Material for the Final
Material for the Final ARTHC 202
Popular in World Civilizations since 1500
Popular in Art
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brinley Clark on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTHC 202 at Brigham Young University taught by Elliott Wise in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations since 1500 in Art at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
3/10/2016 Neoclassicism Enlightenment sometimes butts heads with religion. Enlightenment philosophy doesn’t always jive with miracles or spirituality. The enlightenmentan extraordinary interest in Classical Rome and Greece. Since it was a very logic based philosophy. Greece and Rome are greatly admired during this period. They are famous for unflinching stoic loyalty to the state and to the family. This fascination with the past leads to Neoclassical Style. Strong verticals and horizontals, it’s frozen/stable. Ideal proportions, balanced/symmetrical compositions. StoicYou take everything with a straight face. Stable compositions. 2 very important historical events for refueling interest in the past. While digging a well a farmer in Naples comes across many Roman antiquities. He finds a city. Mount Vesuvius had erupted in a giant explosion, a plinian eruption. Vesuvius had buried hundreds and hundreds of people in 79 AD. Herculaneum was excavated and they came in contact with the best preserved artifacts than ever before. Then they found Pompeii. This fuels a tremendous fascination from the past. They started wearing Roman inspired clothing. They decorated the insides of their houses with Roman decor. Politics, logical, rational explanations for how government should run becomes a hot topic. Ancient Greece, democracy. Romethe Senate. The Roman republic was eventually taken over by an emperor. John Locke and Jean Jaq Rousseau Both argue that scientific analysis, proving things wrong it all means people have an inherent freedom. It’s opposite from the aristocracy in France with the Rococo. In 1776 there’s the American Revolution. In 1789 the revolution comes to France. Pierre was the leader of the Jacobinsradical political group under the reign of the king. He gains a great deal of power and starts a revolution of the King and the Queen. He led a revolutionary government after the execution of the King and Queenit was called the Reign of Terror. He was a very very hated man. The revolutionaries were very violent against the aristocrats and against art. The revolutionaries destroyed so much of their culture and their church’s relics. They destroyed biblical/preists statues. They go to the Abbey Church and dump all the bones of King and Queens into the river. The best preserved Gothic Cathedral in the world was very close to being destroyed but it would have been too much work. In the year 1799 a dictator comes to powerNapoleon Bonaparte. He takes over and then 5 years later proclaims himself Emperor. Angelica Kauffmann Swiss national who spends her whole life in England. In Italy she studied classical style and becomes a history painter. Critics saw paintings on a totem pole of importance. A history painting is a history, mythological subject or important event. Huge Canvases. Then it portraiture. Then landscape and still life at the bottom. Kauffman is very significant because she paints big history paintings. She becomes a founding member of the Royal Academy of Art in London. Classical subject. In the Roman republican era. Cornelia has several sons who becomes important political leaders. Cornelia was asked by a wealthy friend to show her her treasures, the friend pulls out a jewelry box, Cornelia brings out her children. It looks quite classicallinear painting, strong outlines, there’s a very balanced composition. Associates her with the classical period. Very didactic storytelling composition. It should remind you of the theater. It should remind you of the Village Bride. Theatrical gestures. Cornelia is the good mother. There’s a political message in here too. Very tender care for her children and among her children (the handicapped boy being led by the older brother). Giovanni Battista Piranesi, View of the Pantheon, Rome from the Views of Rome Ethchings. Newly rich English men and women who are rich from the new machinery. These middle class love to travel. They start a tradition called the Grand Tour. The first place to go is Italy and then Greece. Young men need to go as a coming of age tradition. Their journal entries record their wonder at seeing the ruins etc, but they also show a disdain for Italy. Before this Italy is a major power. But in the 18th century it starts to be looked at as a cultural backwater. Italy is Catholic and English is protestant. So they make fun of it a little bit. Piranesi sells these etchings to the English youth traveling. The buildings are depicted as falling apart, there’s weeds, the roof has been taken apart. Bell towers were added. He’s playing into the stereotypes of the ruins of a past people. Sir Joshua Renalds The most important painter in the 18th century. He’s also one of the first English painters because they used to import their artists. He’s famous for Grand Manor Portraits. Meaning he does portraits and makes them look like a history paintings. He disguises them as Romans. He boosts the status of the painting and of the person in the portrait. Lady Sarah Bunbury is making an offering to the three graces. There’s still pastel Rococo colors but it’s much more serious content. Strong vertical lines. THere’s calssical architecture behind her. Classicism in AmericaThomas Jefferson's House, Monticello, Virginia. He was a very important statesman. He was heavily involved in the declaration of independence. He loved France and very sympathetic to the French Revolution. He was very interested in Enlightenment theory and architecture. He designed