Psychology 01 exam 3
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Bacik on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 01 at Lehigh University taught by Professor Gill in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders What can classify as abnormal? What is a disorder? Anxiety before a text or sadness after a loss are normal mental issues A mental disorder can be defined as a persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that cause significant distress or impairment. People with a mental disorder will have problems with… Perception Memory Learning Emotion Motivation Thinking With mental disorders you feel that you can’t live a normal, satisfying life because your disorder impairs general functioning. Example: Individuals with Schizophrenia believe they are fine and aren’t distressed however their general functioning in impaired severely since they can’t reflect on their disorder properly. AROUND 50% OF INDIVIDUALS WILL EXPERIENCE SOME DISORDER VARYING IN SEVERITY AT SOME POINT IN THEIR LIFE Conceptualizing Mental Disorders Many cultures have different behavioral norms causing many people to hide their disorders from the world. In America it is more acceptable to open up about your disorder and there is many means of help available. Psychopathology, the scientific study of mental disorders, in some cultures is still interpreted as possession by spirits or demons Medical Model: Abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that, like physical illnesses, have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms and possible cures. Disorder=Illness Diagnosis: Clinicians seek to determine the nature of a person’s mental disorder by assessing signs and symptoms Classifying Disorders The DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders A classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other similar problems. The DSM includes a detailed list of symptoms Comorbidity: The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual Many people suffer in silence and don’t get diagnosed as they feel as if it is their own burden to bare Not everyone has control over their psychological state Causation of Disorders Etiology, a specifiable pattern, of causes may exist for different psychological disorders A common prognosis in each category of disorders imply a typical course over time and susceptibility to treatment and cure Biopsychosocial Perspective: explains mental disorders as the result of interaction among biological, psychological and social factors Focus: Genetic and epigenetic influences, abnormalities in brain structures and function Factors: Poor socialization, stressful life experiences Diathesis-stress model: A person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress Predisposed to anxiety Biological: genetic, neurotransmitters, brain structure abnormalities Psychological: habits of thinking, always thinking the worst case scenario Social: responses we receive from others, coming from a critical household, coming from poverty Understanding Mental Disorders Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC): a new initiative that aims to guide classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic process that gives rise to them Using the RDoC: Researchers study the causes of abnormal functioning by focusing on biological factors from genes to cells to brain circuits Overall Emphasis on Neuroscience Specific focuses on abnormalities in o Emotional and motivational systems o Language and cognition o Social processes o Stress and arousal Anxiety Disorders -Fear of dangerous things and the fear takes over Anxiety is the class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature Phobic Disorder Long lasting 12% of people diagnosed with fear in lifetime People with Phobic disorder show marked, persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities and situations Claustrophobia Specific Phobia: Fear of a particular object or situation that consistently interferes with a patient’s ability to function Behavior is disrupted Specific Phobias are usually centered on… Animals o Fear of snakes or spiders Natural environments o Strong storms o Water Situations o Small spaces o Bridges Blood, injections, injury Other Social: Irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed. People will go out of their way to avoid public speaking which is commonly feared Preparedness Theory: People are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears o Foundations: o Preparedness theory o Temperament o Serotonin and dopamine o Amygdala Classical Conditioning vs preparedness theory -Learn how to have a phobic disorder -rational Panic Disorders No obvious stimulus unlike phobias Come out of the blue A Panic disorder is characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror Symptoms last a few minutes and are broke down into; o Shortness of breath o Heart palpitations o Sweating o Dizziness o Depersonalization( a feeling of being detached from one’s body) o Deralization(feeling that the external world is abnormal and strange) Some people with panic disorders can go about their normal life but keep safe places in mind such as front of classroom or corner tables in a favorite restaurant Agoraphobia: a specific phobia involving a fear of public places Concordance Rate: Likelihood that if identical twin has disorder you will as well Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD: A chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension and sleep disturbance 6% Of population Easily treated and recovery is very possible People with GAD feel as if they are worried about something all the time and are stuck in their worries Worries include (not limited too) Finances, danger of traveling, family, education, relationships, health Foundations: GABA and serotonin CR-mild Difficult and/or unpredictable life events Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Takes