Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide BZ 101
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
BZ 101 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE Exam 3 will include questions from chapters 16, 17, 20, 21, 22 and 23. I will NOT limit questions on the test to the content of this guide.Any information discussed in class relevant to these chapters may appear on the exam. Other resources to help you prepare for exam 3 include: quizzes 3 and 4, connect questions, questions at the ends of chapters, questions in the free online learning center (see syllabus) and the TILT study group. CHAPTER 16 1. Describe functions of the urinary system. Excretion of metabolic waste, maintain water- salt balance, maintain acid-base balance (pH of around 7.4) , activate vitamin D to promote calcium absorption, Renin (enzyme) that leads to the secretion of aldosterone, Erythropoietin which stimulates red blood cell production 2. Deﬁne or describe: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of the nephron, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, ﬁltration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion, erythropoietin, diuretic, pyelonephritis, kidney stones, bladder stones, bladder infection, lithotripsy, ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine. Kidneys- produce urine Uterers- transports urine Urinary Bladder-stores urine Urethra- passes urine to the outside Afferent arteriole- leads into the the glomerulus Efferent arteriole- How blood leaves the glomerulus Glomerulus- Another name for Bowman’s capsule (below) Bowman’s capsule- Cuplike structure that contains cells called podocytes that form pores for passage of small molecules Proximal convoluted tubule- Cuboidal epithelial cells with microvilli for reabsorption. Glucose should be returned to the blood stream not passed through urine Loop of the nephron- (Loop of Henle) is a U shaped tube made of simple squamous epithelium Distal convoluted tubule- designed for tubular secretion with numerous mitochondria because of the need forATP and lacks microvilli Collecting duct- last portion of the kidney Filtration- The ﬁrst process of urine. Results in glomerular ﬁltrate Tubular reabsorption- nutrient and salt molecules are activley reabsorbed from the convoluted tubules into the peritubular capillary network, and water ﬂows passively Tubular secretion- Certain molecules (H+ and penicillin) are actively secreted from the peritubular capillary network into the convoluted tubules. Erythropoietin- stimulates red blood cell production Diuretic- Increases ﬂow of urine Pyelonephritis- Infections of the kidney.Associated with Hemolytic uremic syndrome which is e. coli & is more common in children than adults. Kidney stones- “stones” composed of substances such as calcium, phosphate, uric acid, and protein that can be caused by excess animal protein diet, imbalanced urinary pH, or urinary tract infections. Can be treated with Lithotripsy. Bladder stones- Occur as a result of bladder infections or phosphate enlargement (males only). Could be kidney stones that were carried to the bladder. Can be treated with Lithotripsy. Bladder infection- Bladder of the infection. Females are at increased risk because of the shorter urethra. Lithotripsy- breaking up of the stone (bladder or kidney) so it is small enough to pass Ammonia- toxic to cells. Somce ammonia is excreted as ammonium Urea- primary nitrogenous end product of metabolism Uric acid- an accumulation that can crystalize and collect in the joints that cause gout Creatinine- creatine phosphate 3. How do antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone help to maintain water-salt balance in the human body? Antidiuretic hormone- secreted by the pituitary gland and increases reabsorption of water so less water is lost in urine Aldosterone- secreted by the adrenal glands and promotes excretion of potassium ions and reabsorption of sodium ions. Reabsorption of water is based on the reabsorption of sodium 4. The excretion of hypertonic urine is dependent on: 1) 2) 3) see p 302. 1. Reabsorption of salt 2. Establishment of a solute gradient dependent on salt and urea before 3. Water is reabsorbed 5. What happens if there are elevated levels of H+ ions in the blood? Stimulation of the respiratory system— increased breathing rate, the kidneys may excrete more hydrogen ions 6. Beginning with blood entering the nephron by way of the afferent arteriole, describe processes leading to urine formation. 1. Water, salts, nutrient molecules, and waste move from the glomerulus to the inside of the glomerular capsule. These small molecules are called the glomerular ﬁltrate. 2. Tubular Reabsorption— Nutrient and salt molecules are activley reabsorbed from the convoluted tubules into the peritubular capillary network and water ﬂows passively. 