + 1 h everal

muscle movement pulmonary streten reflex & chemoreceptors in lurgs detect gases in blood

- carotids located in arch of aorta & at woobonds on

left & right side → aortic & carotid bodies detect co2, O2 + N in blood (partial pressures) & [ht] sends signals to adjust breathing in response

i O2 in blood = 7 breathing [H ] important bic it relates to co

rens in blood (^ CO2 = ↑ [MF]) CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 Home & Hol

- annydrase

bicarbonate acidosis - acidic blood for any reason

> respiratory audosis - audosis due to respiratory

issues (ex: cannot exhave as well as inhale cannot expel all co2+ it reacts w/ H2O & forms Ho

* kidneys can alleviate effects by helping & [HA] = metabolic compensation metabolic acidosis - acidosis from metabolic issues (ex. lactic acid from exereise) * respiratory system can alleviate effects

by 7 breathing to get rid of cor (causes equilibrium Shift: H




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4/7 Recap from last lecture:

resp. acidosis correct w/ help of kidneys

- emphysema - chest surgery - pulononary edema

-Overdose CNS depressants metabolic acidosis correct w/ lings (get rid of CO2)

- exercise (lactic acid)

Ketoaudosis - acidosis derived from Ketores (ketones

are byproducts of patty acid breakdown)


relatively incommon, a pH ( [+]) -respiratory alkalosis

breathing more CO2 out than body is actually

producing = hyperventilation

causes = stress, high altitude compensate al kidneys (Ht from epithewal cells

into blood) metabolic acidosis

ingestion of alkali substances in causes respiration to slow down (prevents co2

from leaving so more to can be produced) vomiting = causes net deficiency of Ht (thus and base in body) non

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CO2 + Oxygen Movement

Figure 13.25 (don't need to know structure) - hemaglobin

- quaternary structure - 4 subunits (each have a

heme group wl an Fe 2+ that can each bind ano)

uhen all u have an o = satorated (100%)

Study Sou

- Figure 13.27

- when oxygen binds to hemoglobin molecule, it

is no longer in solution causes a concentration

gradient for remaining oxygen

Hb + O2 ~ HBO2 REVERSIBLE - the more oxygen that is used ( H6O2), the

more oxygen that must be supplied (free O2)

the SOUP



look in more

@ % sunt saturation of O2 fluid O2 = more O2 in blood

amount of O2 unloaded



tissue capillaries



why does it do this (not linear)?

cooperativity when oxygen binds to hemoglobin, it causes next here to be easier to bind next oxygen; which makes next one easter etc.

em 4o, mmHg 100 mmHg systenous POS systemic




Judy SOU

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favors disociation favors association on Hb+ 2 H2O2 H6O2 Hb+Oz *O2- REQUIRING

PARTS OF BODY * in the presence of co, 7 [+] or ↑ heat causes

shift of arve so that pressure is required

to e allow binding (binding affinity has & * the more active you are the more exygen you need fuse #oxygen delivery varies across different tissues based on

su individual activity

Study Soul

1 Study Soup

• Bohr effect - hemoglobin's binding affinity over PO2

(the graph)

different in different organisms depending on their

metabolic needs (ex humans> elephants) Figure 13.28

O2 is inhaled into alveolus (PO2 alveolus > PO2 pulmonary capillary) moves into capillary

O2 dissolved in plasma O2 dissolved in cytosol OF RBC Or band to hemaglobin once RBC gets to parts of body in need of Ozi gradient exists to allow O2 to diffuse

from hemoglobin to interstitial fluid to cells

• RBC is now free to go bind now Oz when co2 is produced by the cell diffusion gradients

allow co to leave cell & diffuse to interstitial

fluid, plasma in blood, - RBCs o

gradient maintained by CO2 + Mb HbCO2 and Cl2 + H2O → H2CO3 HCO3 + H+ dissolved CO2 diffuses to alveoli e lings due. to gradient = exhalation of CO2

Study Cup


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