×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to USC - History 111 - Class Notes - Week 8
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to USC - History 111 - Class Notes - Week 8

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

USC / History / HIST 111 / Why did the north and south disagree on slavery?

Why did the north and south disagree on slavery?

Why did the north and south disagree on slavery?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: History
Course: United States History to 1865
Professor: Eric rose
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: final, history, and American History
Cost: 25
Name: HIST 111, Chapter 13 Notes and Final Info
Description: Here are the notes from the book for chapter 13! Don't miss points on your last quiz for not reading! She also gave more info about the final in class, here are notes.
Uploaded: 04/12/2016
16 Pages 61 Views 5 Unlocks
Reviews


HIST 111: United States History to 1865


Why did the north and south disagree on slavery?



Chapter 13 – The Sectional Crisis

Introduction 

∙ Constant resistance from enslaved men and women required a  

strong proslavery government to maintain order

∙ Northern and southern citizens disagreed about the governments  role in returning runaway slaves  

Sectionalism in the Early Republic 

∙ Enslaved workers had been accepted since before the American  

revolution

o Gave rise to revolutionary new ideals as political theorists  

began to re-think natural law justifications for slavery

∙ In the US, France, and Haiti revolutionaries began the work of  

splintering the old order


How did northerners feel about slavery?



o America declared “All men are created equal”

o French issued the “Declaration of Rights and Man and Citizen” o Haitian slaves revolted in 1803

∙ Haitian Revolution marked an early origin of the sectional crisis  o Shattered the assumption that slaves could not also be rulers  ∙ American military service on behalf of both the English and  We also discuss several other topics like How is a vote vetoed in the un security council?

American army during the American Revolution freed thousands of  

slaves  

o As a result free black communities emerged  

∙ Breakdown over slavery occurred over a long timeline across a  

broad geography  

∙ As the US pressed westward questions arose as to whether lands  

should be free or slave  


Why did the slaves revolt in the haitian revolution?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the stages of personality development?

o Constitution said little about this  

∙ Congress admitted Vermont (1791) and Kentucky (1792) as one free

and one slave state  

∙ Louisiana Purchase of 1803 more than doubled the size of the US  and people fought over whether this land should be slave or free

∙ Invention of the cotton gin (1793) also put pressure on the  

expansion of slavery  

∙ Ohio Valley became an early line in the sectional struggle  o KY and TN were slave states while OH, IN, and IL were free  ∙ Borderland negotiations along the Ohio River became known as  

“Black Laws”

o Banned African American voting, denied blacks admission to  public schools, and made it impossible for non-whites to serve Don't forget about the age old question of What hormone stimulates lh production?

on juries and local militias  We also discuss several other topics like What are amish families?

∙ Missouri Territory marked a turning point in the sectional crisis  o ST Louis was a powerful trade headquarters  

∙ In 1817 Congress opened its debate over Missouri’s admission to  

the Union  

o Tallmadge of NY proposed laws to gradually abolish slavery   Southern states were outraged

∙ Heny Clay worked to find a compromise  

o Maine would be admitted as a free state and Missouri would  

be a slave state

o Legislators didn’t want further conflicts so they made  Missouri’s southern border 36/30 which became the dividing  

line between slavery and freedom in the Louisiana Purchase  ∙ Missouri Compromise drew national attention to the increasing  

problem of sectionalism  

∙ There was increasingly heated debates over the intention of the  

framers with phrases such as “All men are created equal”  ∙ Pro Slavery people cited these parts of the constitution o Article 1, Section 2 of the constitution said enslaved people  

were 3/5 of a voter

o Also said congress wouldn’t interfere with the slave trade  

before 1808

∙ Anti-Slavery people cited these parts of the constitution o Constitution never used the word “slave”  

o Framers hoped slavery would end in 1808 We also discuss several other topics like What is the shielding effect of electrons?

o Believed 10th amendment meant slavery could be banned in  the territories

o Pointed to due process clause of the 5th amendment which  said that property could be seized through appropriate  legislation  

The Crisis Joined 

∙ Compromise created a new sectional consensus that most white  

Americans hoped would ensure lasting peace  If you want to learn more check out What is the main purpose of gap junctions?

