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Military History Final Review

by: Amy Brogan

Military History Final Review HIST 2051-001

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A Review covering everything from the beginning of the American military in the Revolutionary War to Part 1: end of Vietnam Part 2: A quicker version of the study guide as reviewed in class. Fro...
American Military History
James Streckfuss
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This 56 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan Military History Final Review 9 Principles ofWar: Mass Concentrate combat power at the decisive place and time Objective Direct every military operation towards a clearly defined, decisive, and attainable objective Offensive Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative Surprise Strike the enemy at a time, at a place, or in a manner for which he is unprepared Economy of Force Allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts Maneuver Place the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power Unity of Command For every objective, ensure unity of effort under one responsible commander Security Never permit the enemy to acquire an unexpected advantage Simplicity Prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and clear, concise orders to ensure thorough understanding Colonial Period: King Philip’s 1675 Indian leader led a revolt against Colonists defeat Settlers live War the colonists/English. Intercolonial the Indians and among the armies had to adapt their battle end the war. Indians on New skills to keep up with the Indian England at the guerilla warfare. beginning and end of the war. King 1740 CharlesVI dies, escalating the This extended to Colonists and George’s conflict between France and North America. British regulars War England. continued to be at odds with one another. Siege of 1744- French ships attacked merchant Short victory, and Colonists more Lewisburg 1748 chips at Lewisburg. A year later land gained in the and more at odds William Pepperell led a successful siege is given back with British. siege and overtook Lewisburg. IN to their previous 1748 the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle owners. was signed. French and Starts in America before Europe. Land is given back Great Britain Indian War Indians play both sides, butmostly to France at the promises that side with the French. British “win”. end. Colonist taxes will not go up. Battles of British have adapted too using a European forces Militia volunteers Louisburg light infantry, scouts, camouflage not entirely are treated with and (face paint), and recruiting locals averse to kid gloves so they Ticonderoga for territory information; but they adaptation to won’t leave. hold onto usual tactics (and bright local conditions red uniforms.) when necessary. Battle of British landing hindered byrain, so Worked within Quebec they have to scale cliffs and fight one week. without horses or cannons. Summery: Increased tensions between Spain, Different tactics: Muskets (smooth France, Britain, and their colonies. Standard: canons barrels) being (After the Armada isdefeated, the in front, lines of replaced by Rifles Spanish are on the decline.) armyand infantry (spiraled barrels.) behind. Rifles are not Colony: ambushes really popular till the Civil War. Leading up to the American Revolution:  People: o LTC. G. Washington: failed in the French and IndianWar atgetting back land, butgained valuable experience with combat and how to deal withMilitia men o Robert Rogers: organized the first ranger unit to fight guerrilla warfare (1755) o Native Americans: communities constantly shifted sides during the wars o Sons of Liberty: fight for fair taxes using the cry “No taxation without representation”  Insurgency, Revolution, CivilWar (Fill in the differing definitions) o Insurgency: ___________________________________________________________ o Revolution: ___________________________________________________________ o CivilWar: _____________________________________________________________  Treaty of Paris – ends the French andIndianWar  Cost of War o The British said the mainland would pick up the cost of the French and Indian war, but since the national debt doubled (to 145 million pounds), they started to tax the colonists. o The colonists’ taxes (Which ones?) have to be repealed by Parliament to maintain control. In exchange for this, Parliament enforces the recognition that they have power in the colonies by later making more taxes.  Colonial Discontent o Proclamation Line – no settlement is allowed west of this boundary and the land is reserved for Native Americans. But the colonists settle there anyway, angering the natives. Pontiac lead the destruction of several forts in 1763 and 1764. o Sugar Act – 1764 - ____________________________________________________ o Stamp Act – 1765 - ___________________________________________________ o Quartering Act - _ - legitimized housing troops o Boston Massacre – 1770 – Young troops were stationed and armed under supervised in civilian places. The colonists threw snowballs, sticks, and stones at a British squad, and their captain called for more troops. They were also attacked, and shots were fired into the crowd, killing three. Two more would die of their wounds. The soldiers were put on trial and defended by John Adams and Josiah QuincyII. Only two were charged with manslaughter. o Intolerable Acts – 1774 – Townshend Revenue Acts: _____________________________  Lead to the Boston Tea Party  Colonists poorly disguisedas Indians threw tea into the harbor, it wasn’t the only tea party, but the most famous one. The Patriots swept the deck after they were done. o Tea Act - _____ - monopoly with the East India Trading Company  March on Lexington andConcord – 1775 o British attempt to break up andconfiscate arms stocked by colonists. PaulRevereand William Dawes warned them and the militia formed together to deter the British. No one really knows who shot first, but the British were put into retreat and suffered several casualties. o “Shot Heard ‘Round the World” o Begins the RevolutionaryWar  