normal impulses to an extreme OCD: repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (such as cleaning) designed to fend off thoughts that interfere with an individual’s time With OCD one can have an irritable urge to go back and check whether you actually locked the door or turned off the oven or if your baby is actually safely in his crib sleeping and etc Foundations: Preparedness theory Cr-moderate Over active caudate nucleus (serotonin activists calm down the caudate nucleus) Obsessions- repetitive intrusive thought Compulsions- ritualistic behaviors to fend off the obsessions Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD: Chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images, avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind Associated with men/woman who have served in combat Also occurs after brutal car accidents Show heightened activity in the amygdala, decreased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and have a smaller hippocampus Foundations: Predisposing factor Low hippocampal volume Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Mood disorders: Mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant features such as depression and bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder: suffer from a severe depressed mood and do not have the ability to experience pleasure that lasts two or more weeks and is accompanied by Feeling of worthlessness Lethargy (lack of energy/motivation) Sleep and appetite disturbances Because of stressors hormones and pure honesty females outnumber males in depression diagnosis Foundations CR 33-45% Serotonin agonists (slow to act) The Allele you inherit from your parents renders your susceptibility to depression One short Allele will make the probability of major depressions episodes higher if one experiences severe maltreatment Two short Alleles has a lower probability One long Allele doesn’t have a high probability whether or not you have suffered sever maltreatment Helplessness theory: individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal Feel as if everything is their own fault Bipolar Disorder Highly recurrent 24% in 1 year 77% in 4 years Bipolar Disorder: Cycles of abnormal persistent high mood(mania) and low mood(depression) where mania lasts greater than a week Two thirds of people with bipolar syndrome witness manic episodes immediately following feelings of depression During Mania one normally experiences: o Grandiosity-thoughts of importance o Wakefulness o Racing mind/speech-hard to listen o Recklessness- the desire to do ill-advised things such as gambling o No second thoughts o Some hallucinations Foundations: CR 40-70% Stress More relapse when family is high on negative emotions Expressed(-) Emotions: a measure of how much hostility, criticism and emotion is used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder Schizophrenia A Psychotic disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception or reality, altered emotions and disturbances in thoughts and behaviors Male > Female “Positive” Symptoms Hallucination-normally voices Delusions- often grandiosity and perception Disorganized speech Disorganized behavior In extreme cases- catatonic Several people with schizophrenia will just stay in the background and pace the same corner or sit still and be rigid but you will have the cases where crime is involved as they can believe that shooting people will add points to their life Chapter 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Why do we need treatment? 25% of the population is qualified for diagnosis What type of therapist do I need? Why fail to seek treatment? Massive personal, relational and financial burdens People may not realize they have a disorder and may believe their behavior/worries are normal Inadequate treatment is a problem How to choose the right therapist Different approaches: Eclectic, psychoanalytic, behavioral Different specialties: depression, anxiety, family situations Eclectic psychotherapy: A form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem. (Most common approach) Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: explores childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems. (Explore unconscious) Seek to understand clearly what you think and what you go through and talk to make you understand your beliefs like you never have before Believe that Understanding your sufferings puts you on a path towards healing Psychoanalysis: assume that people are born with aggressive and several urges that are replaced during childhood development through the use of defense mechanisms Free Association: We want to appear rational so psychologists makes us say first thing that comes to mind and makes sure we are talking quickly and saying the first thing that comes to mind Humanistic/existential Optimism people seek a meaningful life People don’t want to be forced into things Gestalt Therapy cultivate awareness and “ownership of thoughts and feelings encourage people to take appropriate action in life Recognize what you’re feeling and take ownership in your feelings Appreciate what is in your life or make changes Behavioral and Cognitive Emphasis on current dysfunctional thoughts Behavior therapy: change learned behavior via new learning. Use classical conditioning to change and eliminate unwanted behaviors. Cognitive therapy: Help client identify and correct distorted thinking about self-other and the world Help us become aware of beliefs causing us to suffer and challenge them Beliefs: I have to get this done immediately It must be perfect Emotions: Anxiety and stress Constant pressure Cognitive restructuring: Don’t believe everything you think Mindfulness meditation: develop consistent awareness of one’s mind Cognitive Therapy mixed with mindfulness meditation combined is effective for a longer period.
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