3. Tubular Secretion— certain molecules (H+ and penicillin) are actively secreted from the peritubular capillary network into the convoluted tubules 7. Beverages containing alcohol and caffeine will cause an increase in urine output. This urine is more dilute, why? Because it inhibits the secretion ofADH 8. How can diuretics lower blood pressure? Inhibit active transport of sodium at the loop of nephron or the distal convoluted tube 9. When might glucose spill into the urine? Why does glucose not normally spill into the urine? 10. How does the excretory system contribute to homeostasis? Excretion of ions help maintain the water salt balance and keep the acid base balance in the blood CHAPTER 17 11. Deﬁne or describe: central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, neurons, neuroglia, cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin, gray matter, white matter, neurotransmitters, acetylcholine, synaptic cleft, reﬂex, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, ﬁght or ﬂight, rest and digest,Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, MS, ALS, prions, mad cow disease, kuru, meningitis. Central nervous system (CNS)- Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- consists of nerves that carry sensory messages to the CNS and motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands Neurons- transmit nerve impulses Neuroglia- support and nourish neurons Cell body- compact areas that contains nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm not the axons or dendrites Dendrite- receive information from other neurons Axon- path that the signal travels on the terminals from the detrites Myelin- covers some axons to speed up the communications Gray matter- contains cell bodies and short, non-myelinated ﬁbers (axons). Found on the surface layer of the brain and central part of the spinal cord White matter- contains myelinated axons that run in tracts. Found deep in the brain and surrounds grey matter in spinal cord Neurotransmitters- Excitatory- increase the probability of an action potential. Inhibitory- stop action potential Acetylcholine- Aneurotransmitter that is excitatory Synaptic cleft- The tiny space between two neurons Reﬂex- Autonomic responses to a stimulus Somatic nervous system- skin, skeletal muscles, and tendons Autonomic nervous system- Controls involuntary movements Sympathetic nervous system- Especially required during emergency situations. Inhibits the digestive tract. Parasympathetic nervous system- Promotes all internal responses Fight or ﬂight- Associated with the sympathetic nervous system. Hormones in the sympathetic system result in increased heart rate, increased urine production, dilation of pupils and lungs, and increased glucose. Rest or digest- Associated with the parasympathetic nervous system. Includes the formation of urine. Alzheimer’s disease- Most common form of dementia. Brain cells have a formation of plaque around the axons. First symptom is short term memory loss. Parkinson disease- Gradual loss of motor control. Caused by a degeneration of dopamine producing neurons. First symptom is shaking. MS- Autoimmune disease. White blood cells attack myelin found in the brain and eventually neurons in the CNS. ALS- Affects the motor nerves of the spinal cord.Also called Lou Gehrig’s disease, there is not treatment or cure. The brain is still fully functioning but the body is not.An example of this is Dr. Steven Hawking. Prions- infectious proteins. Causes holes in the brain tissue. They replicate and accumulate in the brain tissue. No treatment. Mad cow disease- fatal disease caused by prions that alter and destroy nervous systme tissue in the brain and spinal cord. Kuru- caused by prions binding together and forming lumps in the brain. Contracted by eating an infected brain (practicing cannibalism) Meningitis- An infection of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord. Caused by bacteria and viruses. Diagnoses conﬁrmed by a spinal tap. College students are at the highest risk for being infected. 12. Describe the maintenance of the resting potential. What happens during a resting potential? When the axon is not conducting and impulse. Inside the axon is negative compared to the outside. Due to the unequal distribution of ion (sodium and potassium) across the membrane. 13. What is an action potential? What changes in the plasma membrane cause an action potential? See ﬁg 17.4 Rapid change in polarity across the membrane as an impulse occurs. Depolarization occurs when the Na+ gates open and Na+ being to move inside the axon. 14. Describe the transmission of a nervous impulse across a synapse, including the ++ role of Ca ions, neurotransmitter vesicles, synaptic cleft, and neurotransmitter receptors Ca++ ions enters and synaptic vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane. Neurotransmitter vesicles carry the neurotransmitter to where it can be connected with a receptor. Synaptic cleft is the tiny space between neurons because they don’t ever physically touch. Depending on the receptor and neurotransmitter the can be excitatory and inhibitory toward action potential. 