Bunker Hill – June 1775 o Several mistakesmade by both sides (British sacrifices surprise, Americansviolated unity of commandand mass) and the battle is a draw. The Americans take it as a win because they were able to hold their own against the professional Britisharmy. American Revolution: InformationOperationsWar The Bloody Massacre By PaulRevere Print inaccurately depicted the Boston Massacre 1770 Common Sense Thomas Paine Pamphlets 1776 Declaration of 1 Continental A logical layout why the colonists were Independence Congress tearing away from Britain. Included a list of grievancesand a new concept: governments derive their powers from the people. List of Grievances:  Standing armies in times of peace  Quartering of troops  Taxes  Taking away their charters (their first attempts at self-government) Evolution of British Strategy:  Phase 1: o 1775 – British are still treating the Revolution as a localized problem inmajor cities  Phase 2: Begins with the Boston Tea Party  1776 – fighting is still concentrated in denser populated areas, but through severalcolonies  New YorkCampaign– o initial idea was to attackNew York to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies because it was the head of the radicals o Once war got underway: British sent 32,000 troops to New Yorkwith help from Navy, commanded by GeneralHall o Washington split his forces but was put on the run. The Britishgot hung up, so the patriots escaped and regrouped in Manhattan. Hall did not take opportunity to take out the flank-able Patriots  Retreat through NewJersey – British isrun into New York byWashington’s pin-prick attacks o Washington needed to keep the revolution alive. The longer the war, the greater the colonists had the advantage.  1779-1781 – Britishmoved south attacking population centers  Campaign of 1777 – lack of coordination and command o No head commander, “right hand unknowing of the actions of the left” o Washington figured out where Hall was heading and left for Philadelphia  Philly home for continental congress, closet thing to capital at the time  BrandywineCreek – Hall defeatsWashington and takes Philly;Washington loses at a German town, but Hall could not demolish the continental army  Phase 3: o Saratoga – Sept-Oct 1777 -quickibility of local militia, giving the regular forces a problem and not easily defeated; McGowan surrendersat Saratoga  Showed French that colonist strong enough to defeat British, but need help, so they obliged  Enter the French (And the Spanish, but only in funds)  British Command Climate: o LTG HenryClinton: gain the hearts and subdue the minds of America o LTC Banastre Tarleton: Nothing will secure the people but fire and sword  Faux pas of Pacification o Boots on the ground v. heartsand minds o Hired foreign mercenaries, fomented slave rebellions, incited Native American to raid frontier colonists  Why did they start the slaverebellions?  Why did they move south? o The Fall of Savannah - ___________________________________________________ War in Britain: Keeping the fight going in the colonies was expensive and needed the political support of Parliament. EdmundBurke was seen as a traitor for his opinions of a war fought against the will of the people. “People crushed by laws have no hope but will evade power. If the laws are their enemies they will be enemies to the law, and those who have the most to hope and nothing to lose will always be dangerous.”The other membersof Parliament said he should not have bent to the will of colonial wishes. The National debt was enormous because the French and Indian War hadalso been expensive, and they knew they couldn’t pass the cost of this war (260 million pounds) onto the colonists to pay. Battles: (Fill in the dates) st Battle of Lexington 1 Strategic target of British easily defeat ad the British hoc minutemen Battle of Concord Americans used Indian Defeated the British, tactics increased moral Battle of Bunker Hill British failed first 2 Battle is a draw with attempts, received 400 each side claiming fresh troops and partial victory. British succeeded the 3 time failed strategic victory and sustained loss of 44% of forces. Considered America’s 1 major win. Battle of Long Island Strategic importance of British triumphand New York. Americans Americans flee to had advantage over Brooklyn. terrain, but captured soldiers breached this. Long Island cont. X British continue to American morale capture land where declines and they begin they believe rebels are. to lose faith. Battle of Trenton Dec. 26, _____ Washington launches Hessians surrender. surprise attack, Confidence and loyalty surrounds Trenton. built in troops. Battle of Princeton British hunted down Washington’s troops the continental army, evacuate toward but delayed by a Princeton. Changed the skirmish, then they tide of the war. can’t cross the creek for another day. Final Battle: Yorktown – October 1781 British generalCornwallis is isolated and tries to rally by sea, but the French Navysails into Yorktown and keeps them from retreat. He is forced to surrender, and his surrender leads to a loss in support for the war in Great Britain. The Revolutionary War ends. Question on the Day: How was it the world’s preeminent economic and political superpower of the late 15 century was unable to winagainst a loose confederation of dysfunctional, divided, backward, and weak states?  