Histiry_1312_exam_2_study_guide.pdf history 1312
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by ayanhassan on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to history 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by DR.BURTON in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see 2162-HIST-1312-016-U.S.-HISTORY-SINCE-1865--2016-SPRING in Classical Studies at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Study Guide for Exam 2 The Great Powers - (France, Great Britain, Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary) The Balance of Power Europe’s Role in International Affairs The Scramble for Africa Europe’s “new imperialism” The Conservative Superpower Liberal Constitutional Monarchy Glorious Isolation Germany Franco-Prussian War- (July 19, 1870-May 10, 1871) st Otto Von Bismarck “the Iron Chancellor” - 1 chancellor of Germany) Realpolitik “The German Question” Kaiser Wilhelm II – (German emperor ruled from June 15, 1888 to November 9 1918) Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) - (May 27, 1875-present) Nationalist Leagues France in 1871- Franco-Prussian war Alsace and Lorraine- Previous French territory, imperial territory of Germany 1871 to 1918 (later returns to France). Russia Czar Nicholas II- Last tsar of Russia- November 1, 1894 to March 15, 1917 Russo-Japanese War- 1904-05 Revolution of 1905- 1905-07 (Russia) Pan-Slavic Movement Austria-Hungary- 1870-1914 Franz Joseph- Emperor of Austria (1848-1916) 12 Major ethnic groups- these groups include German, Hungarians, Czechs, Ukrainians, Rumanians, Croatians, Serbians, Slovaks, Slovenes, Italians, polish and Austrians. Dual Monarchy- when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch, follow the same foreign policy, exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing. Refers to Austria-Hungary!!! Balkans Ottoman Empire (Turkey) - 1299-1923 Sick Man of Europe Young Turk Movement- A political reform movement in the early 20 centuryh favoring replacement of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire with a constitutional monarchy. Italy Irredentism- A political or popular movement intended to reclaim or reoccupy a lost homeland. Japan Meiji Restoration High Imperialism Importance of Military Planning Second Industrial Revolution (1871) Science, Scientific Racism, and Social Darwinism RMS Titanic- 1912 Liberalism- Defined by individualism Conservatism- Resistance to liberal ideologies Socialism- Only an economic system. A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. Karl Marx-(1818-1883) Philosopher, economist, socialist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist Consent of the Masses Militarism- The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests. Junker Elites- Junker is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German “young nobleman” or otherwise "young lord". The term is traditionally used throughout the German-speaking, Dutch-speaking and Scandinavian-speaking parts of Europe. Misconception about Modern War- Believed war was short and glorified. It became romanticized, thinking that it would be a clean death; one of heroism. For many it was a reclamation of masculinity. Eventually led to the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) and American Civil War (1861-1865) Futurist movement in Italy Friedrich Nietzsche and the Übermensch Schlieffen Plan- the Schlieffen Plan was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium in August 1914. Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen was the Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891–1906 and in 1905/06 devised a deployment plan for a war-winning offensive, in a one-front war against the French Third Republic. Plan 17- Plan 17 was the name of a "scheme of mobilization and concentration" that was adopted by the French Conseil Supérieur de la Guerre (the peacetime title of the French General Staff) from 1912–1914, to be put into effect by the French Army in the event of war between France and Germany. Cult of the Offensive- The cult of the offensive refers to a strategic military dilemma, where leaders believe that offensive advantages are so great that a defending force would have no hope of repelling the attack; consequently, all states choose to attack. System of Alliances- The alliance system was started by Bismarck, the German Chancellor from 1871 to 1890. After the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck held that Germany was a "satiated state" which should give up ideas of further conquest. Thus Bismarck organized a system of alliances designed to maintain Germany's hegemony on the European continent. France was determined to challenge the hegemony of Germany because France had been defeated by Germany in 1871 and had been forced to cede two provinces (Alsace-Lorraine) to Germany. Bismarck tried to befriend Austria, Russia, Italy and Britain in order to isolate France. Three Emperors’ League- Included Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia Dual Alliance and Triple Alliance Dual Alliance - Rivalry between Austria and Russia in the Balkans came to a head in 1877- 78. In 1875, five Balkan states revolted against the Turkish rule. Russia supported the Balkan states and defeated Turkey. On March 8, 1878, Turkey was forced to sign the Treaty of San Stefano, in which an independent, Big Bulgaria was created. Seeing that this Bulgaria would be a Russian puppet, Austria intervened, backed up by Britain, the traditional rival of Russia in the eastern Mediterranean. Bismarck volunteered to act as an "honest broker" and called the Congress of Berlin to settle the Balkan problems. At this Congress, Germany sided with Austria and Britain. Russia had to give up the Treaty of San Stefano and sign the Treaty of Berlin. The Treaty split Bulgaria into three parts (Bulgarian Proper was to be independent, Eastern Rumelia and Macedonia were to be ruled under Turkish sovereignty.) and brought Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian military occupation (but not annexation). Russia felt diplomatically humiliated. The anger of Russia turned against Bismarck because he chaired the Congress. Germany sides with Austria Unable to maintain friendly relations with both Austria and Russia, Bismarck chose Austria to be his ally because firstly, Germany preferred a weaker partner which could be more easily controlled; secondly, alliance with Austria would throw open the Danube valley to German trade; thirdly, Austria had racial ties with Germany; fourthly, such an alliance would enable Germany to exercise influence in the Balkans; and fifthly, alliance with Russia would antagonize Britain as Britain did not like her colonial rival to be supported by a strong power. Terms of the Dual alliance On October 7, 1879 Bismarck made the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary. The terms were: (i) each would support the other militarily until the end of the war if attacked by Russia or by Russia and another power; and (ii) each agreed to remain neutral if her ally was attacked by a power other than Russia. Consequences The Dual Alliance gave Germany a firm military ally but committed her more to the support of Austrian interests in the Balkans. In the meantime, however, Bismarck still wanted to keep the friendship of Russia for fear that Russia would turn to the side of France, in which case Germany would face an enemy on both east and west. Triple Alliance - Bismarck had tactfully encouraged France to expand overseas in the hope of diverting her attention away from Alsace-Lorraine. French annexation of Tunis in northern Africa in 1881 alienated Italy, which was ambitious to build up an Italian empire in Africa. Italy was thus driven into Bismarck's camp in anger. Terms of the triple alliance The terms were: (1) If Italy or Germany was attacked by France, each would aid the other (2) If Austria was attacked by Russia, Italy would remain neutral, although Austria would aid Italy if she was attacked by France (3) If one of the parties was attacked by two or more powers, the other signatories were to come to her aid (4) At Italy's request, both Austria and Germany agreed that in no case would the Treaty operate against Britain. Consequences - By this time, a powerful bloc had been formed in central Europe. Germany was now guaranteed against Russia by Austria, and against France by Italy. Bismarck had successfully kept the friendship of both Russia, Austria and Italy and kept France completely isolated. He was indeed a skillful diplomat who was able to handle the European powers for Germany's advantage. Yet Italy's commitment to the Triple Alliance was doubtful because the arch-enemy of Italian unity had been Austria which still kept Italia Irredenta; on the other hand, France was the friend of Italian unity. Once Italy's anger over Tunis cooled off, she would prefer an alliance with France to that with Austria. Franco-Russian Alliance of 1894 Russo-German friendship comes to an end - When William II came to hold absolute power in Germany, he thought that sooner or later Germany -would clash with Russia; so he allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to lapse. He stressed Germany's political and military ties with Austria instead. Such a policy, together with the growing Pan- Germanism, aroused strong Russian suspicion. Russia naturally turned to the side of France, which was the irreconcilable enemy of Germany. Russia turns to France - Although at first there seemed little possibility for Czarist Russia to ally with Republican France, two factors made such an alliance possible: firstly, both felt necessary to form a military pact to offset the military threat of Germany; and secondly, France had floated several huge loans to help Russia to industrialize. Alliances formed - The terms of the alliance were as follows: (I) if France was attacked by Germany or Germany and her ally (Italy), Russia would aid France; in return, if Russia was attacked by Germany or Germany and her ally (Austria), France would aid Russia; (ii) if one or more members of the Triple Alliance mobilized -- they would mobilize to help one another automatically; and (iii) this agreement would continue as long as the Triple Alliance was in force. Consequences - The Dual Alliance ended the isolation of France, created a rival alliance to the Triple Alliance, and, most serious of all, faced Germany with the threat of a two front war. But William II failed to sense the danger at the time. He was contented to have Austria as an ally and continued his drive for power and prestige. Weltpolitik- the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany in 1891, which marked a decisive break with former ' "Realpolitik," and referred to Germany's foreign policy. 1904 Entente Cordiale- the Entente Cordiale, an agreement between Britain and France, resolved a number of longstanding colonial disputes, and established a diplomatic understanding between the two countries, which however stopped short of binding either to any military undertaking in support of the other. Balkan Wars- (1912–13), two successive military conflicts that deprived the ottoman empire of almost all its remaining territory in Europe. Bulgarian Crisis- Refers to a series of events in the Balkans between 1885 and 1888 which impacted on the balance of power between the great powers and conflict between the Austro- Hungary and the Russians. Balkan League- the Balkan League was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan states of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of the Balkan Peninsula. July Crisis- The July crisis was a diplomatic crisis among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that led to World War I. Archduke Franz Ferdinand - Franz Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. The assassination of Franz Ferdinand is one of the reasons for the causes of WW1.
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