his home. New England Red brick. Pediments on the front. Doric order structure. Rotunda at the top. Direct copy of the pantheon in miniature. He was very invested in the new government derived from ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Neoclassical buildings :Law buildings (Logical/Rational), Government Buildings (court houses), Libraries (all the information is there), Banks (power of money/consistency), post office, art museums (MET in NY =Rotunda, MOMA = contemporary/weird), universities (honor society). Neoclassical style is embedded in our style. The statue of liberty, the lincoln memorial, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial. France: JacquesLouis David (did Mary Antoinette’s sad sketch). Oath of the Horatii. The story comes from ancient rome. There was a border dispute. The two families decide they need to solve the border dispute but having some of their sons fight to the death. Horace is calling his sons to arms in the painting. They are making an oath to defend their family to the death. Unflinching loyalty to the state. The daughters of Horace have collapsed into grief. They all have split loyalties. David likes to juxtapose the loyalties, virtues and masculinity with feminine virtues. The women are always falling apart and emotional. Very strong legs and arms, neoclassical profile of the men. The women are not strong in their lines, they fold over. The French revolution uses this painting as a call to arms, propaganda. David becomes part of the revolutionary party. David, The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of his Sons. Strong outlines. Coloring book feel. Horizontal lines and verticals. Image of Roman God. Theatrical composition that points you to the body of the dead man. History painting. Enormous. The story is that a man named Brutus was a very important official in Rome. Brutus discovers there’s a movement among the people to get a king. He finds his son is a key player among this movement. So he executes his son in his loyalty to the State. That’s the kind of loyal the Enlightenment that was very honorable. He stares straight ahead. Sotic in his grief and his duty. His wife and children collapse in grief. David, Death of Marat, 1793. Extremely austere. Lived in tremendous poverty by his own choice. He was a ruthless man who ordered the executions of many people. He is a ringleader, part of the reign of terror. Their rival faction party was alligned with the king. Marat suffered from a terrible skin condition, he only felt okay in a medicinal bathtub. He’s in the bath and he gets a note from his servant from a lady who asks for admittance. She comes in and stabs him. She is caught and killed. He was found dead in the bathtub with bloody everywhere. However, it’s not depicted in the way of Caravaggio. It looks like he was smiling, he’s accepting his end. It looks somewhat reverent. It should remind you of the martyrs in Spain. Very quiet. Long arm holding the pen.. direct quotation of Pieta. They died nobly for their country. It’s very neoclassical death. He’s recording how it happened. He was called into the scene of the crime. Marah was in the process of giving money to a new widow who lost her husband in the revolution. The bloody knife is on the ground. Devotional way to appeal to Marat from David. They put this picture up on the altar, they used the pieces from the painting and used them as relics. The French revolutions manipulates the religious vocabulary. David, Coronation of Napoleon, 18051808. Napoleon makes him a servant painter. This is an enormous history painting. All the figures are almost life size. Napoleon restores the church to France. Makes a document giving the church power to give the sacrament. The Pope was kidnapped to France and forced to crown Napoleon. His mom didn’t come to the coronation but was photoshopped in. David wasn’t sure how to depict this. Napoleon had taken the crown and gave himself the crown. 3/15/2016 Contextual Analysis First couple sentences doing a formal analysis. Lines lead to face and then why that’s important. Then a thesis of the paper. In what particular ways the primary source changes the way we view the painting. Then the first paragraph after that situate where the painting is in history. What most ‘spanish baroque’ pieces usually have. Neoclassicism continued: Huge picture of the Coronation of Napoleon. David shows Napoleon crowning his wife. Napoleon is wearing a toga. He’s not wearing a traditional french crown he’s wearing a Roman crown of laurels. The whole image is reminiscent of Ruben’s coronation of Marie d Medici. There’s very smooth brushstrokes. It’s very calm art. Focusing on strong lines, not modeling or color. The colors look poured on with no sign of his hand. There are still rich details though. Ingres, Napoleon on the Imperial Throne, 1806 Neoclassicism Napoleon is wearing another Laurel crown. His expression is very stoic and calm. He is wearing a toga like cape. It’s centered in the middle of the piece and there’s very strong verticals. There’s an eagle on the carpet, the ancient symbol of the Roman Empire. It’s very linear. It’s very luminous. Lots of layers of glaze. However, some things are moving away from neoclassicism… It’s modeled after Van Ickes Ghent Altarpiece. The godhead figure has it’s hand raised in blessing, Napoleon has his hand raised similarly to hold the staff. He’s making a reference to the medieval. It evokes a iconic, mysterious, miraculous type of power. It’s suppose to remind you of something religious. Like Christ. Moving away from French Renaissance art. Gros, Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804 In the tradition of the neo classical history painting. In 1799 Napoleon went to war against the Ottoman Turks. His troops started to suffer from the plague. This painting shows hus visit to Jaffa to see the state of his troops. Gros