Quiz 10 Study Guide
Quiz 10 Study Guide GEOL1005
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL1005 at George Washington University taught by Catherine A. Forster in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Historical Geology in Geology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Pg. 506-508 The Himalaya Formed during Neogene time o Relatively young mountain system Tallest mountain range on Earth o Its front rises abruptly from the flat Ganges Plain o Mount Everest, the tallest mountain on Earth 8848 meters above sea level o Broad Tibetan plateau north of the Himalayan front, stands at an average elevation of 5 km higher than any mountain peak in the 48 contiguous US Part of a great series of mountain chains of Cenozoic origin stretches from Spain and North Africa to Southeast Asia o Formed as a result of the northward movement of fragments of Gondwanaland Alps and other Cenozoic mountains of the Mediterranean region o Formed as the African plate moved northward against the Eurasian plate Late in the Mesozoic Era, the Indian peninsula was moving northward at a high velocity (18 centimeters per year) o As an island continent within the large Australian plate o Collision of this Indian craton with Eurasia created the Himalaya During Eocene time shallow seas covered much of the Indian craton o Limestones were laid down over large areas o Coarse sediment derived from mountainous terrain deposited on top of the limestones in Late Miocene time Not long before this did mountain building begin o Sediments in the Indian Ocean provide additional evidence of the timing of orogenic activity Oldest deep sea turbidites deposited offshore date to the Middle Miocene Rivers cannot be much older came into being with the Himalayans started to form (20 million years ago) Much of the Himalaya has been uplifted during the last 15 million years India approaches Eurasia, riding on the Australian plate o Northern margin of the plate subducted beneath Eurasia o When India arrived, it could not be subducted (it was a continental mass) o Subduction and igneous activity along the southern margin of Tibet ceased 20 million years ago, India began to wedge beneath the southern margin of Tibet o Without descending into the asthenosphere Ophiolites formed when the sediments of the forearc basin (bordered Tibet) were squeezed along the suture, along with material of the accretionary wedge and solid oceanic crust Northern margin of India broke away from the rest of the Indian craton o Remaining Indian craton slid beneath the margin of Eurasia for at least 100 km along a huge thrust fault Known as the main central thrust Valleys have cut deep into the mountains o Movement along the central thrust ceased sometime before 10 million years ago o New fault Main boundary fault develops below the main central thrust Movement continues today Movement along the two faults causes a great thickening of the Indian crust o Margin of India has underthrust the slices of crust that have broken from it o Underthrusting because the continental lithosphere of the Indian craton before the underthrusting was unusually thin Fold and thrust belt formed above the main central thrust and main boundary fault Foreland basin to the south of this belt huge body of sediment o Siwalik beds o Formed from material eroded from the mountains o Large numbers of fossil mammals of Neogene age o Constitute molasses that has accumulated where the crust has been depressed by the adjacent mountain chain o Never been deep enough to admit the ocean received only non-marine sediments o Document the composition of the rich faunas that occupied the spreading savannahs of Late Miocene through Pleistocene age Great rivers of eastern Asia also formed in the Miocene during the uplift of the Himalayan region High relief and abundant rainfall of the region Indus and Ganges of India and several large rivers of Southeast Asia contribute huge volumes of sediment to the ocean Earthquakes through the Himalayan region as a result of movement along the faults o Mountain building far from over
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