Criminal Justice exam 3 study guide
Criminal Justice exam 3 study guide JUST 2004
Popular in Crime and Criminality
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabel Notetaker on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JUST 2004 at East Carolina University taught by Abdullah Cihan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Crime and Criminality in Journalism and Mass Communications at East Carolina University.
Reviews for Criminal Justice exam 3 study guide
If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/12/16
Criminal Justice Exam 3 study guide Chapters 7, 8, 9. CHAPTER 7 Social reaction theories: Labeling and reintegrative shaming Labeling- who labels who? And does the criminal justice system target people based on labels? Labeling as a process of symbolic social interaction: Looking glass self by Cooley- people are a certain type of person or become a certain type of person due to others thinking they are that person. The first dramatization of evil by Frank Tannenbaum: removing a youth from his normal group and environment. Defining, identifying, segregating, making conclusions, and self-conscious. Being caught and then labeled turns into a self-fulfilling prophecy (a prediction of what’s to come) Primary and secondary deviance and response by Edwin Lemert: Primary deviance and response- the primary deviant act occurs but does not conform them. They are caught by authorities. (Deviance occurs before being labeled) Secondary deviance and response- How people react to the primary deviance. (Deviance occurs after being labeled) Labeling can either increase or decrease crime. Labeling theory suggests that giving a negative label will often encourage deviant behavior. A negative label acts as an independent variable for crime. Receiving the negative label only encourages criminal behavior. Labeling can be seen as an independent or dependent variable. Labeling as an independent variable- crime is a result of labeling. Labeling as a dependent variable- labeling is a result of crime, relations of power, different tolerance levels, social distance between labeler and labelled, etc. Evaluation of Labeling theory There is no clearly defined punishment since intervening is seen as a cause of secondary deviance. Maintains that youths should especially be protected from labeling Little empirical evidence. Suggestions of labeling theory: Juvenile diversion programs. Diversion and deinstitutionalization Decriminalization Sealing of juvenile records Radical non-intervention Pre-trial intervention Net widening- problem with some juvenile diversion programs. This is what happens when offenders who would have been released from the system are instead placed into one of these programs just because they exist and they can be. Reintegrative shaming theory by Braithwaite Shaming- social disapproval which raises guilt in the person being shamed. Disintegrative shaming- shaming the offender receives in the system, this results in the opposite of the desired effect. Not effective or productive at all. Reintegrative shaming- Productive work with the offender to get rid of their deviancy. A process of shaming the offender’s actions without shaming them personally. Restorative justice- Programs that require offenders to take responsibility for what they’ve done so that they, as well as their victims, can return to normal. The offender and their victim come together to figure out a mutually pleasing solution. EX. financial compensation and community service. Weak support for these programs due to: Challenge of creating standards so that both offender and their victim are treated equally. Challenge of there being no one clear definition of what counts as restorative justice. Challenge of balancing the needs of both the offender and their victim. CHAPTER 8 Social disorganization theory: Social structure, communities, and crime. Social disorganization theory (SDT) is measured on a macro level. Compares crime rates of different communities, neighborhoods, cities, etc. SDT looks at the link between social structure (diversity, poverty), social control (neighborhood watch), community organizations, and criminal behavior. Early studies of SDT- Concentric zone model of urban growth, by Park and Burgess. The further out you go from a city, the older area you will go into. Areas of a city can be classifies by different “Concentric Zones” EX. Chicago is the early 1900’s Zone 1- city center where the businesses and industries reside. Zone 2- Zone of transition where the area transitions from businesses and industries to residential homes. Zone 3- Zone of working class houses. Zone 4- Zone of middle class homes. Zone 5- Zone of commuters (travelers) Population turnover of the 1900’s- People immigrated to cheap locations and move up to better locations as they make more money. Early studies of SDT- by Shaw and Mckay Deviant behavior is highest in the zone of transition and delinquency remains the same regardless of population turnovers. In the early 1880s most of the population was Irish, German, Scandinavian, Scottish, and English…UNTIL 1930 when it turned into the majority being Italian, Polish, Slavic, and Czech. The population increased greatly from the 1830s to 1910. **To sum up the early SDT studies, Extra neighborhood characteristics like poverty, immigration, and population turnovers, lead to crime** Revival of the SDT Neighborhood structure (extraneighborhod) characteristics: indicators of neighborhood social disorganization High concentrated disadvantage- high rates of poverty, unemployment, African Americans, single headed families, etc. Low residential mobility- rate increase or decrease in population(living in the same place for at least 5 years) High ethnic heterogeneity(diversity)- high rates of foreign born people. Neighborhood structure(intraneighborhood) characteristics Informal control: average residents’ attempts to sway crime, intervention in problems. Social ties/social capital: community networks and being engaged in them. Collective efficacy: just like social capital, but has 2 parts. How willing they are to engage in problems for the common good. The shared trust and unity among residents. Collective efficacy measured through surveys: 1.Informal cohesion- likeliness of residents intervening in problems. 