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Chemistry Study Guide

by: Jasmine Ngo

Chemistry Study Guide CHEM 127

Jasmine Ngo

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About this Document

Covers Entropy, Free Energy, Electrochemistry, and Equilibrium
General Chemistry 1
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Ngo on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 127 at Illinois Institute of Technology taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Illinois Institute of Technology.

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Date Created: 04/11/16
Chemistry Review Guide Ch 16, 17, 18 Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria The common ion causes a change in equilibrium by adding an ion that is a common ion in the dissolved solution. Example: NaCl, HCl, and CalCl2 all have Cl- in common. So concentration of Na+, H+, and Ca2+ all have the equal molarity. But Cl- have different concentrations for each compound. The presence of a common ion suppresses the ionization of a weak acid or a weak base. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: pH=pka+log(conjugate base/weak acid) Pka=-log(ka) A buffer solution contains a weak acid or weak base and the salt of the weak acid or base Buffers are able to resist the change in pH upon the addition of acid or base Ksp is the solubility product constant Q<Ksp=unsaturated solution, no precipitate Q=Ksp=saturated solution Q>Ksp=super saturated solution, precipitation occurs Molar solubility (mol/L) is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 L of a saturated solution. Solubility (g/L) is the number of grams of solute dissolved in 1 L of a saturated solution. The presence of a common ion decreases the solubility Insoluble bases dissolve in acidic solutions Insoluble acids dissolve in basic solutions A complex ion is an ion containing a central metal cation bonded to one or more molecules or ions. The formation constant or stability constant (Kf) is the equilibrium constant for the complex ion formation. As Kf increases, the stability of complex increases Chapter 17: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium Entropy= measure of disorder or randomness in system Change in Entropy (S)=final entropy- initial entropy If final entropy>initial entropy=> S>0, there is an increase in entropy If final entropy<initial entropy=> S<0, there is an decrease in entropy The solid state is more ordered than liquid state which is more ordered that gas state Gas state is the most disordered while solid state is the least disordered S = k ln W ΔS = k ln (Wf/ Wi) Wf > Wi then ΔS > 0 Wf < Wi then ΔS < 0 Entropy is proportional to W, which is equal to the number of microstates State functions are properties that are determined by the state of the system, regardless of how that condition was achieved. Examples: energy, enthalpy, pressure, volume, temperature , entropy First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be converted from one form to another but energy cannot be created or destroyed. Second Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of the universe increases in a spontaneous process and remains unchanged in an equilibrium process. Third Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a perfect crystalline substance is zero at the absolute zero of temperature. ΔG = ΔHsys –TΔSsys => Can only be used at constant temperature of 25 degrees Celsius and 1 atm ΔG < 0 The reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction. ΔG > 0 The reaction is nonspontaneous as written. The reaction is spontaneous in the reverse direction. ΔG = 0 The reaction is at equilibrium. ΔG = ΔG0 + RT lnQ At Equilbrium: ΔG = 0 Q = K 0 = ΔG0 + RT lnK ΔG0 = − RT lnK Chapter 18: Electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the study of batteries and interconversion of chemical and electrical energy Oxidation: Loss of electrons Reduction: Gain of electrons Oxidizing Agent-Substance being reduced Reducing Agent-Substance being oxidized Balancing Redox Reactions: To balance, we break it up into two half reactions, the oxidation half and reduction half. Oxidation reaction: occurs at the anode (mass decreases over time) Reduction reaction: occurs at the cathode (mass increases over time) Salt bridge - soluble salt solution used to neutralize ions in each solution Cations travel toward cathode Anions toward anode Electrons travel through voltmeter Short-hand Notation: Anode | anode ion || cathode ion | cathode Oxidation half|| Reduction Half Greater voltage=Stronger Oxidizing Agent=>Reduction Weaker Voltage=Stronger Reducing Agent=>Oxidation


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