Exam 4 Study Guide
Exam 4 Study Guide Bio 271
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Securria on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 271 at University of North Carolina at Greensboro taught by Jeremy Ingraham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Anatomy in Biology at University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
Anatomy: Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 25: Respiratory System What are some features of the upper respiratory structures? Nasal cavity, internal nares, nasal conchae, nasal vestibule, external nares, hard palate, oral cavity, soft palate What are some features of the pharynx? Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx What are the four important upper respiratory sinuses? Frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and maxillary What are the important features of the larynx? Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and trachea What is the first splitting section of the bronchial called? Primary bronchi What is the second splitting area of the bronchial called? Secondary bronchi What is the third splitting second of the bronchial called? Teteiary bronchi What is the fourth splitting section of the bronchial called? Smaller bronchi What are some characteristics of bronchioles? They are smaller branches What organ often contains a superior and inferior lobe and sometimes a middle lobe? lung Which lung only contains superior and inferior lobes? left What is the outer most layer of the lung? Parietal pleura What is the inner most layer of the lung? Visceral pleura What is the space called in the lung that often contains fluid? Pleural space What gets air in and out of the lungs? Pulmonary ventilation The pressure of gas inversely proportional to volume of the container is? Boyle’s law Which muscle(s) help with inhalation of pulmonary ventilation? Pectoralis minor and major, external intercoastal muscles, and diaphragm Which muscles help with FORCED exhalation? Rectus abdominis and internal intercoastals Which muscles aids in rising and falling? External intercoastal What would you call the indentation on the inside of the left lung? Cardiac notch What would you call the top point of the lungs? apex What are the air sacs on the lower end of the trachea called? Alveoli What is the point called on the trachea before it splits into the primary bronchi? Carnia Chapter 26: Digestive System What is the process of the digestive system? Ingestion, propulsion, digestion (mechanical/chemical), absorption, and elimination What are some feature of the oral cavity? Uvula, fauces, hard palate, soft palate, lingual frenulum, gingiva, vestibule, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx What are some features of the teeth? Crown, neck, root, pulp cavity, enamel, dentinm gingiva, cementum, root canal, and periodontal ligament What is the hardest surface in the body of the tooth? Enamel What cavity contain something that consists of nerves, blood vessels, and soft connective tissues? Pulp cavity Where are the taste buds located? Papillae What are the important salivary glands in the oral cavity? Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular Each tract of the digestive tract usually contains what things? Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa, and lumen What is the movement of food involving waves of muscular contraction (active process)? Peristalsis What is the fibrous connective tissue on the outside of the esophagus called? Adventitia Which organ of the digestive system contains three layers of muscle? Stomach What is the top layer of the stomach called? longitudinal What is the middle layer of the stomach called? circular What is the bottom layer of the stomach called? oblique There are two sphincters of the esophagus? True (upper and lower) The first layer of the rugae is called? mucosa The dip inside of the rugae is called? gastric pit The bottom of the gastric pit is called? Gastric gland Which cells of the gastric pit secrete a thick alkaline mucus? Surface mucus cells Which cells of the gastric pit secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor? Parietal cells Which cells secrete pepsinogen? Chief cells 2 Which cells secrete gastric, somatostatin, and histamine? Enteroendocrine cells Alcohol is not absorbed in the stomach? False, it somewhat is Aspirin is absorbed in the stomach? true What are the characteristics of the mixing bowl? Consist of bile from liver and pancreatic juice to mix with chime What are the circular folds of the intestinal wall of the submucosa layer called? Plicae What covers the first layer of the jejunum? villi Which cell of a villus on the jejunum secrete mucus? Goblet cell What cell has microvilli and absorbs nutrients of the jejunum? Epithelium What is a feature of the cecum? Ileocecal valve What causes bulges in the colon? Tenia coli What vitamins are absorbed by the large intestine? Vitamin K, biotin, and vitamin B5 Cells of what make digestive enzymes and buffers? Pancreatic acini The liver breaks up into sections of functional units called? lobules Bile is made in the liver. True Chapter 27: Urinary System What are the features of the urinary system? Kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra What is it the term meaning the kidneys are behind the membrane that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity? retroperitoneal What is the space from the tips of the C shape in the kidneys called? Renal hilum What is the outline of the inside of the kidney called? Renal cortex What is the inner space of the kidney called? Renal medulla What is the space in between each pyramid called? Renal columns What are the triangle like shapes on the inside of the medulla called? Renal pyramids The space around and including the renal pyramid, cortex and come of the columns is called? Renal lobe The tips of each renal pyramid is called? Renal papilla What is the term for the ball-shaped capillary bed? glomerulus 3 It goes through the afferent arteriole before the efferent arteriole. True What are the features of the nephron? Collecting duct, distal convoluted tubule, renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, and nephron loop What capillaries are fenestrated and wrapped with podocytes? Glomerular What has finger like projections important for filtration? Podocytes What catches the fluid and send it down the proximal convoluted tubule? Bowman’s capsule What is the flow of fluid in the nephron? Renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct Urine is made up of which three processes? Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion The wall of the muscle is primarily made of what? Detrusor muscle Chapter 28: Reproductive System What are the features of the female reproductive system? Ovary, fimbriae, infundibular, uterine tube, urinary bladder, urethra, clitoris, cervix, uterus, labium minus, labium majus, vagina, and greater vestibular gland What produces oocytes and makes estrogen and progesterone? The ovaries What, like the kidneys, contain a medulla and a cortex? Ovaries What occurs in a cyclical manner? Ovarian cycle What phase of the ovarian cycle results in a growth of egg cell and surrounding follicular cells and high in estrogen? follicular What phase of the ovarian cycle results in the oocyte leaving the follicle and entering the fallopian tube? ovulation What are the important features of oogenesis? Ampulla, isthmus, infundibulum, uterine tube, and fimbriae What sweeps the egg into the infundibulum? Fimbriae Which phase of the ovarian cycle is when there is high progesterone? Luteal phase What is the outside layer of the uterine wall called? Perimetrium What is the middle layer of the uterine wall called? Myometrium What is the inside layer of the uterine wall called? Endometrium What is the area that s framed by the pelvic bones? Urogenital triangle What bones form the urogenital triangle? Ischial tuberosity and pubic symphysis 4 What are the features the vagina externally? Glans of clit, labia minora, vaginal entrance, vestibule, and labia majora What are the features of the male reproductive system? Seminal vesicle, prostate gland, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens, epididymis, spongy urethra, penis, testis, spermatic cord, scrotal septum, cremaster muscle with fascia, superficial scrotal fascia, dartos muscle, scrotal skin, and scrotum What is the big space that the sperm goes through after the ductus deferens? ampulla What are the small balls called on either side of the urethra? Bulbourethral gland What has a total length of as long as 100 meters? Seminiferous tubule What has about 250 per testis? Lobule What is the name for sperm production? Spermatogenesis What cells make testosterone and line tissue? Interstitial cells Capacitation occurs where? Epididymis What contains fructose, prostaglandins, and a bit of alkaline? Seminal fluid Which fluid has a milky appearance containing citrate? Prostatic fluid What makes thick alkaline mucus, protecting the urethral lining? Bulbourethral gland What hold the blood and when filled can cause an erection? Corpora cavernosa 5
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