paints exotic architecturethe horseshoe arch, there’s a hazy feel to the air. It’s not like the ancient world. There’s death and suffering and disease. The composition is quite balanced but not like high renaissance. Gros paints this with a loose brushstroke. Napoleon comes forwards to touch this man dying of the bubonic plague. It reminds you of Christ reaching out his hand to heal people and the figure in front of him reminds you of Christ, him reaching out to Christ’s side is like Doubting Thomas. Napoleon is fearless (of the plague) and compassionate. St Louis the 9th goes to visit a monk who is dying of leprosy. He feeds the monk with his own hands. Kings have the power to heal. St Louis the 9th could heal with his touch. He’s putting himself in line with the ancient kings of France. In reality he didn’t go visit them. His solution to the problem was actually that he poisoned and shot the sick soldiers. Romanticism Very important cultural concept in Europe. It’s a movement that starts in literature. It’s not about romance. Romanticism is about dreams, nightmares, spiritual, miracles, unexplainable things, the ways mankind with their inventionsis helpless and futile against forces that defy logic. Like a ship on the sea helpless in a storm no matter how great they are. Man versus nature. The most important writers were: Wordsworth (nature, meditations on man’s transcended status), Byron (romantic poet, fought in Greek war, romanticism is political/radical, often engages with the underdog of a cause), Percy B Shelley and Mary Shelley. Escapismhas to do with the industrial revolution. Especially in London London doesn’t naturally have fog, pollution. Escapism is an imaginative way to move to another location and time. Going back to a more pure and simple time period. This is also the period of colonialism. The idea of these exotic far away places fuels the escapists. It’s a desire to go back to the middle ages. It’s also a period of nationalism. It’s associated with their medieval past. In France they really rediscover their medieval roots. The romantic period revives their interest in it. A famous writer wrote about how the Gothic reminds you of nature, the ceiling of the church reminds you of the shadows in the church and the canopy of the trees. The Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired the refurbishing of the Cathedral. The gothic period=faith, spiritual, mysterious, miracles, they depended less on logic and reason. What kind of buildings are gothic? Churches, government buildings in England (House of Parliament, Old Universities, SLC Temple it meant revelation. The new provo temple. Germany! Very rich romantic tradition. Shillergreat poet and playwright. Beethoven write very emotional music. The term for german romanticism means storm and stress. It’s very fantastic. Sublimeanything that inspires both terror and awe at the same time. Goya worked for the royal family of Spain. He likes Velazquez. Goya’s paintings of the royal family are liked but interject things about them sarcastically. GoyaThe Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. King Charles the 4th was very afraid of what had happened to the French King. He reinstitutes the spanish inquisition. Goya does this etching commenting on folly. He dedicates the series to the king as a gift. Charles the 4th was very pleased with it. But it comments on the king’s reign. The idea is that when reason, the enlightenment in Spain, stops, you don’t have nice law and order you just create nightmarish phenomenon. Reason is slumbering and there’s huge owls flying around behind him. The proportions are thrown off, not rational. Enlightenment philosophy had to be balanced to a certain degree with the fantastic. Goya is maybe making a comment they should exist together at the same time. Supposedly western society is always alternating between culture and life and then a romantic side. Renaissance culture > baroque romantic > enlightenment is more culture > romanticism romantic > now? Goya, Family of Charles the 4th. The family liked it but it’s a commentary of the immoral state of the monarchy. The style is romantic: loose painting, there’s a sense of emotion, heavy impasto, reminds you of Las Meninas. Goya is in the background in the shadows. The family looks very disjointed, no one is looking at each other, they were painted separately, they are very dysfunctional. Charles is covered in a bunch of awards and is looking dumb. Maria Louisa doesn’t look very beautiful. There’s a very ugly woman in the corner, a giant beauty mark on the side of her face. Ferdinand has dressed him in a little red suit… the same clothing as the Prime Minister who was the actual father of the son (because there was an affair). 3/17/2016 Goya, Third of May 1808. He doesn’t paint this until 1814. The paint is very thick impasto. It looks like the cavas has been shot. It’s very dramatic tenebrism, strong contrastCaravaggio sort of manner. There’s different emotions on the faces of the victimspity, defiance, fear. Their faces are exaggerated. Their hands are exaggerated. Very large eyes so you can see the ‘deer in the headlights’ look. You can’t see the faces of the French soldiers. There’s a repetition of the shapes/outlines of the bodies and guns. The figure in the center is associated with faith, martyrdom. There’s also a bell tower and a monk in the circle of victims. The placement of the arms represent a crucified Christ. He even depicts wounds in the hands of the figure. Goya, The black paintings. Saturn Devouring One of his children. They are pretty small. Saturn hears a prophecy that one of his children will overthrow him so he eats them all. But Jupiter tricked him into eating a bag of rocks instead and overthrows him. There’s very weird proportions. It’s illogical, opposite of the enlightenment, very frightening. Gericault, Raft of the Medusa. One foot in the Neoclassical world and one foot in the Romantic. A saloon is the major exhibition that takes place in Paris put on by the Academy of Art. King Louis the 18th saw this painting and refused to buy it. Others were distressed by it too. In the year 1816 a French Captain appointed by Louis (nepotism) wrecks his ship, leaves the ship on a raft. 15 of the passengers survive because they ate each other. Louis recognizes this is the Medusa. There’s a half eaten man in the corner of the painting. He models the people on the boat on people killed by the guillotine. The man on the mast is trying to get another ship’s attention. It’s a very strong baroque diagonal. You never paint a painting about a contemporary political scandal. Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People. They have a citizen king. Allegorical figure of libertythat’s why she’s only halfway dressed. She embodies liberty. She’s wearing a frigian cap that represents freedom. She also hold the French tricolored flag. They run over a mountain of bodies. Delacroix, Tiger Hunt. Escapism at its best. It’s romantic because there’s loose brushstrokes. There;s strong diagonals, unbalanced not classical/calm stable. It should remind you of Ruben St George. There’s an X shaped composition. Friedrich, Abbey in the Dark Forest. He encounters a poet who tells him to make nature his great calling. He starts to consider himself a type of prophet. The enormous scope of nature in a small painting. Also, in terms of style he’s very different from most romantic paintings. All the artists don’t fit neatly in these categories. It’s very ephemeral. A snowy wood in GermanyOak Trees. It’s nationalistic looking. It’s long, falling apart. The implication is that the ruined abbey is being replaced by God’s church. God moves in mysterious ways. There are little monks walking in the snow into the ruined church. Why are they there? They use it as a graveyard. But because it’s a romantic paintingare they ghosts? Supernaturally they gather every evening. At the doorway of the church the cross is superimposed. You find God in nature. The cross is a tree growing out of the forest. Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1810. He chooses a Cappichin monk because they oppose . This monk is overwhelmed by something hugely grand. The waves that constantly come. The sky and the sun and the moon and their rotations. Bigger than passing trends of politics. John Constable, The Hay Wain. He tries to get into the London Royal Academy. He’s finally let in in his 50’s. The academy is always neoclassical. Constable thought that was rubbish. He thought you should paint landscape. He thought the academy pulled people away from that. His paintings are very very big like historical paintings. He’s very scientific about how he paints them. He goes out and paints little watercolor sketches. He’ll name them by the time. Then he puts those together in oil paint. Because you can’t really do this/paint oil outside. He rearranges the composition to make it look different than it really did. He’s idealized the paintings. He’s making something extremely romanticized. He uses white paint and flicks it putting white dots all over the canvas. It makes it a very glittery feeling, fresh from the rain. Constable Snow is what that technique is called now. Neoclassicism is a subset of romanticism because it’s like escapism. William Turner (most important of the english painters), he gets in at 27 years old. He’s considered a prodigy. Because of his great gift and talent he’s accepted even though it wasn’t the academy style. He likes the way light reflects (off of water). The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons. This event was one of the great tragedies. When it happened the citizens of London watched from the river Thames. Very loosely painted. He’s most famous for Slave Ship. It has a political commentary. They banned slavery very early. There was an expose that talked about how if there was a slave who was sick the captain would throw him overboard so he could collect insurance on him. You can see hands of slaves sticking out of the water. There’s no line between the end of the ocean and the sky. There’s fins sharks etc in the water. 3/22/2016 Thomas Cole, The Oxbow. One of the only American Painters. Born in the same year as Joseph Smith. Romanticism has to do with landscape. It has to do with the sublime. You get a sense of the all encompassing sky. American Romanticism is much more romantic though. Cole is famous for saying “America doesn’t have gothic ruins or crumbling castles but it does have the landscape. No country can compete with American Landscape.” American Landscape paintings celebrate this. The sublime romantic heritage of the united states. First of all.. He’s in the painting painting outside (probably not realistic). But he’s entirely encompassed by the landscape. There’s a huge storm rolling in. There’s a giant tree that has been torn apart. Cole contrasts that with very calm farmlands. That contrast is important. Manifest Destiny. The call to go forth and conquer the land. It’s suppose to inspire you to seize the opportunity to go into the land. American paintings are ginormous. Depiction of Yosemite: idealized, looks like it’s on creation morning. A lot of these paintings are of the west because of manifest destiny. Men on the ice were show the theme of man versus nature. Realism (still in the 19th century). New social, political values inform paintings. This is the period that is the most deeply affected by the industrial revolution. The problems and the benefits have spread. Because of this a certain class of people become very very rich. They don’t get money from lands or estates… they get it through industry. This creates the bourgeoisie. The main class of people are the proletariatthe working class. They are former farmers and