15. How might prescription or illegal drugs affect neurotransmitters? see ﬁgure 17.18 Stimulants increase neuron excitation, depressants decrease neuron excitation. 1. Cause the release of a neurotransmitter (NT) from a synaptic vesicle into the axon terminal 2. Prevent the release of a NT 3. Promote the release of a NT 4. Prevent the re-uptake of a NT (dopamine) 5. Block enzymatic breakdown of a NT 6. Mimic the action of a NT by binding to a receptor 16. List and describe the 3 types of neurons. Sensory neurons- sensory receptors Motor neurons- skeletal muscles Other motor neurons- smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands 17. In what direction does an action potential proceed? Which direction is a nerve impulse conducted..........towards or away from the cell body? 18. Figs 17. 7 and 17.17 (In 17.17, don’t need to know effects on speciﬁc organs, just, in general, the overall effects of each system). Sympathetic- speeds up heart rate, inhibits salivation, dilates pupils, inhibits tears, dilates air passages, stimulates glucose release, decreases intestinal activity, inhibits urination, causes orgasmic contractions Parasympathetic- stimulates tears, constricts pupils, stimulates salivation, constricts bronchioles, increases activity in stomach and pancreas, increases intestinal activity, stimulates urination, causes erection of genitals 19. How does myelin in the PNS differ from myelin in the CNS? What disease affects the CNS myelin? PNS- acts as an insulator, important for nerve regeratoin, formed by Schwann cells (neuroglia) CNS- Myelin is formed by oligodendroglial cells (oligodendrocytes), little nerve regeneration in the CNS Multiple Sclerosis (MS) CHAPTER 20 20. Deﬁne or describe: hormone, endocrine gland, exocrine gland, target cell, peptide hormone, steroid hormone, negative feedback, positive feedback, pituitary gigantism, acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, hypothyroidism, cretinism, myxedema, goiter, hyperthyroidism, exophthalmia, diabetes. Hormone- chemical signal that are used to communicate between cells or body parts Endocrine gland- Ductless gland that secretes hormones into the blood. Slow and prolonged response. Exocrine gland- Secrete their products through ducts ex. Salivary glands Target cell- cells with receptors that bind to speciﬁc hormone Peptide hormone- receptor is found on the surface of the cell Steroid hormone- receptor is inside the cell either in the nucleus or the cytoplasm Negative feedback- keeps homeostasis close to a set point Positive feedback- change brings about greater change in the same direction rather than returning to homeostasis Pituitary gigantism- excess growth hormone is produced during childhood Acromegaly- excess growth hormone during adulthood. Long bones can no longer grow so the effect is noticeable in features like hands, feet, and facial bones. Cushing syndrome- excess production ofACTH (usually by a tumor). Fat is mainly deposited to the midsection. Hypothyroidism- Not enough secretion of thyroid hormones. Children can suffer neurological, intellectual, and motor impairment.Adults can suffer lethargy, weight gain, hair loss, puffy skin, and slowed heart rate. Cretinism- condition of stunted physical and mental growth. Usually due to maternal hypothyroidism that goes untreated in the child. Myxedema- interchangeable with hypothyroidism Goiter- Usually caused by the lack of dietary iodine (enlarged thyroid gland) Hyperthyroidism- Over secretion of thyroid glands. Symptoms include protruding eyes, nervousness, hyperactivity, and abnormal heart rhythms. Exophthalmia- protruding of the eyeball caused by hyperthyroidism Diabetes- disease in which the body cannot properly control the amount of sugar in your blood because it does not have enough insulin 21. How does type I diabetes differ from type II diabetes? See pp 403-404 Type 1- cannot produce enough insulin Type 2- cannot properly sue the insulin they produce 22. Know the site of production/release, target cells and effect (function)for each of the following hormones: hypothalamic releasing hormones,ADH, oxytocin, TSH,ACTH, gonadotropic hormones, prolactin, growth hormone, T4, T3, calcitonin, PTH, cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin, glucagon. See table 20.1 You should also be familiar with the location of the major endocrine glands Hypothalamic releasing hormone- released by the hypothalamus to regulate the anteriour pituitary hormones ADH- Secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates water absorption by the kidneys Oxytocin- Released by the pituitary gland and stimulates the uterine muscles contraction, release