PSY 315 Unit 2 study guide
PSY 315 Unit 2 study guide PSY 315
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Monday April 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 315 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer Harman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/11/16
PSY 315 Unit 2 Study Guide Chapters 5, 6, 8, & 11 Module 5: Behavior and Attitudes • Differentiate between different types of attitudes. o Implicit attitudes: not conscious, may not know you have it § Cannot consciously recall them o Explicit attitudes: self-reported measures of preference o Embodied attitudes § Our body is changing gas a result of attitude or the attitude changes as a result of our body • Explain how different types of attitudes are formed. o Genetics § Example: two twins have the same attitudes o Classical conditioning; learning by association (Pavlov) o Operant/instrumental conditioning: rewarded/punished for trying something o Observational learning: watching others doing something and having fun= we associate it with having fun • Discuss the ways attitudes and predict behaviors, and behaviors can predict attitudes. o Attitudes predicting behaviors § Automatic behaviors: don’t need to think too much about attitudes in familiar situations § Novel situations: • Too much happening? You don’t have the resources to think about your attitude • Time to think about it? Attitudes better predict behaviors § Spontaneous/quick decisions: • Use your attitude to make a quick decision • More normative event = more receptive of it • Bad attitude toward rude drivers = behavior in reaction to getting cut off will reflect that • Contrast cognitive dissonance theory with self-perception theory. o Cognitive dissonance theory: § Attitudes and behaviors have discrepancies between them— they lead to tension § Some participants came to believe a big lie for a small compensation (i.e. increased to high dissonance) § Theory predicts that the $20 reward gave him enough reason to say the task is dull—he has enough justification § Insufficient reward, on the other hand,= dissonance (discrepancy) o Self-perception theory: there aren’t as many discrepancies because we don’t want to look like hypocrites § Cognitive dissonance relies too much on internal factors § People make inferences about their attitudes based on behavior • Especially when attitudes aren’t clear § Our attitudes are based on the moment at hand • Outline the history of persuasion research. • Explain the different levels of processing in the ELM and HSM models of persuasion. • Identify source, audience, and message factors involved with persuasion. • Propose how individuals can best resist persuasion. Module 6, Ch. 8: Social influence • Differentiate between obedience, conformity, identification and acceptance. o Obedience: doing what someone tells you because you believe you must listen to them o Conformity: giving in to normative pressure, sometimes even when the group is wrong o Identification: accepts behavior due to relationship, not validity of content o Acceptance: view message as truthful or valid, even without the influential source • Explain the motivational processes underlying informational and normative social influence o Informational social influence: If you don’t know how to act in a social situation, you look around to others to find out o Normative social influence: conforming to the group norm even if we know they are wrong § Norm: explicit or unspoken rules of behavior § Descriptive norm= spoken norm of how you need to act in a situation—what people actually do § Injunctive norms= unspoken, what we should do in theory— don’t always do • Describe at least 4 compliance principles and how they work o Door-in-the-face: very large unreasonable request followed with a much more reasonable one that the person will comply to o Scarcity principle: “hard to get”—ex. Playing hard to get when dating is a similar technique § Very desired and sought after; ex. Sales at stores will advertise ending sooner than they actually do because it gets people to come get it before it’s gone o Bait-and-switch: offering something that appear to be a very good value, one they simply shouldn’t refuse § After they accept, replace it with something of less value to them (and more profit to you) o Authority: in general, we are more willing to comply with requests from someone who holds legitimate authority—or simply appears to do so • Summarize the factors in social impact theory associated with influence o Conforming to normative pressure depends on several other things: § Size of the group § Cohesion/group importance § Unanimity—harder to go against the norm § The effect is most powerful when everyone in the group (apart from the one person being persuaded) clearly agree o The theory states that the likelihood a person will respond to social influence will increase with: § Strength—how important the influencing group of people are to you § Immediacy—how close the group are to you (in space and time) at the time of influence attempt § Number: how many people there are in the group • Examine how social influence tactics operate in cults. o How do cults do it? § They create their own social reality § Cult leader is an “expert” on the topic/mission (authority principle) o The group § In-group: anyone who believes the cult/ideas are correct § Out-group: wrong for questioning your participation in the group § This leads to isolating the cult member from their family, because it is preached in the cult that out-group members are wrong o Foot-in-the-door technique: first step is to just come to a “potluck”, then are told to come next week and bring someone else in return for the free food last week § Members are made to feel like they owe the group § Leads to a chain of favors that one always has to repay o Scarcity technique: told that the issue is one that must be dealt with urgently and immediately (time-sensitive) § Otherwise everyone is in danger; crucial to help the cult now— pressured to join Module 7: Groups • Describe the different ways that groups can impact behavior collectively. o 2 types of group influence: § 1. Collective: engaged in common activities but with minimal direct impact § nonsocial groups § 2. Cohesive: 2 or more people are dependent on one another § social groups o Deindividuation: responsibility becomes more diffused when in a large group § Leads to: feeling less accountable, increased arousal occurs in loud, confusing situations, inhibitions lower, increases obedience to group norms, diminished self-awareness • Contrast how social loafing and social facilitation operate to impact performance. o Social loafing: people exert less effort on a team than when alone § Want a free ride § This effect only happens when the task is additive (everyone contributes-- not individually identified) § Presence of others relaxes efforts § Additive tasks of each member contributes to a single group product-- work harder for some o Social Facilitation § We are influenced by the mere presence of others § Triplett study (1879)-- children played piano faster when other students were present § Your performance gets better when in presence of others (ex. Running faster at a track meet with an audience) • Recite the symptoms of group think and identify these symptoms in an historical example. • Describe at least 2 conflict resolution strategies. Module 8: Prejudice • Differentiate between stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination. o Stereotypes (cognition): beliefs about personal attributes of a group of people o Prejudice (affect): attitudes toward members of a group o Discrimination (behavior): physical restricting of groups, etc. • Identify at least two person-level explanations for prejudice. o Attributional biases: the ultimate attribution error § Placing undue emphasis on the person’s personality rather than the actual cause in order to explain something o Self-fulfilling prophecies: we unknowingly can create/fulfill our stereotypes/perceptions of others when interacting with them (because our way of interacting changes) • Describe at least 2 group-level explanations for prejudice. o Scapegoat theory o Realistic group conflict theory § Innate conflict between two groups over limited resources • Compare and contrast 2 forms of sexism. • Explore strategies for reducing prejudice.
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