serfs. They move into the city to work for big factories and try to better their situation. This is a time of terrible labor, child labor, not safe work conditions, loss of fingers, terrible pollution, no recompense for families. This is the era that Charles Dickens writes about. Big people are taking advantage of tiny tims. Les Mis time. Karl Marx comes from this time. Conflict theory. He wants communism. Darwinargues that scientific evidence shows how humans and animals evolve over time. Social Darwinism says that survival of the fittest also applies to people in social situations… meaning, it’s okay to hurt people to get to the top. “The smartest most conniving people are the ones who deserve to be one top. And certain races are able to conquer through their intellect. Comte comes up with positivism. Comte’s positivism says that truth is only accurate if it can be proven. Religion is really hurt by that. Avant Garde. Realists are focused on painting this of real life. Focused on painting socialism, social darwinism etc. So they are mostly avant garde. It’s anti establishment and change. It means before the guard. It refers to a person who went ahead of the army to scout things out. They are ahead of everyone else. All of the artists so far have been mainstream. From now on we don’t look so much at the establishment artists. They paint as a way to express a strong political view of their own. They aren’t commissioned. France has another revolution, overthrows their citizen king. It was a very very bloody revolution. The underdog people came up against the bourgeosie and failed. In the year 1827 photography was invented. Daguerre, Still Life in Studio. He’s a physicist and a painter. He uses an iodine sensitive plate to transfer images. It can take like 8 hours. At the beginning photography wasn’t seen as a threat to photography. It looks very much like a painting of a still life. It’s very much arranged. It has a profound effect in the way artists think about art. The 19th century was interested in communicating with the dead. They sometimes fiddled with the photograph to make the person look more like a spirit. Daumier, Rue Transnonain. He does political drawing. This is a lithograph he makes. He takes a stone and draw on it with wax. The ink adheres to the wax and then you can print with it. The point of it is that you can reproduce it multiple times. It’s cheap. What’s depicted here is a very graphic event. An soldier was shot in a slum by a proletariat. Instead of investigating who was killed Louis Phillip orders a massacre. His armies drag people out of their beds and shoot them. It’s a scandal. This is shown all over. Daumier includes a woman, a child, the father, and a grandpa. It’s suppose to make you think: what did they have to do with the shooting? The answer is nothing. He’s made the figures look very heroica martyrdom. It’s dramatic in a soft quiet way. It’s suppose to make you feel you’re looking at a photograph of the scene. It’s an eyewitness account. The cold hard realism reality. It’s very anti establishment. Courbet, The Stone Breakers. He moves away from the academy politically and through his paintings. This piece was destroyed in the bombings of Dresden. He was traveling and came across these stone cutters. Father and son. He thinks it’s the epitome of poverty. In a very academic way he paints them in his studio. It’s very controversial because it’s a huge canvas typically used for a history painting. They are the poorest of the poor. One day the boy will become just like his father. This isn’t even something you’d paint as a genre scene. He tried to exhibit it in the Saloon. He cut off the sky and all you can see is the hill. It’s like a dark wasteland with ugly dark colors. It’s drab and horizontal feeling. They are kind of in awkward positions. It’s just like a snapshot photograph. Very disturbing. It comes right after the rebellion… so it suggests that people like that are powerful enough to be reckoned with. You can’t just push them aside.. Which is why they are in the face of the bourgeoisie. Also, the don’t look at you. It’s offensive! It feels dangerous. Because they don’t care about the people above them. The implication is that we can take care of ourselves. They aren’t used to seeing things like this. They usually see things that are important. It’s important in a violent kind of way. It gets rejected from the salon. Courbet, Burial at Omans. It’s his grandfather’s funeral. He paints it on an enormous canvas. So he builds his own salon. He hands out socialist literature where this is being displayed. The figures are about life size. The funeral is shockingly realistic. The people look real. There’s a priest. There’s altar servers and they look bored. The altar bearers aren’t paying attention. They are looking in different directions. Some people are mourning. Some are indifferent. The focal point is the dog. It’s offensive!The people are also cut off but not in a Caravaggio way. Just like real life. It’s also extremely cold spiritually. Compared to El Greco… where the individuals are focused, there’s spiritual figures, deeply engaged priests, full of faith and belief in a glorious afterlife…. Compared to Courbet. The crucifix is just a prop. There’s just a big gaping hole. The cold hard reality according to a Marxist take on religion. The only positivist reality. Death. A skull, bones, dirt, and a hole. Courbet was famous for saying “Well show me an angel and I’ll paint an angel”. Millet, The Gleaners, 1857. They go through the fields and picked up the scraps left in the field. This is offensive because one of the women is wearing the colors of the horrible revolution. One of the women is black. Bonheur, The Horse Fair. She was taught to paint by her father and was completely loved by France. She only painted animals and she painted them on huge canvases! The horses are