Guerilla war  Mindsets of the Americans (this is out home andwe must defend it) and the British (Easy war, from another continent that takes time, effort, and money to supply troops and toupkeep them)  British dependent on their Navy, if the Americans did not gain the French Navy, we may not have won o French Navyalso important because it forces the British to pay attention to the Caribbean;Americans not a threat out on the ocean; British have to dilute their forces to guarding the ocean  The ColonialMilitia knew the land better than the imported British Soldiers o The British had a better chain of command, and leaders with military training Beginnings of Professionalism – 1783-1860 The British had a regular, standing armyduring the reign of Oliver Cromwell, but it was expensive. The young Americans were against suchan armyreflective of their former strong government. Support for the militia declined under this. Washington suggest a balanced solution, but it was rejected by Congress. Washington’s Plan:  Regulars would protect the land and shore o More navy than army  Uniformed militia would defend on the local level  Federal government would supply weaponryand equipment  Academies would train and instruct forces Articles of Confederation were weak, and the necessary army they built consisted of only 718 troops, partly because some states fell short in their enlisting. Daniel Shay, a farmer inMassachusetts, led a rebellion of former militia men who could not afford to keep their farms from debt collectors. They acted by closing down courthouses so they couldn’t be sued, they also captured weapons. Nationalists were petrified by the rebellion; Washington, who didn’t frighten easily, was “mortified beyond expression.” This crisis atmosphere led to Constitutional Convention. Second Continental Congressand the Bill of Rights The meeting was called the amend the articles of confederation, but they ended up throwing out the whole thing and starting over. The second amendment (which was really the fourth, but was raised due to bills being cut) called for a well-regulated militia that could be replaced by the right of citizens to bear arms. They also distinguished between the army and the militia. Congress can summona land force and a navy, can make regulations for state militia (which the state can either follow or disregard), and canactivate the militia. 1789 – Department of War Calling Forth Act (1792) Delegated the power of calling the First he had to ask the rabble to militia to the President disperse, then ask permission of a judge before calling them. One called, they could not be out for more than three months in a year. Uniform Militia Act All able-bodied white men 18-45 Uniformity problemsbetween states to enroll; all re-enrolled men to equip themselves and be trained by the state All this lead to a small standing army anda miniscule navy with costal forts. Stadart believed in state-of- the-art battleships and an industrial base to sustain them over long term, but Jefferson had small, one- gun ships built instead to patrol the coast combined with costal forts. It was also smaller because it was all they could afford, and it was the opposite of what their former British rulers had implemented. Changes:  Demographic: increasing population, and increasing land andwater territories.  Market: industrialization including the wide-spread use of power looms and the building of factories.  Transportation: constructions of canals (Erie: Hudson to Great Lakes); steamboats (could go upstream, but needed frequent loading stations for coal); railroads (rails had to be the same size between states so whole cargos didn’t have to be unloaded; North hadmore railroads than the South, and thus a greater logisticaladvantage)  Communication: Telegraph, Pony Express, newspaper expansion ArmyProblems: Nobody could decide who was paying for what (does the state pay for weapons, or the Federal government). The composition of the military was still being argued between a large army, navy, or combination thereof, as well as their mission. What was the purpose of the armygoing to be? As to leading the military and civilian militia, howmuch power was hegoing to have. The position of Commander inChief had not been established yet. Also the British were irritated that they lost the war, so the US had to be prepared to fight their professional army in the future, while also having the skills to fight the guerilla style warfare of the Indians, who were being pushed out of their land. Washington claimed that they needed regular troops or they would face disaster, while Congress held onto the idea that standing armies were against the principles of a republican government. Federal arsenals and factories were established in 1794. West Point academywas originally establishedas an engineering school, but morphed into a military school that used its engineering roots to construct forts. The Northern Frontier (1783-1812) Josiah Harmer led regularsand militia in October of 1790 against Indians in western Ohio. The militia was not well trained, so muchso that many could not even load their muskets. There were beaten and forced to retreat to Fort Washington. Sinclair led a similar combined force in 1791 and suffered a defeat at St. Clair’s. TheMiami Indians inflicted about 900 casualties, the most suffered at the hands of natives up to this time. Washington’sWar (1790-1795) Battle of Kekionga (Harmer’s Oct. 20-22, 1790 1050 Natives vs. 540 USArmy Defeat) Casualties: Natives, 120-150; Army, 129 KIA, 94 WIA Battle of Wabash (St. Clair’s Nov. 4, 1791 1000 Natives vs. 1000 US Army Defeat) Casualties: not equal Natives, 61; Army623 KIA/POW, 250 WIA, +57 civilians and women KIA A confederation of Miami, Shawnee, Delaware, andWyandot Indians defended the Ohio country strongly encouraged by the British. They were led by Blue Jacket of the Shawnee and Little Turtle of the Miami. In the army, nobody had a clear idea what themission was, and the so-so results reflected this. The military leaders often had no military training and were elected. It was common for the town pastor or mayor to be in command. As Congress was unlikely to fund a broken military, Anthony Wayne was placed incommand of a 5200-person force known as the “Legion of the United States.” He established new forts, and fort recovery atMaumee Rapidsand St. Clair. He lead the defeat of the Native Americans in the Battle of Fallen Timbers (Aug. 20, 1794). The Indianswere relying on backup from the British, which didn’t come. They were forced to sign the peace Treaty of Grenville (Aug. 3, 1795) and lost the territory of Ohio. They also abandoned the British forts in Ohio because of the failure of the British. *America had made it known they could makean armyand defend their territory. War of 1812 British attacking All the way up till the Attacking and Impressed captured merchant ships war starts “searching” sailors into