of milk by the mammary glands TSH- Released by theAnterior pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid ACTH- Released by the anterior pituitary gland and it stimulates the adrenal cortex Gonadotropic hormones- Released by the anterior pituitary and is responsible for egg and sperm production, and sex hormone production Prolactin- Released by the anterior pituitary and its function is for milk production Growth hormone- Released by the anterior pituitary and is responsible for cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth T4 and T3- Thyroxine and triiodothyronine is release by the thyroid and it increases metabolic rate and regulates growth and development Calcitonin- Released by the thyroid gland and it lowers blood calcium level PTH- Released by the Parathyroids and it raises blood calcium levels Cortisol- Released by the adrenal gland and it raises blood glucose levels, and stimulates the breakdown of protein Aldosterone- Released by theAdrenal gland and is responsible for the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium Epinephrine and Norepinephrine- Released by theAdrenal medualla and is released in emergency situations and raises blood glucose levels Insulin- lowers blood glucose levels and promotes the formation of glycogen released by the pancreas Glucagon- Released by the pancreas and raises blood glucose levels 23. Describe functions of the hypothalamus. Regulates homeostasis CHAPTER 21 24. Deﬁne or describe: testes, scrotum, seminal ﬂuid, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, sperm, acrosome, interstitial cells Testes- Produce sperm and testosterone. Located in the scrotum which is located outside of the body Scrotum- sac outside of the body that contains the testes. Located outside so that it doesn’t overheat. Seminal ﬂuid- how sperm leave the body Seminal vesicles- lie at the base of the bladder and each has a duct that joins with the vas deferens. Prostate gland- single, donut shaped gland that surrounds the upper portion of the urethra just below the bladder and add to the secretion of semen. Bulbourethral glands- contribute viscous ﬂuid to semen Epididymis- ducts where sperm mature and are stored Vas deferens- conduct and also store semen and empties into an ejaculation duct Urethra- conducts sperm Seminiferous tubules- tightly coiled tubules where spermatogenesis occurs Spermatogenesis- process that cells undergo in the seminiferous tubules Sperm- male sex cell Acrosome- cap that covers the head of the sperm cell. Stores enzymes needed to penetrate the egg cell membrane Interstitial cells- produce testosterone 25. What are prostaglandins? In the semen that helps move sperm 26. Why are the testes located outside of the abdominal cavity? To keep their temperature lower. They would overheat inside the body 27. Deﬁne or describe: ovaries, oogenesis, ovulation, oviducts (fallopian tubes), uterus, cervix, zygote, implantation, endometrium, vagina, pap smear. Ovaries- Produce oocyte and sex hormones Oogenesis- mature the diploid cell into a haploid through meiosis which leads to the ﬁrst production of the egg cell. Ovulation- production and discharge of egg from an ovary or ovarian follicle. Oviducts (fallopian tubes)-have ﬁngerlike ﬁmbriae to conduct the ova Uterus- also known as the womb, it houses the developing fetus Cervix- contains opening to uterus Zygote- ﬁrst cell after the sperm and egg are together. Continue to divide until it is a multi- cellular embryo Implantation- When the blastocyst (multicellular ) connect to the wall of the uterus Endometrium- mucus membrane that lines the inside of the uterus (womb) Vagina- receives penis during sexual intercourse, serves as birth canal and as the exit for menstrual ﬂow Pap smear- screening that detects cervical cancer and other precancerous changes in the cervix. 28. Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis? They both are the maturation of the sex cell. Spermatogenesis matures the sperm cell and oogenesis is the production of the egg cell. 29. List the site of production, target and function of the following hormones: GnRH, FSH, LH, testosterone, estrogen and progesterone. For those found in males and females know the function in each sex. GnRH- hormones from the hypothalamus that stimulates the gonads (anterior pituitary) called gonaditropic hormones FSH- targets seminferous tubules which stimulate sperm production LH- stimulates interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone Testosterone- essential for growth and development of male genital tract. Stimulates development of the male secondary sex characteristics. Estrogen- secreted by follicle cells—> thickening of the endometrium. Stimulates and maintains secondary sexual characteristics. Progesterone- secreted by corpus luteum—> causes endometrium to become secretary. Required for breast development. 