Biology 301 Ecology and Evolution
Biology 301 Ecology and Evolution Biology 301 002
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 301 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Robert Friedman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Biology 301 Ecology and Evolution Study guide Exam 3 For the 3 questions I did not answer, I will ask them in class on Tuesday and fill in the study guide after class so it will be completed GENERAL -Interpret graphs -Interpret phylogenetic tree COMPETITION Question 1: Understand competitive exclusion - Competitive Exclusion o Two species cannot coexist on a single resource that is scarce relative to the demand for it o Predator can drive prey locally extinct - Examples of competitive exclusion o Paramecium: P. Aurelia P. Caudatum They both thrive when grown separately When grown together, 1 party will grow extinct (Page 9 in Species Interaction chapter) Question 2: Define and know examples of resources - Resources: “substances” required for maintenance, growth, and reproduction - 3 types: o 1. Non-renewable Resources Occur in fixed quantities Example: habitat space, “released” by a consumer o 2. Renewable Resources Continuously generated Example: food, soil, nutrients, sunlight, rain o 3. Limiting Resources Available quantity cannot meet a population’s requirement for it If you add more of a limiting resource, then the population will increase in size since K has changed Now a different and second resource may be limiting the population size Example: we give plants nitrogen which is a limiting reagent Summary: - Competition is the use or defense of a resource by two or more consumers - Competition is usually for one or a few limited resources whose supply relative to demand is least - NO two species of competitor can coexist on the same limiting resource PREDATION Question 1: Understand the Lotka-Volterra model of predator and prey populations *Equations to know P (hat) = births – deaths H (hat) = births – deaths *Notes: the deaths of the prey is directly related to the births of a predator - for every prey that dies, a predator is born - births of predator depend on deaths of prey P- Predator H- Prey *Equation to know: Change in prey populations dH / dT = r H – pHP r H = births of prey pHP = deaths of prey p- Perimeter H- Prey population size P- Predator population size *Equation to know: Change in predator populations dP / dT = apHP – dP a – Conversion rate of prey energy into predators d- Predator death rate (assume its density independent) p- Perimeter H- Prey population size P- Predator size Question 2: Numerical responses of predator & prey (see textbook) Question 3: Predators switching to alternative prey - If a prey goes extinct or migrates somewhere else, that predator that was eating that no longer prey will switch to consuming another prey (See page 12 of Predation chapter) Question 4: Type I, II, III Functional Responses - Type I Functional Response o Predicts there is no limit to prey consumption Means that prey consumed = pHP ***** Predators eat (consume) to many prey Reasonable over some ranger of prey density May also be good for filter feeders Generally unrealistic: satiation. Handling time - Type II Functional Responses (observed in nature) o Predicts prey consumption per predator levels off Allows for the effects of handling time - Type III Functional Response o Prey consumption start slow, picks up, then levels off Highest consumption at intermediate prey densities At low density, prey can recover Limited safe spaces Inexperienced hunters Switching Summary: - Simple predator- prey models display stable cycles - If assumptions removed from models, then model may behave differently - Natural cycle from time delay of responses - Theoretical cycle from time lag in growth rate o If incorporated time delay of responses, cycle is unstable ** in nature these models do not hold but only holds true in your mind (THEORETICAL) ** Modals do NOT apply in or to nature COMMUNITY STRUCTURE Question 1: Concept of ecotone - Ecotone: o Clear community boundaries Without ecotones there are no communities Example: California hills- live oaks between ridges - Closed community o Ecotones are regions of rapid replacement of species along a gradient ** know how to determine a closed community on a graph (See page 2 and 3 from the community structure chapter) - Open community o Species distributed independently of one another Question 2: Patterns of species diversity Question 3: Species-area relationship for mainland & for island (see textbook) - Differences in diversity between large and small islands must signify differences in the intrinsic qualities of islands - Likely candidates include habitat heterogeneity, which increases with the size of an island, and size per se, as larger islands make better targets for potential immigrants from mainland - Larger islands support larger populations, which may persist longer owing to their greater genetic diversity, broader distributions over habitats, and numbers large enough to prevent stochastic extinction Area and habitat diversity both contribute to the species- area relationship Question 4: Scientific studies of competition (see textbook) Question 5: Definitions of Producers, Consumers & Predators Producer: - an organism, as a plant, that is able to produce its own food inorganic substances Consumer: - an individual or population that uses a particular resource Predator: - an animal that kills and eats animals Question 6: Bottom-up & top-down control of trophic structure (see textbook) Top down structure: - Tertiary controls the ecosystem o Influence of predators on the sizes of the trophic levels below them in the food web o Consumers depress the trophic level on which they feed, and this indirectly increases the next lower trophic level Bottom up structure - Producer controls ecosystem o Influence of producers on the sizes of the trophic levels above them in the food web o Increased production results in greater productivity at all trophic levels Question 7: Limitations of mathematical models in explaining community structure - Problem 1: o Sampling Rate of discovery Rarefaction curves ** to find more rare species, you have to sample more - Problem 2: o Not all spp should be given equal weight Question 8: Calculate species richness and Simpsons index value Equation to know: D = 1 / ∑ pi ^2^ D – diversity Pi – proportion of individuals that are species i Additional information - Food Webs o Passage of energy through consumers at higher trophic levels ECOSYSTEMS Question 1: Constraints on primary production - Primary Production: o Is the capture of light energy and its conversion to chemical energy Plants, algae, and some bacteria capture light energy and transform it into the energy of chemical bonds in carbohydrates Question 2: Ecological efficiency between trophic levels - The percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next o the production of each trophic level is typically only 5%-20% Question 3: Concepts of gross primary production, net primary production & respiration - Gross Primary production o total energy assimilated by primary producers - Net Primary production o Energy accumulated (in stored form) by primary producers - Respiration o the energy consumed by producers for maintenance and biosynthesis o gross – net = respiration Question 4: Food chains/Trophic levels in nature - Food Chain: o the sequence of feeding relationships by which energy passes through the ecosystem o A representation of the passage of energy from a primary producer through a series of consumers at progressively higher trophic levels - Food chain: has many links- plant, herbivore, and carnivore – which Lindeman referred to as trophic levels o pyramid of energy: with less energy reaching each successively higher trophic level energy is lost at each level because of the work performed by organisms at that level and because of the inefficiency of biological energy transformation Question 5: Calculate energy transfer between trophic levels - the production of each trophic level is typically only 5%-20% Question 6: Relationship between temperature and primary production (see textbook) - Optimum temperature for photosynthesis varies with system: o about 16*C for many temperature species o as high as 38*C for some tropical species - Rate of photosynthesis increases with temperature: o Rate of respiration also increase with temperature o New assimilation may decrease at high temperatures Question 7: Relationship between the different ecosystems and primary production (see textbook) Additional terms: - Ingestion: o energy content of food ingested - Egestion: o energy content of ingestible materials regurgitated or defecated - Assimilation: o energy content of food digested and absorbed - Excretion: o energy content of organic wastes - Respiration: o energy content for maintenance; performs work is last as heat - Production: o residual energy content for growth and reproduction Leaf Cutter and Ecosystem Question 8: Leaf-cutter ants and their relationship with its fungus gardens - Fungus is a mutual with ants - Second mutual is Actinobacteria o Actinobacteria produces antibiotics which defends fungus from parasites Question 9: Fungus gardens and their reliance on the environment - Harvest hundreds of pounds of leaf material per year - Harvests a fungus which feeds on leaves o Ants eat the fungus
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