∙ Rebellion led by Denmark Vesey in 1822 threatened lives and  

property throughout the Carolinas  

∙ Inspired by the social change of Jacksonian democracy white men,  regardless of status, would gain thr right to vote, attend public  

schools, ect

∙ Huge numbers of western, southern, and northern workingmen  

rallied during the 1828 Presidential election behind Andrew Jackson  ∙ Northerners especially friendly to the south became known as  

“Doughfaces” during the Missouri debates  

o Greatly hurt democrats  

o Accusation that northern democrats were lap dogs for  

southern slaveholders  

∙ Major party challenge to the Democrats arose with the Whigs  o Stressed protestant culture, federal-sponsored internal  

improvements, and courted the support of a variety of reform  movements including temperance, Nativism, and even  

antislavery

∙ Lincoln was initially attracted to the Whig party

o Admired Whig leader Henry Clay of Kentucky  

o Blamed Democrats for defending slavery at the expense of  

the American people

∙ Antislavery was not part of the Whig platform so a true antislavery  

party was formed, Liberty Party

o Demanded the end to slavery in DC, ending the interstate  slave trade, and prohibition of slavery’s further expansion into

the west

o Shunned women’s participation in the movement  

∙ Gag rule prohibited discussion of antislavery petitions

∙ Entrance of Arkansas and Michigan kept the balance between slave  

and free states  

∙ Independent Texas soon gained recognition from Andrew Jackson,  but next president Van Buren had reasons to worry about the  

Republic of Texas  

∙ The debates over Texas statehood illustrated that the federal  

government had at last moved in a clear proslavery direction  o Also worried about the admission of Florida as a slave state  ∙ Texas President Sam Houston gained admission to the Union for  

Texas in 1845

∙ 1840s had many upsetting moments for antislavery leaders o Prigg v PA (1842) ruled that the Fugitive Slave Act trumped  

PA’s personal liberty law  

∙ Fredrick Douglass was an escaped slave who sparked the  

controversy over escaped slaves  

o As a child he learned how to read and write and used these  

skills to escape from slavery when he was 19 (1837)  

o Wrote an autobiography in 1845  

∙ 1846 signaled new reversals to the antislavery cause and the  beginnings of a dark new era in American politics  

Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men 

∙ Conclusion of the Mexican War signified the start to the Treaty of  

Guadeloupe Hidalgo

o Infuriated antislavery leaders in the US

o Mexico would cede CA and New Mexico for $15 million  Huge sum of land  

∙ Free Soil Party was formed to try and make sure land was free  o Both Whigs and Democrats nominated proslavery southerners

for 1848 election  

o Quickly evolved into the “Conscience Whigs”  

 Called for a convention in Buffalo, NY

o Platform bridged the eastern and western leadership together  and called for an end to slavery in DC and a halt on slavery’s  expansion in the territories

o Won a dozen house seats and one senate seat in Ohio,  

Salmon P. Chase  

 In congress they could swing power to either the Whigs  

or Dems  

∙ Congressional leaders like Henry Clay and newer leaders like  Stephen A Douglass were asked to draft a compromise to bridge  

diverging interests

o Clay eventually left Washington disheartened  

o Douglass was able to get the “Compromise of 1850” to pass  ∙ Compromise of 1850 worsened the sectional crisis  o Gave more power to citizens to return runaway slaves o New Mexico and Utah would be allowed to determine their  

own fate based on popular sovereignty  

o Allowed territories to submit suits directly to the Supreme  

Court over the status of fugitive slaves within its bounds  o CA came in as free

o Slave trade was banned in DC but was not full emancipation  o Texas was asked to give some of its land to New Mexico  ∙ Fugitive Slave act upset many by creating special federal  

commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives without  

benefit of a jury, trial, or even court testimony  

o Massive expansion of federal power

o Undermined local and state laws  

∙ There was lots of corruption b/c federal commissioners were paid  

$10 if the defendant was found a slave and $5 if they are free o Many black northerners went to Canada  

∙ 1852 election ended the Whig party

∙ 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin which  

aided antislavery efforts  

o Reinforced many racist stereotypes  

∙ 1853, Nebraska Territory extended from northern end of Texas to  

the Canadian Border

o Douglas wanted to complete a national railroad through  

Chicago  

 Salmon P Chase drafted a response saying the Kansas Nebraska Bill was going to be used to overturn the  