their navy American merchant ships for deserters. HMS Leopard engages June 22, 1807 Ship attacked and Jump-starts need for USS Chesapeake sailors captured action Embargo Act Dec. 1807 Commercial boycott Did nothing to deter the of British goods attacks, and the US economy suffered Fill in any extra information below: Part 1 Americans achieve Britain occupied in France, some success so not fighting in Canada US declares war of June 18, 1812 Britain USS Constitution Aug. 19, 1812 defeats HMS Guerriere Commander Perry Sept. 10, 1813 earns US victory at Lake Erie Part 2 Britain comes back Britain dominates British burn Aug. 24, 1814 Washington D.C and the White House Successful defiance of Sept 13-14, 1814 Fort McHenry Treaty of Ghent Signed Dec. 24, 1814 War ends Part 3 Andrew Jacksonwins Jan. 8, 1815 War is over, but US saves face. The war the Battle of New communication was a draw, but then Orleans hadn’t reached Jackson made it so the Jackson yet. Americans could say they beat the British, twice. Lessons from 1812-1814: TheAmericans learned they had to work on joint operations, supplying force in the field, the flaws in their militia system. Theyrealized they had an outstanding army, but a weak infantry. After the war they reorganize andmake a stronger force of 10,000 men. They divide into districts, create a secretary of war, begin to form a general staff, and improve west Point and the costal forts. John C. Calhoun’s“Expansive Army” concept: Maintaina basic organization able to respond when necessary, but without big standing army in peace time, as long as wemaintaina command structure down to small unit levels. The officer corps are seemingly bigger than we need in peacetime so we have the structure we need in times of war (pull in the enlisted men). Officers will know what they are doing, and do it quickly. This remains the concept (1819) through end of the 19th and beginning of20th century. He was the commanding general for the armyand called for several reformssuchas: a depot system for supply, a surgeongeneral, generalrecruiting vs. regimentalrecruiting, weather updates, and other improvements and overallmilitary education. American Military Thought (1815-1860)  Professor Dennis HartMahan – naval theorist  General HenryW. Halleck – army leader  Jomini – deputy of Napoleon, major military thinker o Taught: concentration, interior line, unity of command, offensive, decisive point, surprise, levels of war, annihilation, logistics (lines of operation), timeless principles o His points become nine points of command Going West (Military and ingeneral)  Forts and Explorers – success of Lewis andClark  Protecting trade routes  Enforcing federal authority More Indian Problems:  Dragoons and calvary  Black hawk  Second Seminole war 1835-1842  Armyas enforcers of policy Texas and Prelude to War Texas gained independence from Mexico inMarch of 1836. There were several difficulties in annexing Texas asa state. Mexico was still being problematic, and Texas was a slave state, which would have made the slave-to-free state ratio off-balance in Congress. Expansion Policies and the Presidential Election of 1844 The presidency was more and more caught up in the idea of manifest destiny and wanted to expand all the way to the Pacific. James K. Polk wins and isconsidered one of four or five of the most important presidents because he settles border disputes of Canada, picks the war with Mexico and winds up gaining the victory againstMexico andgaining the largest single piece of land after the Louisiana purchase. James K. Polk  Elected 1844 – considered one of five of the most important presidents, only one term  His slogan was “54-40” in reference to the latitude lines he wanted America to extend to  Political moves o Negotiated a wayfor Canada and America to have deep Pacific ports.  Canada hasVancouver, America has Seattle o Polk wanted Mexico to start the war so he could convince Congress to start war  The soldier skirmish on the RioGrande River was enough  “Mexico… has shed American blood upon the American soil…”  Congress is quick to move when Americans have died  Approves war with MexicoMay13, 1846 and recruitment of 50,000 troops  Modern Examples: Pearl Harbor, Vietnam, 9/11 attacks MexicanWar 1846 United States starts out with Louisiana territory, the Northwest territory, and Florida, but sets its sights on obtaining Canada, upper California, and NewMexico. Polk went asfar asto want all of Mexico. Their strategy was three-prong: attack from the North, West, and East by the sea. North: Taylor  2 small battles at PaloAlto and Resaca de Palma before war declared  CapturedMonterrey  Underestimated Mexican pride, Santa Anna moves north  Battle of Buena Vista (Col. Jeff Davis“saves”US position)  Santa Anna withdrew tomeet new invasion  Taylor held firm – waiting for reinforcements, comes to stalemate West: Kearney/Stockton  John Fremont (secret order) join US settlers in revolt v. Mexican authority – Bear Flag Revolt  Small US force was able to exploit scatted/poorly led Mexican troops, and to secure California  Stephen Kearney and his Army of the West (2000 vol.) moved on Santa Fe after war was declared  He quickly captures NewMexico unopposed, moves on to Southern California  Mexicansmount a stiff resistance at L.A./San Diego but Kearney reinforcements win in 1847  President Polk now claimed no peace treaty would be accepted from Mexico without yielding California to the US The Bear Flag Revolt: June1846 War was declared onMexico, the Americans living in California declared independence from Mexico. John C. Fermont leada revolt againstMexico to gain territory of California. The leads raise the bear flag in defiance of Mexico. Amodified version is nowCalifornia’s state flag. South: Winfield Scott  Gen. Scot slowly opens new theatre March1847, breaksthe stalemate in North  Decisive campaign in the south, amphibious landing in Santa Cruz (taken in2 days), march west is delayed because Scott is there right at the start of yellow fever season, delays for a little bit of time  March west to MexicoCity meets little resistance asMexicans draw them inlandaway from supplies  CerroGordo – engineers save the day  Puebla (50 mi.) – 3000 sick because of the local water  Mexicans retreat halt on the city – Contrerasand Churubusco  Mexicans take8000 casualties to US 1000  Scott could have taken the city, but pauses for armistice –gave Santa Anna time to build defenses  Final battle at fortified hill of Chapultepec o Chapultepec: now a big park in center ofMexico City, equalto CentralPark, thereis a castle that was important in the battle is now a tourist destination, MC biggest city on the continent th  The following infantry assault is bloody, but soon captured the city on the 14 of September Treaty of Guadalupe: It is a disaster for Mexico, who isforced to sign it in 1848. Mexico loses half of its territory. The US pays 15 million for the Mexican cession and later (1853)another 10 million for the Gadsden Purchase for the territory south of the Gila river in Arizona so the railroad could build throughout. Scott’s campaign considered a major stroke of militarygenius. The Duke ofWellington (defeated Napoleon) characterized Scot as the world’sgreatest general.  Other areas of interest (To know) o Expanding peacetime armyand independent military schools o Steam engine – enhanced warfare at sea and commercial trade throughUS  Expensive, inefficiently used coal, cumbersome, decreased space on ships o Period in which maritime travel changed from sailpower to coal power  Restricted to access to coal, can catch ship on fire  Interested to adding colonies to have access to coal  Cango upstream, against currents, don’t have to rely on winds  Cango anywherewith the wind, but could take a like while o Camel Corps: functionally more efficient in the desert, but the railroad even better so replaced quickly by rails and telegraph system o The DahlgreenGun  Delivered a more effective shot smaller than current weapons o Percussion Cap  New ignition system that replaces flintlocks  Allowed rapid fire o The Rifled Musket o Breech vs. Muzzle Load  Breech load leads to a clip for rapid fire  Marksmen could hit a target 4 times farther thanwith flintlocks  Contributed to making the CivilWar the bloodiest in American history Civil War  Underlying causes of the war o Slavery: undoubtedly but why? African slave trade was outlawed 1 Jan. 18108  Economics th  Voting rights political clout (3/5 clause 1787)  Religion andmorality  Abolitionism “domino theory” o State rights and constitutionality  Really just an excuse o Cultural societal differences  Proximate preludes to war o Uncle tom’s cabin: against the horrors of bondage, makes enough importance for Lincoln to introduce Harriet Beecher Stowe as the “little lady who started the war” o Dred Scot: slave, master taken him out of the south into free territory, where they stayed a while and sued to be given his freedom. Supreme court (worst decision ever made) rules that property rights not destroyed  Fugitive slave act:made law enforcement officers responsible for the return of runaway slaves; before this, slaves could escape  North begins to believe slaverymay not die out on its own and may spread back into the north o John Brown Abolitionist leads raid on Harper’s ferry - captured, judged, and hanged  Hero in the north, villain in the south o Lincoln’s election and rise of republicans  Victory hailed in the north and condemned in the south  4-way race: red states Lincoln wasn’t even on the ballot o Population density:  North more populated than the south  Slave population is dense in the south, but not about to give them a gun, slaves more likely to join the north anyway o South Carolina first states to leave, only one to leave before 1860 when Lincoln elected o West Virginia seceded from Virginia because they don’t want to leave the union  Confederate Constitution: State’s rights? o Article VI Section 3 – strong federalgovernment from the start  “This Constitution… under the authority of the Confederate States, shall be the supreme law of the land…”  Revolutionary problems: hadn’t developed national identity. Same here  Robert E Lee became a confederate general because his stateVirginia left, so he felt compelled to as well o Article I section 10 – trying tomake a one country, and scrap the state militia  “No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation…[or] coin money…”  “… nor shall anyState keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war…” o Article IV section 2 – slaverybuilt right in  “… and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby impaired.”  “No slave… in any State…escaping… shall, in consequence… be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such slave belongs, or to whom such service or labor may be due.”  replicates Dred Scott decision  replicates fugitive slave act o Article IV section 3 – intended to bring slaveryback into concurred territories  “In all… {newlyacquired] territory, the institution of negro slavery… shall be recognized and protected by congress…and the inhabitants… shall have the right to take to such territory any slaves lawfully held by them in any of the States…” o Confederate States of America: Alexander Stephens  “[TheConfederacy’s] foundations are laid, and its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural andmoral condition.” – Alexander H. Stephens Vice President, CSA  Slavery is why theyare fighting, Negros are not equal to white people The North had more of everything compared to the South except in cotton production. The South was relying on this to get through the war (continue to trade with other countries for resources) but all able- bodies men left the plantations to go fight. This left the women, who weren’tgiven this power before, to rule over the slaves and make them work the land. Then there was the blockade and trade was cut off. And then Sherman marched throughGeorgia and burned everything from Atlanta to Savannah.  CivilWar strategies o US Strategy: boa constrictor, squeeze the confederate forces further and further into their own center and prevent outside supplies o Confederate Strategy:  Perimeter strategy: defensive strategy, defensive operationally, attempt to cover all possible avenues of approach, cedes initiative to the federals  Results: middle and west Tennessee lost, Union coastal enclaves in NC, SC, GA, and Louisiana;Manassas, Frederiksberg, Yorktown, and Norfolk lost; McClellan at the gates of Richmond;Confederates kicked out of Missouri.  