2.Social cohesion and trust- belief that there is strong trust and unity. Neighborhood structure link to high delinquency Poverty, mobility, and diversity in social institutions. Poor communities do not have necessary resources. Mobility makes it hard to establish social institutions. Diverse communities make it hard to establish solidarity. **To sum up the revival of the SDT, Extra neighborhood characteristics (poverty, immigration, population turnovers), effect intraneighborhood characteristics (social control, social capital, collective efficacy) which lead to crime** CHAPTER 9 Social structural theories: Anomie and Strain theories Key concepts for social structural theories Society- ways in which people relate and interact (American society) Social institutions- essential components for survival (school, church, families) Social structure- the connections between the different institutions in a society (upper class) Subcultures- smaller groups in a society that have different values and norms (Jocks, gangs) Basic assumptions of structural theories Social forces, social institutions, and the economy are crucial causes of crime rates. EX. Social stratification (division of classes based on wealth and status) influences crime. Upper, middle, working, and lower class. Early Anomie/Strain theories Anomie theory by Emily Durkheim: Anomie is a condition in which there is confusion regarding the social and moral norms. Norms are unclear or not present. Crime is unavoidable or normal. Strain theory by Robert Merton: Anomie is the disconnectedness between legitimate goals and the different ways of reaching those goals. People do this through legitimate and illegitimate ways. There are 5 categories of individuals: Conformity- people that accept the legitimate ways and strive to succeed with those way. People that obey the law. (Goals+, Means+) Innovator- Maintain their success goals but do take part in illegitimate ways of reaching them. (Goals+, Means-) Ritualist- give up the struggle of success goals and focuses on holding on to what little has been gained by strictly obeying the norms. (Goals-, Means+) Retreatist- Gives up on success goals and the effort to reach them. (Goals-, Means-) Rebel- Discards the system completely, both and substitutes it with a new one. (Goals+-, Means+-) Merton was born with the name Meyer R. Scholnick, In the slums of Philadelphia. Attended Temple University on a scholarship, attended graduate school at Harvard, then became a professor at Columbia. Structural theories Status deprivation and the delinquent subculture by Albert Cohen There is a distinct criminal subculture between lower-class people who feel more deprived of opportunities. Anomie arises when lower-class children can’t meet the standards of middle-class. Status frustration- lower-class children become frustrated when they can’t meet the middle-class standards required for approval and status. Classifies lower class children into 3 categories: College boys, Corner boys, Delinquent boys. Differential opportunity and delinquent subcultures by Cloward and Ohlin- Maintained that legitimate illegitimate ways are very similar (both require connections, skills, etc.) Classifies lower class children into 3 groups: criminal gangs (theft), conflict gangs (violence), retreatist gangs (double losers). Focal concerns of lower-class culture by Miller- Actions of groups and gangs is a result of youths adapting to lower class culture because they value: Trouble (violating the law and getting away with it) Toughness (power and strength) Smartness (coning others) Excitement (thrill and adrenaline) Fatalism (being lucky/unlucky) Autonomy (independence or freedom) Contemporary Anomie/Strain theories Institutional-anomie theory by Mesner and Rosenfield Crime and the American Dream-Crime is widespread in American culture because of the dominance of economy. The dominance of the economy weakens other social institutions, resulting in a high level of crime. American exceptionalism- The United States levels and patterns are viewed as exceptional. Decommodification- policies mean to release social relationships from economic considerations. Viewed as a way of reducing crime. Policy implications- Methods to strengthen institutions other than the economy. This can happen by: Applying pro-family economic policies Reducing the relationship between academic performance and future economic projects use of intermediate sanctions to lessen the cost associated with controlling crime Producing extensive social involvement through national service programs General strain theory by Robert Agnew- Negative relationships results in negative emotions which creates pressure that leads to delinquency (strain leads to negative emotions which leads to crime) 4 types of strains: Subjective strain- something identified as a strain by an individual (divorce can be good or bad). Objective strain- something everyone identifies as a strain (death is bad). Vicarious strain- strains of others that an individual witnesses. Anticipated strain- a strain that is expected to occur. Sources of strain: Failure to achieve valued goals- difference between expectations and actual achievements, difference between fair outcomes and the actual outcomes. Removal of positively valued stimuli- lose of something valuable to you Confrontation with negative stimuli- bad things happen Negative emotions- people feel negative emotions such as anger, sadness, etc. when facing a strain. Measured by how often you are experiencing those feelings. How much a strain impacts a person is based on the strains magnitude, recency, duration, and clustering. Delinquency may be used as a way to ease strains.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'