idealized. They are idealized. Like Michelangelo’s paintings. It’s surprising how famous she was. It’s okay for her to paint just what she sees because she’s a woman. Nothing more is expected of her. ! Housemanization: Houseman redoes central Paris to make it safe and beautiful: becomes Bourgeoiscentered. New realism that looks at modern Bourgeois life and its artificiality. Baudelaire: focus on modern/now time. Manet influenced by his ideas. Manet was extremely wealthy, Bourgeois, ‘first impressionist’, flaneur (critical: artificial, mask like). “Luncheon on the Grass”Edouard Manet, 1863: wellknown painting, upsetting painting: nude woman in a modern setting (not history or allegory or ancient subject). Pastoral scene with recognizable figures, but present time: scandal (immoral). Proportions are intentionally way off, harshly outlined like unfinished/crude, paint put on like patchwork to make painting flat, commentary to Bourgeois about the morals and lifestyle. “A Bar at the FoliesBergere”Edouard Manet, 18811882: Bourgeois bar, reflection in mirror of rich looking at others, subject is proletarian woman that make Bourgeois life possible, has champagne and orange for sale, also selling herself as a prostitute (commentary on Paris life), intentional distortion reflection, viewer aligned with creepy man: this is what Bourgeois do; blurry patchwork reflection. “Ivan the Terrible and his son on Nov. 16, 1581”Ilya Repin, 1885: famous Russian Realist painter, from group called ‘Wanderers’: tzar liberate serf class, take it upon themselves to paint images that relate to everyday people. Historical painting but realist take, makes comment on assassination of Russian tzar. First tzar, Ivan the Terrible, in a fit of rage kills his own son and depicsts gorey, clenching aftermath. Mix Romantic and Realist: goes to great length to make historical time very accurate (rugs, Russian silk, boots. Romantic would have had exotic, misty feel. Queen Victoria was the empress of India and Queen of England. Has imperialistic colonies like India and Hong Kong. Rise of religious movement: Oxford movement. Reverted back to Catholicism, adopt rituals of church (“High Church”). Don’t take all Catholic doctrine, but lots of ceremonies. PreRaphaelite Brotherhood: group of young, obnoxious artists who were infuriated with stranglehold of Royal Academy, wanted to do something new and be intentionally annoying to Academy. Want to imitate style early Renaissance when artists were still experimenting and still a little awkwardness, brotherhood because want to imitate Christian proletarian artists like monks. Take trappings of Catholic culture without becoming Catholic. “Christ in the house of his parents”John Everett Millais, 1850: careful rendition of shavings and beatup table. Artificially bright, building receding is off, outside is washed out, elegant mystery: prophecy of Christ’s Atonementwounded himself on the tools of his father’s shop. Mary in stylized piety, instruments of carpentry but also instruments of his passion. “Ophelia”John Everett Millais, 1851: preraphaelites were interested in texts (Bible, Dante’s Inferno, Shakespeare); model in bathtub for hours so he could get it realistic, literary event legitimized by making it accurate. Flowers are referenced in Hamlet and also symbolic in England. Commentary on women who would commit suicide after they were labeled immoral, couldn’t be buried in church if committed suicide so just said ‘found drowned’. Romantic mixed with Realist. Impressionism: Very beautiful, evocative, capture a moment, give senses better than painting, contrast and similar to Realism. France invaded by Germany official and laid siege for a year but no remnant of that in Impressionist life. Bourgeois life still: artificial sense of French life. Indebted to Japanese art: Japanese goods came to Europe at this time and were wrapped in wood block prints; style was different than had ever seen before (flat, simplified, landscape, lines are beautiful rather than naturalistic, steep perspective, shape that goes off the side and back again). “Nocturne in Black and Gold”James Abbott McNeill Whistler, 1875: more interest in esthetic qualities of line, shape, and dabs of paint than subject (firework over a park); building out of Manet: intentionally altering perspective, mosaic patchwork of paint, alters window on the world perspective for esthetic purposes: beautiful marks on the canvas. Name refers to musical compositions. Music moves by esthetic qualities rather than by subjects. Criticized. John Ruskin, famous art critic, said it was ridiculous that Whistler threw a pot of paint at the public for 200 guineas. Supposed to move people because of their beauty. “Impression: Sunrise”Claude Monet, 1872: group of artists exhibit together, avant garde/pushing limits, exhibit on their own. Fleeting moments of real life. Loose mass of brushstrokes, painterly tradition, colorist tradition; invention of oil paints in tubes: can paint outside (plein air)! Bright, chemically produced colors become big. Color theory: Chevreul says that opposite colors make each other brighter, colors next to each other will be blended by the eye. Blank white canvas you put directly on: luminous effect reflecting. Not political or social, but ultrarealism: capturing one second in time. 3/29/2016 Brief Review of Components creating Impresionism: A final flowering of painterly style developing through this class (Ruben) most of those were also colorists. Impressionism builds on the realism movement before it but it takes you in a different direction. It’s about the bourgeoisie. It’s interested in capturing the moment. It’s hyper realism. You can see what the air looked like and what the atmosphere felt like. It captures the scientific conditions. But it’s not very naturalistic looking. In the academic style you do careful glazes… The impressionists throw that you the window. Their paint is very luminous. They do heavy impasto. Rembrandt in comparison looks smooth. On plenar. Impressionists did not paint outside. They often worked inside. Impressionist painters do paint with black. They were not universally hated. The Impressionist movement is a movement that had quite a few women in it. Because it is breaking away from the academy. You don’t need a lot of formal training to do impressionism. They are small scale paintings. Many critics thought women could be impressionists because the style is flighty and light and they said it’s just like how women are hysteric so it fits. Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise, 1872. This was Monet’s hometown. This is a painting about catching the fleeting moment. It’s the momentary effects of a misty morning. The water is done with quick strokes. He knows orange and blue contrast with each other so he creates a dynamic feeling. The water that looks blue is actually made up of many different colors. Impressionism was called such because a critic said it wasn’t finished and it was a mere impression. Another critique called is embryonic wallpaper (basically it doesn’t even approach the lowest of the low). However, some critics loved it. Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral Series. Series weren’t really done by anyone else but the Japanese at this time. He’s not making a ‘window into the world’. He paints with little blotches of color. The object he choosesa cathedralmeans nothing to Monet. It’s just a model for him to give you experimental view on what light does to objects. A cathedral is especially nice to work with because it’s so intricate. Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1916 Monet keeps his style for the rest of his life. Pierre Auguste Renoir, Moulin de la Galette, 1876. He never really learned to paint. He just jumped into the movement. He changed his style quite dramatically when he realized this and had a midlife crisis. However, this is one of his best paintings. He paints an image with the potential to be problematic socially. He depicts a mixture of people. Bourgeoisie and proletariat. There’s a great sense of light coming through the trees. He’s much more interested in modeling people traditionally. Edgar Degas, The Rehearsal on Stage, 1864. Different from other impressionists because he’s very political. You’re an impressionist if you displayed with the impressionists basically. Degas loves Ang. He cares about how lines work compositionally. That’s why he loves dance. Because it’s all about line. It’s embedded in the composition for him. Degas is also influenced by Japanese Prints. What is Japanese about Degas style? There’s a strong cut off (like the edge of the painting cutting through the wave) through the ballerina. Many of his figures are outlined in a dark line… also coming out of Japanese prints. Degas’ painting is very off balanced, asymmetrical. He’s showing us the backstage view. These are proletariat women. They are tired, overworked, crowded into the space. There’s problems of prostitutions in Degas paintings. Edgar Degas, L’Absinthe, 1876. Absinthe is a highly alcoholic drink. They have stayed all night at the bar. They are lifeless and dead looking. It’s an image of despair. These are proletariats. They are desperate and sad. They drink away their sorrows. They are stuck in place by the tables… There’s an invisible barrier between the two. There’s also Japanese influence. The tables go off the side and back into the painting. There’s a greenish tint. And still very painterly brushstrokes. Degas signs the painting in the left hand corner saying that ‘this is where I sat’. He’s watching. He’s making himself into a flaneur. He wanders and watches and records what he watches. It’s what real modernity is like. Most impressionists show you the facade. Mary Cassatt, Mother and Child, 1890. She is one of the most famous women impressionists. She’s well loved. If women are allowed into the art world then you can’t have a family, otherwise it’s immoral to sell and buy paintings. She never married or had a family. But she paints family scenes. Her Japanese influence is very important but maybe less noticeable. Japanese artists love prints so it flattens it out. The figures are very outlined. The mother is getting her child ready for bed. It’s very flat. The background is very forward. Some of the reasons her paintings are so popular is because they are traditional madonnas. In the older pictures of Madonna the christ child holds his mother’s face. That’s what Mary paints in her painting. It becomes ennobled. Gustave Caillebotte, Paris Street, Rainy Day, 1877. It looks pretty academic, It’s smooth and linear. It’s avant garde. It’s impressionist because it’s a random moment. Everyone has different postures. The main two people are looking off the canvas. The man to the right is sliced in half. There’s very strange cut offs. Modernity. There’s light being played with.. The light reflecting off the ground, puddles, and reflections on the ground. Post Impressionism and Symbolism It’s the 1880’s and 1890’s. This is the period of Vincent Van Gogh. It’s known as the beautiful era. But most of the artists from this period saw it as a period of catastrophic failures that has led to deadened cities. The people who thought of it that way thought of it as a depressive horrifying tailspin into the next century. “The end of the century”. They used a kind of escapism. They tried to go to a different place and escape this place. It’s associated with primitivism. They are interested in primitive cultures…. Which is a very biased view. They view Japan as primitive because it wasn’t touched by the industrial revolution yet. They thought colonies were primitive. Africa, Tahiti, rural France (southern France). PostImpressionist artists are also interested in the Impressionist