Armyof Northern Virginia (CSA) vs. Army of the Potomac(USA) o Armyof Northern Virginia:  armysuffers of lack of initiative, fails to take advantage  logistically weak  generally outnumbered  extremely mobile  weak on engineering and artillery o Armyof the Potomac:  Logistically strong, usually has numeral superiority  Usually has numerical superiority  Generally, slow  Very strong engineering and artillery o Big question: was the Union military inferior? Does itmatter?  McClellan Takes command o Conciliation  “We are fighting only to preserve the integrity of the Union... Make it apparent to all that their property, their comfort, and their personal safety will be best preserved by adhering to the cause of the Union.” o Operations  “Move into the heart of the enemy’s country and crush the rebellion in its very heart.”  Mississippi River - flows north to south, like most rivers, so North has advantage of flow of supplies o Most expectation centered on the east, focused move on Richmond, but moved too slowly o Winfield Scott: strangling theConfederates like a python o Navaladvantage the union enjoyed having played a big part  Resources: o Strategy: can be too far away from a supplyline because you will have to bring supplies up, only the railroadsand rivers can provide resources o Watersand RR supply allowed your army to be in groups of 100,000 rather thansmaller groups. Horses couldgo where the river couldn’t, and where the railroadwasn’t o River:  Security: RR can be blown upand taken out of commission, but the river can’t  Ohio river steamboat of 500 tons carried enough supplies for an army of 40,000 men and 18,000 horses for nearly wo days. This is equivalent of five 10-car freight trains o Railroad:  North has advantage because of railroads linemore plentiful in north than south, turning out morerailroadcarsand engines, advantage of south flowing rivers, south has to push again the current, south doesn’t have the industrial capacity to build steam fleet to fight the north  River has its path; RR can be laid down where river can’t go  Battle of Hampton Roads: the first engagement between ironclad naval vessels  The Final Months o 1864 election: Lincoln afraid he would lose the election, the war wasgoing well for the union but it had taken four years, war againsta general fired by the president, Lincoln needs another win to wrap up re-election, Shermangives him Atlanta as political advantage. o Battle of Vicksburg: completed the Union acquisition of control of the Mississippi river o Liberated slaves: can’tafford to have these people trailing after the army to have protection, then there’s that many more to feed and to be slowed down by.  Field Order #15: gave 40 acres and farm animals to newly liberated slaves so they could grow for themselves. (If they can farm, then they can’t slow down the army, only for militarygain so the army can advance) [later recanted, everything taken back]  Are slaveryreparations overdue? Paid? Practical impossibility by now?  Often cited as reasons for reparations, but it wasn’t made for payment or request for forgiveness. Was made to help the army o Aftermath: Lee surrenders toGrant (April1865), Davis is captured (may10, 1865) and held as a POW for ten years after war ends  CivilWar Legacy: o Power of the federal government begins to expand, Lincoln the first to function as a hands on commander in chief. o Total War  Scorched earth vs. annihilation  Deprive enemy forces of I supplies and resources o Sociopolitical Factors  Assembled mass armies – power of the Federal Government  Created and enforced conscription acts  Mobilized societies to support the war  Individual loses identity  Darkness and Light: 1865-1898 o Old Things: still chasing Indians and trying to control them o New things:  Lieutenant Henry Flipper: born 1886 –Georgia – goes toWest Point and becomes first African American graduate, commission2 Lt. inCalvary, post engineer, construction supervisor, acting assistance, 1881: court marshaled for embezzling funds unbecoming an officer and gentleman (or for being black), couldn’t make embezzling charges stick. June 1882 – thrown out of army; served in government posts afterwards, wrote a book about days in the army. 1999 = pardoned by Clinton. Maintained his innocence of embezzlement.  New: 1 blackgraduate of West Point  Old:Military still racist o Reconstruction  Bring the states back into the union  Lincoln: soft reconstruction, treat south with kindness, not seek revenge  Andrew Johnson: sought to continue that policy after Lincoln’s assassination, radicalrepublicans disagreed, wanted the South to pay, waned revenge  Freedmen’s Bureau: alreadyup and running before the war ends; first fed social agency (protect and educate) – supposed to mean that the slaves would be trained and given new skillsand receive job placement help; practical: were never realized, the south’s economy had to be rebuilt, south was physicallyand working-ly destroyed (no more slaves)  Best short term solution? : hire the freed slaves to put plantations back in business, just pay them this time o FB: instead of helping them, they send the slaves back to the plantations into adhesion contracts, is the offer you can’t refuse, brains or signature on the contract. Contracts were set up so that once you signed it, you couldn’t workanywhere else, and south was enacting lawsmaking it illegal for anyone to mess with that contract (outside leaders can offer hired slave a job) o Slavery doesn’t end, it just takes new form o The Dark Ages:  Read the Law: apprentice with another lawyer until you’reready, and also in the medical field, not schools for either until this point, minimum education requirements  The Age of Enlightenment  Sherman succeedsGrantas General in Chief, training inschools when not in war o Lots of military colleges, higher earning for soldiers o EmoryUpton: wrote textbooks about Asia and Europe (1904: argued for professional standing army, shot down case for militia) had a role for militia, the become part of expandable army o John Logan:Volunteers Soldiers of America o Stephen Luce forms the Navy  Open discussion: o What role should the US Armyhave in domestic disturbances?  