Missouri Compromise and open up land to slavery  

∙ The status of Kansas would be up to local elections

o Many migrants flooded the state to protect or stop slavery  ∙ Ordinary Americans resisted what they believed to be pro-slavery  

federal government on their own terms  

∙ Anthony Burns was a 20-year-old preacher who worked in a Boston  clothing shop and was clubbed and dragged to jail b/c he had  

escaped slavery a year earlier

o Word of his capture spread and Bostonians rioted  

o Killed a deputy US Marshall  

o Federal government sent soldiers and placed Boston under  

Martial Law  

∙ Troops lined the streets of Boston as burns was marched to a ship  

where he was sent back to slavery  

o Took $40,000 to reenslave Burns  

o Abolitionists paid $1,300 to return him to freedom  

∙ New England Emigrant Aid Society provided guns and other goods  for pioneers willing to go to Kansas and establish the territory as  

antislavery  

o Politics was becoming militarized  

∙ 1855 nearly derailed the northern antislavery coalition, Know

Nothing party turned attention to anti immigration efforts  o Made impressive gains in New England and the Middle Atlantic ∙ Republican Party launched in Pittsburgh in  

o Charles Sumner was beaten with a cane on the floor of the  Senate chamber by Brooks of SC after an explosive speech  

before congress  

 Accused the assaulter’s cousin a senator named Butler  

of protecting slavery to assault black women  

∙ Violence in Washington paled against the murders in Kansas  o Abolitionist John Brown murdered several pro-slavery Kansans  ∙ 1856 Republicans chose John Fremont to run for office  o was defeated  

∙ 1854 Lincoln carved out a message that summed up the main ideas and visions of the Republican party and eventually committed to the Fremont campaign  

From Sectional Crisis to National Crisis

∙ For those in slavery the news of Fremont’s defeat was harder to  

take, believing they would never gain freedom  

∙ Kansas had issues with voting fraud and despite voting to come into the Union as a free state, the federal government refused to  recognize their votes and instead recognized a sham pro-slavery  

legislature  

o “Bleeding Kansas” was poof that sectionalism was becoming a

national crisis  

∙ Buchanan’s Presidency was defined by the Dred Scott decision,  

Scott v. Sanford

o Blacks could not be citizens of the US  

o National government seemed to commit to extending slavery  

as far and as wide as it might want  

∙ 1857 Buchanan sent US military forces to Utah hoping to subdue  

the Mormon community  

∙ Illinois Senate race in 1858 put the scope of the sectional crisis on  

full display  

o Republican Lincoln challenged Democrat Douglas

 Lincoln lost

∙ Browns raid on October 16 was terrible and was two days long  

before Robert E Lee ended it

o Brown went to the gallows and many northerners showed  

sympathy for him

 This angered southerners  

∙ Republicans did not want to be associated with Brown and trued to  

portray themselves as moderates

∙ For the 1860 election democrats tried to save their splintering party

by running Stephen A Douglas from Illinois  

∙ Republicans made antislavery platform clear and nominated Lincoln  o Won the election with 40% of the popular vote  

o Within days southern states were organizing secession  

conventions  

∙ John J Crittenden of KY proposed a series of compromises but had  

little chance of gaining Republican acceptance  

o Wanted renewed enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law and  to keep slavery in the nations capital

∙ December 20 SC voted to secede and issued its “Declaration of the  

Immediate Causes”

o Claimed large reason being states rights

HIST 111: United States History to 1865

Chapter 13 – The Sectional Crisis

Introduction 

∙ Constant resistance from enslaved men and women required a  

strong proslavery government to maintain order

∙ Northern and southern citizens disagreed about the governments  role in returning runaway slaves  

Sectionalism in the Early Republic 

∙ Enslaved workers had been accepted since before the American  

revolution

o Gave rise to revolutionary new ideals as political theorists  

began to re-think natural law justifications for slavery

∙ In the US, France, and Haiti revolutionaries began the work of  

splintering the old order

o America declared “All men are created equal”

o French issued the “Declaration of Rights and Man and Citizen” o Haitian slaves revolted in 1803

∙ Haitian Revolution marked an early origin of the sectional crisis  o Shattered the assumption that slaves could not also be rulers  ∙ American military service on behalf of both the English and  

American army during the American Revolution freed thousands of  

slaves  

o As a result free black communities emerged  

∙ Breakdown over slavery occurred over a long timeline across a  

broad geography  

∙ As the US pressed westward questions arose as to whether lands  

should be free or slave  

o Constitution said little about this  

∙ Congress admitted Vermont (1791) and Kentucky (1792) as one free

and one slave state  

∙ Louisiana Purchase of 1803 more than doubled the size of the US  and people fought over whether this land should be slave or free

∙ Invention of the cotton gin (1793) also put pressure on the  

expansion of slavery  

∙ Ohio Valley became an early line in the sectional struggle  o KY and TN were slave states while OH, IN, and IL were free  ∙ Borderland negotiations along the Ohio River became known as  

“Black Laws”

o Banned African American voting, denied blacks admission to  public schools, and made it impossible for non-whites to serve

on juries and local militias  

∙ Missouri Territory marked a turning point in the sectional crisis  o ST Louis was a powerful trade headquarters  