30. List secondary sexual characteristics of males. Females. What hormones stimulate and maintain these characteristics? Males- deepening of voice, facial hair. The hormone is testosterone. Females- breasts, hair growth, hips widening. The hormones are estrogen and progesterone. 31. Where does fertilization occur? Oviduct also known as fallopian tube 32. What are the phases of the uterine cycle? Characterize each. What hormones regulate these cycles? Follicular phase- FSH and LH levels are low and the follicle is developing into a mature follicle. Ovulation- FSH and LH levels are peaking (day 14) Luteal Phase- FSH and LH levels return to lower levels and there is an early corpus luteum and regressing corpus luteum toward the end. Menstruation- arteries that supply the endometrium (uterine lining) constrict thereby weakening the capillaries. Shedding of the uterine lining. Proliferative phase- Progesterone levels are lower than estrogen. Ovulation occurs at the end of this phase. Secretory phase- Estrogen and progesterone levels are higher and the endometrium is ﬁlled with blood 33. Deﬁne or describe: follicle, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, corpus luteum, ovulation, HCG. Follicle- thicken the endometrium and begins producing estrogen Primary oocyte- contains 46 chromosomes Secondary oocyte- contains 23 chromosomes after meiosis 1 Corpus luteum- causes endometrium to become secretory Ovulation- secondary oocyte is released HCG- maintains the corpus luteum to prevent drop in levels of estrogen and progesterone. Detected during pregnancy tests. 34. Which hormone stimulates ovulation? Aspike in LH and FSH 35. How do hormonal contraceptives prevent pregnancy? List the types of hormonal contraceptives. They prevent the anterior pituitary from releases FSH and LH. Oral, implants, injections, patch, vaginal ring 36. Deﬁne or describe: IUD, diaphragm, cervical cap, tubal ligation, Essure, vasectomy, HPV vaccine. IUD- plastic coil inserted into uterus by physician. This prevents implantation. Diaphragm- Latex cup inserted into vagina to cover cervix before intercourse. This blocks entrance of sperm to the uterus. Cervical cap- Latex cup held by suction over cervix. Delivers spermicide over cervix. Tubal ligation- Day surgery that ties, cuts, or clamps the oviducts Essure- Women goes through the vagina and insert match size sticks into the fallopian tube to close the connection Vasectomy- Cut the vas deferens so that the sperm cannot make their way to the ejaculatory duct HPV vaccine- protects against the 4 most common types 37. How does Plan B or Next Step, emergency contraceptives, work? Some can stop the release of an egg or stop the sperm from fertilizing the egg. It may also stop the egg from implanting in the uterus. 38. List the STDs caused by viruses. List those caused by bacteria. Which STDs can be effectively treated with antibiotics? What is PID? Viruses- AIDS, HIV, Genital herpes, HPV, Hepatitis B, Bacteria- Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Congenital syphilis HIV can be treated to prevent the change toAIDS, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis PID- pelvic inﬂammatory disease happens when STDs go untreated and is a serious condition which can cause difﬁculties getting pregnant. 39. What are the two most common bacterial STDs? Can you be tested for these?Are there effective treatments for these two diseases? Describe. The two most common are Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. You can be tested for these an both can be treated with antibiotics. 40. Deﬁne or describe: benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, cervical cancer, endometriosis, ovarian cancer. Benign prostatic- Enlargement of the prostate. May constrict the urethra resulting in bladder or kidney damage. Treated with medications or surgery. Hyperplasia- Prostate cancer- Most commonly diagnosed cancer forAmerican males. It is treatable if detected early. Testicular cancer- Most common cancer in males 15-35. Cryptorchidism is a risk factor. Highly treatable if detected early. Cryptorchidism- when 1 or more of the testicles are not descended at time of birth. Cervical cancer- can be caused by some HPVs Endometriosis- Presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. Treatment by pain management drugs and surgery. Ovarian cancer- Typically in women over 40. Sometimes described as “silent” because signs may not become noticeable until later stages of the cancer. Women who have not had children are at a higher risk. Treatable with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. CHAPTER 22 41. Deﬁne or describe: acrosomal enzymes, corona radiata, zona pellicuda, morula, blastocyst, cleavage, gastrulation, ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm. Acrosomal enzymes- released by sperm so it can penetrate the zona pellucida Corona radita- what