There were police departments/forces  1980’sKen State riots: UC Shuts down becauseNationalGuard fired on students o To what extent should the Army be involved in “civilian’ occupations?  Did we really need to take military menand have them do civilian work?  Undiscovered territory: unknown threats thatmakes sense to send the army  Fighting the Indians because we were trying to fulfil Manifest destiny o What does military professionalism mean?  Classically trainedmilitary force, not just farmer-joe out of the field  Big first for the nation, first time not pulling in untrained civilians to defend the nation Winning the West – 1865-1890 Military’s role is clearing the path to the land we know we own between Canada and Mexico o 1865 – we have run out of land  After the Civil war, more land than ever before, better position to use to best advantage because not dealing with slavery anymore (Slaveand free states)  But either already squeezed Native Americans or in the process of doing so: parting with less desirable land to give to them  The Bozeman trail o Gold in Bozeman, Montana o Best route went through lands reserves for Sioux, Arapaho, and northernCheyanne tribes o Red Clouds (leader) walks out of peace talks  Forts go up during talks  Warriors winat Red Hills o Loose association made treaties hard o Indian tribes always assumed to be wrong o Road is abandoned in 1868. Even though it wascleared  “Galvanized” Yankees o Confederate POWs offered opportunity to get out of jail, given a gun but out in the middle of nowhere to combat the Indians o Draftees, no stake in outcome of war (came from lower white classes without a plantation) o POWs aswork detail is common  Henry vs. Spencer = longer barrels o Spencer is short and can be fired from horseback, use in theCalvary o Henry for sitting on the ground o But the Indians keep winning  9 /10 Calvary – Buffalo soldiers o African Americans troopers/units o Union army mobilized freed slaves under command of White officers, once the war was over, the usual thing was to let the armygo o Now the AA units to keep them active, culturalshift or at least the beginnings of one (not integrated till Korea)  From removal to reservation o Removalact: whole state of Oklahoma for them o Reservation: specific tracks of land inside thee states is for the Indians  Communities not accustomed to living close together are forced to live next to one another, leads to bloodshed  Some tribes refused to moves, the army called to force compliance  Waging total war in the winter o Indians fight during the warm months andsuspend fighting during the winter months, as well as the Americans, and inWWI. WWII leads to winter wars o General Sheridan planned to attack during the winter months when the Indians are most vulnerable and won’t fight back, camps and food supplies are low and theyare going to raid the Indian stores. Tactics started in the CivilWar (Sherman) campaigns continued through winter months  Northern Plains o Custer’s Last Stand (7 Calvary): Little Bighorn: overconfidence, wanted the pressto see him witness the victory  Ignored scouts  Custer would move in from the south, but others would move in from the north; but Custer moves a day early andruns into a force of Sioux and other tribes that had been vastly underestimated.  Armyresponds by pressing harder for Sioux to return to the reservation o Their greatest victory led to their defeat o Wounded Knee  Ghost dance (tradition) made settlers nervous. Army called in to stop it, a gun went off accidentally and the fight started. 180 Indian died  Dec. 29, 1890 – end of the war th  Were we 19 century terrorists? o Armynot policy makers, Washington would have had to decide o Wounded Knee didn’t have to end in a massacre, Washington could have honored the treaties Modernization  World Power: 1890-1914 o Isolationist: frontiers closed with borders from “sea to shining sea”, Manifest destiny fulfilled o Expansionist: leading industrial nation on the imperialist global scale o Foreign policy based on pragmatism, notoriously short-term, famous for not thinking beyond next election/little bit o Causes of Expansion:  Economic: desire for new markets and rawmaterials  Military: desire for navaland coaling stations, also, though not as important, have to re-supply the holds with food for the crew  Ideological: desire to bring Christianity, western-style culture, and democracyto other peoples; idea that we were civilizing the world of heathens  White-man’s burden: obligation to spread out culture an idea of civilization o Liberal Developmentalism: EmilyRosenberg  Belief that other nations could and should replicate America’s own development experience  Faith in private free enterprise  Support for free or open access for trade and investment  Promotion of free flow of information and culture  Ours out, not theirs in  Growing acceptance of governmentalactivity to protect private enterprise and stimulate and regulate American participation in international economic and cultural exchange o Hey’s Open Door: doors open to trade out with anyone, lessconcerned with markets in other countries  Open Door Policy: the traditional policy of imperil powers was to divide the world into spheres of influence, this locked new powers out of opportunities for new markets. To open up opportunities, US Secretary of State John Hay advanced this policy to China. Called for free and equal access to Chines ports and markets for western powers  Boxer Rebellion: brief, bloody war (for the Chinese) led by agroup named “Fists of Righteousness Harmony”, Chinese nationalist’s expert in the art of Kung Fu. The boxers wanted to ridChina of Americans forever and allow the Chinese to govern themselves  NavalVessels o Sail: didn’t haven’t to refuel anywhere, only needed to restock supplies, and couldgo anywhere the wind was blowing. But depending on the seasons, a trip could take