∙ In 1817 Congress opened its debate over Missouri’s admission to  

the Union  

o Tallmadge of NY proposed laws to gradually abolish slavery   Southern states were outraged

∙ Heny Clay worked to find a compromise  

o Maine would be admitted as a free state and Missouri would  

be a slave state

o Legislators didn’t want further conflicts so they made  Missouri’s southern border 36/30 which became the dividing  

line between slavery and freedom in the Louisiana Purchase  ∙ Missouri Compromise drew national attention to the increasing  

problem of sectionalism  

∙ There was increasingly heated debates over the intention of the  

framers with phrases such as “All men are created equal”  ∙ Pro Slavery people cited these parts of the constitution o Article 1, Section 2 of the constitution said enslaved people  

were 3/5 of a voter

o Also said congress wouldn’t interfere with the slave trade  

before 1808

∙ Anti-Slavery people cited these parts of the constitution o Constitution never used the word “slave”  

o Framers hoped slavery would end in 1808

o Believed 10th amendment meant slavery could be banned in  the territories

o Pointed to due process clause of the 5th amendment which  said that property could be seized through appropriate  legislation  

The Crisis Joined 

∙ Compromise created a new sectional consensus that most white  

Americans hoped would ensure lasting peace  

∙ Rebellion led by Denmark Vesey in 1822 threatened lives and  

property throughout the Carolinas  

∙ Inspired by the social change of Jacksonian democracy white men,  regardless of status, would gain thr right to vote, attend public  

schools, ect

∙ Huge numbers of western, southern, and northern workingmen  

rallied during the 1828 Presidential election behind Andrew Jackson  ∙ Northerners especially friendly to the south became known as  

“Doughfaces” during the Missouri debates  

o Greatly hurt democrats  

o Accusation that northern democrats were lap dogs for  

southern slaveholders  

∙ Major party challenge to the Democrats arose with the Whigs  o Stressed protestant culture, federal-sponsored internal  

improvements, and courted the support of a variety of reform  movements including temperance, Nativism, and even  

antislavery

∙ Lincoln was initially attracted to the Whig party

o Admired Whig leader Henry Clay of Kentucky  

o Blamed Democrats for defending slavery at the expense of  

the American people

∙ Antislavery was not part of the Whig platform so a true antislavery  

party was formed, Liberty Party

o Demanded the end to slavery in DC, ending the interstate  slave trade, and prohibition of slavery’s further expansion into

the west

o Shunned women’s participation in the movement  

∙ Gag rule prohibited discussion of antislavery petitions

∙ Entrance of Arkansas and Michigan kept the balance between slave  

and free states  

∙ Independent Texas soon gained recognition from Andrew Jackson,  but next president Van Buren had reasons to worry about the  

Republic of Texas  

∙ The debates over Texas statehood illustrated that the federal  

government had at last moved in a clear proslavery direction  o Also worried about the admission of Florida as a slave state  ∙ Texas President Sam Houston gained admission to the Union for  

Texas in 1845

∙ 1840s had many upsetting moments for antislavery leaders o Prigg v PA (1842) ruled that the Fugitive Slave Act trumped  

PA’s personal liberty law  

∙ Fredrick Douglass was an escaped slave who sparked the  

controversy over escaped slaves  

o As a child he learned how to read and write and used these  

skills to escape from slavery when he was 19 (1837)  

o Wrote an autobiography in 1845  

∙ 1846 signaled new reversals to the antislavery cause and the  beginnings of a dark new era in American politics  

Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men 

∙ Conclusion of the Mexican War signified the start to the Treaty of  

Guadeloupe Hidalgo

o Infuriated antislavery leaders in the US

o Mexico would cede CA and New Mexico for $15 million  Huge sum of land  

∙ Free Soil Party was formed to try and make sure land was free  o Both Whigs and Democrats nominated proslavery southerners

for 1848 election  

o Quickly evolved into the “Conscience Whigs”  