the sperm squeeze through made up of follicle cells Zone pellicuda- plasma membrane on the oocyte surrounded by extracellular matrix Morula- ball of cells Blastocyst- multicellular embryo Cleavage- results in multicellular embryo Gastrulation- results in 3 layers of cells— ectoderm, mesoderm,, and endoderm Ectoderm- outer layer that makes up the nervous system, epidermis of skin, and epithelial lining of the oral cavity and rectum Mesoderm- middle layer that makes up the musculoskeletal system, dermis of the skin, cardiovascular system, urinary system, reproductive system— including msot epithelial linings, outer layers of the respiratory and digestive systems Endoderm- inner layer that makes up epithelial lining of digestive tract and respiratory system.Associated with glands of these systems, epithelial lining of urinary bladder. 42. What adult tissues are derived from the ectoderm? Endoderm? Mesoderm? Ectoderm- outer layer that makes up the nervous system, epidermis of skin, and epithelial lining of the oral cavity and rectum Mesoderm- middle layer that makes up the musculoskeletal system, dermis of the skin, cardiovascular system, urinary system, reproductive system— including msot epithelial linings, outer layers of the respiratory and digestive systems Endoderm- inner layer that makes up epithelial lining of digestive tract and respiratory system.Associated with glands of these systems, epithelial lining of urinary bladder. 43. How does a sperm make contact with the egg cell membrane? What prevents polyspermy? Zona pellucida lift the surface of the egg away for the sperm . Once one sperm is connected the plasma membrane on the egg depolarizes to stop polyspermy 44. What is the notochord? What is the function of the notochord? What happens to this organ in most vertebrates? Notochord- mesodermal cells along longitudinal axis of the embryo. It supports the dorsal. Later it turns into the vertebral column 45. List the extraembryonic membranes of a human and describe their function. Chorion- develops into the fetal side of the placenta Yolk Sac- the earliest site of blood cell formation Allantoic vessels- become the umbilical vessels Amnion- contains the amniotic ﬂuid 46. When does implantation of the human embryo occur? What stage implants? The embryo beings implanting during the second week. 47. Deﬁne or describe: fetus, placenta, umbilical cord. Fetus- Placenta- attached to the uterine wall by the allantois and chorionic villi and is fully formed by the 10th week Umbilical cord- connect the developing embryo to the placenta 48. List functions of the placenta. Produces progesterone and estrogen, functions in gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the fetal and the maternal circulatory systems, fetal and maternal blood do not mix 49. What is gerontology? The study of aging 50. Describe hypotheses about aging...............preprogrammed theories and damage accumulation theories CHAPTER 23 51. Who was Mendel? Austrian mathematician that investigated inheritance at the organism level. He formulated laws of heredity by using pea plants. He concluded that plants transmit distict factos to offspring now known as genes 52. Deﬁne or describe: allele, gene, chromosome, law of segregation, law of independent assortment, genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, homozygous, heterozygous, monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, Punnett square, 9:3:3:1, pedigree. Allele- alternate forms of a gene for the same trait Gene- Chromosome- Law of segregation- Each person has 2 factors an they separate during the formation of gametes. Each gamete contains 1 factor and fertilization gives the ner individual two factors for each trait Law of independent assortment- Each pair of factors assorts independently and all possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes Genotype- the alleles the chromosomes carry that are responsible for that trait Phenotype- individual’s actual appearance Dominant allele- Capital letter, expression of this well be stronger Recessive allele- lower case letter Homozygous- if the allelic pair is the same meaning either WW or ww Heterozygous- if the allelic pair is different meaning Ww Monohybrid cross-Ww X Ww, reproducing with the same genotype Dihybrid cross- a genotype that happens when the individual is heterozygous in to regards like hairline and ﬁnger Punnett square- used to ﬁgure out what the offspring will express 9:3:3:1- likelihood of having trait Pedigree- a chart of the family’s history with regard to a particular genetic trait 53. List inheritance patterns, signs and symptoms of the following diseases/disorders: Tay-Sachs, Cystic ﬁbrosis, PKU, sickle cell anemia (disease), Marfan syndrome, Huntington disease,Achondroplasia, familial hypercholesterolemia. Tay- Sachs- autosomal recessive disorder common among JewishAmericans that