months. o Steam: could do the same trip as the sailing vessel against the wind, but they needed to be refueled frequently with coal. This lead to “colonies” of fueling stations  Imperialism Righteousness: Josiah Strong (Congregationalist minister): called for the US to create an empire to bring “civilization” to remote parts of the world o The Anglo-Saxon “race”had on obligation to evangelize the world o “White-man’s Burden” to bring liberty andChristianity to the “darker races”  Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of SeaPower uponHistory: bedrock of naval literature, still widely read enough for a modern publication of the air force based on this outline, Teddy Roosevelt reads it and steps up construction of steal navy to take over islands in the Pacific. Mahan had a big hand in building the Panama Canal o Every nation that becamea great nation did so because they had a great Navy  Anti-imperialist League: said it was hypocritical for Americans to talkabout a rightof self- government and then take over foreign lands. o William JenningsBryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Grover Cleveland o Doesn’t reflect majority opinion or policy  Spanish-AmericanWar (1898-1901) o Jose Marti: Cuban poet; exiled from Cuba, led the Cuban independence movement from New York. When the revolution began, he went back and was killed by Spanish troops. Marti became a martyrand created sympathy for Cuba among the Americans. o Yellow Journalism: type of news reporting that exaggerates events to get morereaders or viewers and thus sell more newspapers  William Randolph Hearst (NewYork Journal), Joseph Pulitzer (New YorkWorld)  drum up support for the war by misrepresenting what was happening o The De Lome Letter: Written by Spanish foreign minister Dupuy de Lome to a friend in Havana. Calls POTUSWilliam McKinley “weak anda bidder for the admiration of the crowd, … who tries to leave the door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his pary.” ACuban spyintercepted it and leaked it to Hearst’s newspaper. American outrage cause Lome to resign. o Jingoism: from the letter, means extreme nationalism, marked by anaggressive foreign policy o Battleship Maine: USgunboat that blew up and sank in the Havana harbor after de Lome’s resignation  260 sailorskilled  widely publicized the Spanish were at fault, turns out it was a mechanical thing (the boiler blew up), but by the time it was discovered, it was too late and we were at war  War declared April 25, 1898 o The Splendid Little War:  Only takes ninemonths from declaration of war to Treaty of Paris  Treaty of Paris of1898: Americans getsGuam, PuertoRico, and the Philippines  Teller Amendment: added to the declaration of war with Spain, it declared that when US defeated Spain, Cubans would be given complete independence, US given practical control over Cuba (until Fidel Castro’s rebellion)  Platt Amendment: negotiated by Secretary of State Elihu Root: added to the treaty giving sovereignty to Cuba after the Spanish-American war o Specified:  Cuba could not make a treatywith another nation that could weaken its power or allow a foreign power to gain territory inCuba  Cuba had to let the US buy or lease naval stations in Cuba  Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to prevent foreign countries from landing troops to enforce payment  The US had the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order. o It showed the US still wanted to control Cuba despite the Teller Amendment. Cuba reluctantly accepted. It wasrepealed in 1934.  Dollar Diplomacy: term coined to describe William Howard Taft policy: use banks to prop up foreign economy, where“Banana republic” comes from, LatinAmerica came out on the short hand as the investors and companies become the powers (they make the laws) o Banana Wars: (1898-1934) informal term for minor intervention in Latin America. Includes military presence in Cuba, Panama (Panama CanalZone), Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua. USmarine corps specialized in long-term military occupation of these countries, primarilyto safeguard customs revenues (cause of local wars). World War I (1914-1916) o What were the European’s Expectations of “the next great war in Europe” before1914?  everyone convinced that the war is going to be short and that they will win o War plans:German war plans based on idea that they are going to fight both French and Russians, they expect that Russians will be slower to mobilize. They will defeat the French first and then turn it back to Russia and fight them. (Basic thesis of von Schlieffen plan, dies in 1905, plantrusted to Helmet von Mulke[second one, the originalwasthe one who put his own money into railroads] if he had been alive they might have won) this is the nephew and not nearly as gifted  Who Has your back? o Bismarck’sLeague of the Three Emperors: Germany/Russia/Austria (1873-1884) o Triple alliance: military supplementary agreementGermany/Austria/Italy (1882) o German-RussianReassurance Treaty –1887 –Germanyrejects Russia’s request to extend the treaty in 1890, shortly after Kaiser Wilhelm sacked Bismarck o Dual Alliance: France and Russia (1892) o Triple Entente: France/Russia/Britain (1907) o Railroad lines1914 made certain alliances necessary (for moving troops and supplies through other countries and/or to opposite fronts)  What were the assumptions about the nature of the coming war? o Lack of understanding how newmachinery wasgoing to work; fighting with20 century th weapons but with 19 century tactics, old style uniform (France, quickly discovered it’s not what you want to be wearing running towards machine guns) o Tried to use Calvary, present in every armyat the start of the war (first month or so), but as the war goes on they fade away andgive in to airplanes as the new scouts [Tanks 1916]  Armies have spent a lot towards developing airplanesand constructing the air force, Germans slower because et hey spent it on airships/zeppelins  Precedent: WWI not the first to use airplanes, small war between Spain and Portugal that used airplanes, but not w


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