 Called for a convention in Buffalo, NY

o Platform bridged the eastern and western leadership together  and called for an end to slavery in DC and a halt on slavery’s  expansion in the territories

o Won a dozen house seats and one senate seat in Ohio,  

Salmon P. Chase  

 In congress they could swing power to either the Whigs  

or Dems  

∙ Congressional leaders like Henry Clay and newer leaders like  Stephen A Douglass were asked to draft a compromise to bridge  

diverging interests

o Clay eventually left Washington disheartened  

o Douglass was able to get the “Compromise of 1850” to pass  ∙ Compromise of 1850 worsened the sectional crisis  o Gave more power to citizens to return runaway slaves o New Mexico and Utah would be allowed to determine their  

own fate based on popular sovereignty  

o Allowed territories to submit suits directly to the Supreme  

Court over the status of fugitive slaves within its bounds  o CA came in as free

o Slave trade was banned in DC but was not full emancipation  o Texas was asked to give some of its land to New Mexico  ∙ Fugitive Slave act upset many by creating special federal  

commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives without  

benefit of a jury, trial, or even court testimony  

o Massive expansion of federal power

o Undermined local and state laws  

∙ There was lots of corruption b/c federal commissioners were paid  

$10 if the defendant was found a slave and $5 if they are free o Many black northerners went to Canada  

∙ 1852 election ended the Whig party

∙ 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin which  

aided antislavery efforts  

o Reinforced many racist stereotypes  

∙ 1853, Nebraska Territory extended from northern end of Texas to  

the Canadian Border

o Douglas wanted to complete a national railroad through  

Chicago  

 Salmon P Chase drafted a response saying the Kansas Nebraska Bill was going to be used to overturn the  

Missouri Compromise and open up land to slavery  

∙ The status of Kansas would be up to local elections

o Many migrants flooded the state to protect or stop slavery  ∙ Ordinary Americans resisted what they believed to be pro-slavery  

federal government on their own terms  

∙ Anthony Burns was a 20-year-old preacher who worked in a Boston  clothing shop and was clubbed and dragged to jail b/c he had  

escaped slavery a year earlier

o Word of his capture spread and Bostonians rioted  

o Killed a deputy US Marshall  

o Federal government sent soldiers and placed Boston under  

Martial Law  

∙ Troops lined the streets of Boston as burns was marched to a ship  

where he was sent back to slavery  

o Took $40,000 to reenslave Burns  

o Abolitionists paid $1,300 to return him to freedom  

∙ New England Emigrant Aid Society provided guns and other goods  for pioneers willing to go to Kansas and establish the territory as  

antislavery  

o Politics was becoming militarized  

∙ 1855 nearly derailed the northern antislavery coalition, Know

Nothing party turned attention to anti immigration efforts  o Made impressive gains in New England and the Middle Atlantic ∙ Republican Party launched in Pittsburgh in  

o Charles Sumner was beaten with a cane on the floor of the  Senate chamber by Brooks of SC after an explosive speech  

before congress  

 Accused the assaulter’s cousin a senator named Butler  

of protecting slavery to assault black women  

∙ Violence in Washington paled against the murders in Kansas  o Abolitionist John Brown murdered several pro-slavery Kansans  ∙ 1856 Republicans chose John Fremont to run for office  o was defeated  

∙ 1854 Lincoln carved out a message that summed up the main ideas and visions of the Republican party and eventually committed to the Fremont campaign  

From Sectional Crisis to National Crisis

∙ For those in slavery the news of Fremont’s defeat was harder to  

take, believing they would never gain freedom  

∙ Kansas had issues with voting fraud and despite voting to come into the Union as a free state, the federal government refused to  recognize their votes and instead recognized a sham pro-slavery  

legislature  

o “Bleeding Kansas” was poof that sectionalism was becoming a

national crisis  

∙ Buchanan’s Presidency was defined by the Dred Scott decision,  

Scott v. Sanford

o Blacks could not be citizens of the US  

o National government seemed to commit to extending slavery  

as far and as wide as it might want  

∙ 1857 Buchanan sent US military forces to Utah hoping to subdue  

the Mormon community  

∙ Illinois Senate race in 1858 put the scope of the sectional crisis on  

full display  

o Republican Lincoln challenged Democrat Douglas

 Lincoln lost

∙ Browns raid on October 16 was terrible and was two days long  

before Robert E Lee ended it

o Brown went to the gallows and many northerners showed  

sympathy for him

 This angered southerners  

∙ Republicans did not want to be associated with Brown and trued to  

portray themselves as moderates

∙ For the 1860 election democrats tried to save their splintering party

by running Stephen A Douglas from Illinois  

∙ Republicans made antislavery platform clear and nominated Lincoln  o Won the election with 40% of the popular vote  

o Within days southern states were organizing secession  

conventions  

∙ John J Crittenden of KY proposed a series of compromises but had  

little chance of gaining Republican acceptance  

o Wanted renewed enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law and  to keep slavery in the nations capital

∙ December 20 SC voted to secede and issued its “Declaration of the  

Immediate Causes”

o Claimed large reason being states rights

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here