results in a lack of the enzyme hexosaminidaseA(HexA). Lysosomes build up which accounts for progressive deterioration of psychomotor functions. Cystic Fibrosis- autosomal recessive disorder which generally causes mucus in the bronchial tubes and pancreatic ducts. Making it hard to breathe. PKU- autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that affects nervous system development. Sickle cell anemia- abnormally shaped red blood cells Marfan syndrome- autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by a defect in the elastic connective tissue protein called ﬁbrillin.An affected person usually has dislocated lens, long limbs and ﬁngers, and caved in chest. Huntington disease- neurological disorder that leads to progressive degeneration of brain cells. Achondroplasia- cause of dwarﬁsm.Autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Familial hypercholesterolemia- passed down through families. Causes very high levels of cholesterol. 54. List the blood types of theABO system and possible genotypes for each phenotype. A- Aantigens on red blood cells, genotype- IAIAor IAi B- B antigens on red blood cells, genotype- IBIB or IBi O- genotype- ii i- has neitherAnor B antigens on red blood cells, AB- Genotype- IAIB 55. What is polygenic inheritance? Know examples from lecture and book. Polygenic inheritance- occurs when a trait is governed by two or more genes (set of alleles) ex. skin color 56. How can environmental factors inﬂuence expression of genetic traits? Know examples from lecture and book. Environmental factors can make an expression of a genetic trait either stronger or weaker. ex. Height can be inﬂuenced by nutrition which is an environmental factor. 57. ☺ - Question- ____ is the elimination of the metabolic waste, while___ is the elimination of indigestible material from the digestive tract. • Answer- excretion, defecation - Question- The primary nitrogenous waste excreted by humans is ____ • Answer- Urea - Question- _____ transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder • Answer- Ureters - Question- The process of ____ occurs in the glomerulus of the nephron • Answer- ﬁltration - Question- If a substance is being reabsorbed, it is being _____ the body. • Answer- returned to - Question-True of False Diuretics decreases the amount of urine. • Answer- False - Question- ____ is the process of Answer- • - The primary nitrogenous waste excreted by humans is ___ • Answer- Urea - Question- ____, secreted by the pituitary gland, stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys. • Answer-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - Question- Females are more susceptible to bladder infections than males because females have____ • Answer-Ashorter urethra - Question-An interneuron can rely information _____ • Answer- from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron - Question- During resting potential ____ • Answer-All of the above • The axon is not conducting an impulse, sodium potassium pumps are actively transporting Na+ and K+ ions across the membrane, the inside of the axon is more negative than the outside - Question- the PNS (Peripheral nervous system) • Answer- is subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems - Question- the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system____ • Answer- causes an increase in heart rate and respiratory rate - Question- Which of the following is NOT a way that a drug affects the brain? • Answer- Builds up along the outside of the brain because it cannot pass the blood- brain barrier - Question- Prions are ___ • Answer- infectious proteins - Question- the physicist, Dr. Steven Hawking has ___ • Answer- ALS or Lou Gehrig’s Disease - Question- Which of the following hormones will allow us to react to emergency situations? • Answer- norepinephrine - Question- Glands that secrete their products into ducts are classiﬁed as • Answer- exocrine glands - Question- The production of hormone is usually controlled in what two ways? • Answer- Negative feedback and other hormone actions - Question- Which of the following endocrine glands does NOT produce its own hormones but stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus? Answer- Posterior pituitary • - Question- Which of the following hormones is produced by the thyroid gland and controls blood calcium levels? • Answer- Calcitonin - Question- A simple goiter is usually caused by____ • Answer- insufﬁcient iodine in the diet - Question- A functional advantage of having human testes in the scrotum rather than in the abdomen is… • Answer- lower temperature - Question- The ____ gland • Answer- - Question- The primary action of hormonal contraceptives including birth control pills is Answer- to prevent ovulation • - Menstruation beings because • Progesterone and estrogen levels are both declining •
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