ways of painting. But they felt it wasn’t museum worthy. Impression Post impressionists are interested in a realism of emotion. They want to show you a deeper reality. A reality of what you feel in your heart. Color theory is still important. They break down the idea of art being a window to the world. It should represent what’s real emotionally. George Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte, 1884. He didn’t live very long but he did make an impact. France made it so everyone had Sunday off. It looked very Utopian. They look like classical statues. There’s not a lot of movement. The people look like sculptures. They don’t argue/don’t get along. It’s very neutral. He calls his style pointillism or divisionism. He puts tiny little dots of paint everywhere. He tries to use the law of simultaneous contrast. He uses only 11 colors in the work. He thought it was an analogy of socialism. A society where everyone was equal is the same as painting with tiny little dots. Different parts of the painting get the same amount of dots. Vincent Van Gogh. Extremely beloved even today. He had a lot of anxieties. He was named after a brother of his that died. He felt he was the replacement for him. He was a missionary for Belgium. Originally he wanted to be a minister. Van Gogh wants to go to the South of France to paint primitive life but that doesn’t work out. He sold one painting during his whole life. He eventually commits suicide. Van Gogh, Sun Flowers, 1888. He uses an abundance of yellow to evoke the feeling he wants to portray. He chooses yellow arbitrarily to evoke happiness. There’s a strong outline, flat back drop, heavy impasto, he takes Seurat’s pointillism and creates directional brush strokes. 4/5/2016 Modern Arta period that is over 1900end of WW2. Characterized by: think of Modern art as a trajectory, they say it has it’s beginnings in Manet (Manet’s luncheon on the grass), this idea means beginning with Manet’s painting it rejects/begins to reject that images should be a window on the world. Images start to move furth and further away from realism. They lose depth, not much chiaro oscuro, you see think outlines, color patches, there’s a political commentary, it becomes about blotches of paint on a canvas. That trajectory continues to Matisse and culminates in nonobjective art no subject. It’s only about lines and shapes and colors. Henri Matisse, Red Room. “For Beasts”characterizes as rebellious wild beasts. They publish manifestos. They are filled with artists who love to comment on what they’re doing. They’re very self aware of what they’re publishing. This painting is extremely avant gardearbitrary use of color. He’s not painting a reality of what he sees Matisse is expressing emotion with the color. He’s one of the only happy expressionist painters. It’s supposed to feel like an “over stuffed arm chair”. Matisse is very positive. He’s also very interested in Japanese prints (like the post impressionists). There’s immensely simplified figures. The woman’s hair is similar to the shape of the woman’s hair similar to the plate of fruit. It’s extremely patterned like a Japanese print. It’s hard to see where the table end and the wall starts. He’s taking traditional subject matter (still life) and painting it in a very different way. The window/painting is very significant. BECAUSE the window on the world is fading away… is it the real world? Or is it an illusion? It’s another flat object. It’s flat color, painterly brushstrokes. It’s just about paint on the canvas. Less happy painters: Ernst Kirchner, Street, Berlin 1913German Expressionist (they dominate this time period). Dresden was a bustling, economic center until it was destroyed in WW2. You could easily see class distinctions between bourgeoisie and proletariat. He comments on the mask like feel if their interactions. Kirchner is part of a movement called “the bridge”. The bridge is a movement named after literature by Friedrich Nietzsche. Totally depressing existentialist, God is dead, our views on life are wrong, your existence is unknown, he terms his lifestyle the superman.. Someone who recognizes there’s no point in life but to succeed and fulfill your desires, you should take advantage of people all that matters is yourself. Kirchner looked at Nietzsche as a prophet figure. It’s very sharp. It’s crowded. Japanese influence on the sidewalk. The women are prostitutes it’s commentary on them. Very odd color choices. He’s trying to draw from older german prints and paintings. It builds on works of faith and spirituality from the past. Also inspired by The Scream. There’s bright arbitrary colors. Kathe Kollwitz, The Outbreak, etching. She only used prints.She’s a German expressionist.. Not connected to a manifesto group. She looks back to german culture as well.. Since the print was developed in Germany. She wanted to reproduce them inexpensively because of her political agendashe was influenced by socialism. The figure is a historical figure Black Anna. She was one of the great instigators of the revolt. She modeled Anna after herself. She orchestrated the revolution. Her hands are claw like. She’s pulling down supernatural power.. Leading a terrifyingly ghoulish army. Very distorted faces. You get the feeling that the composition is about to tip over. There’s a strong sense of the rushing forward and brutal vitality. Rushing towards “a better period”. Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28. He was born in Moscow and was going to be an attorney but changed his mind last second and became an artist. He’s very interested in folk art. Particularly German and Russian Folk Art. He studies glass painting. There’s an interest in art forms from the past. He was profoundly influenced by icons, not in a religious way, in a spiritual way that goes along with a new atheistic socialist regime. They want to create a new icon for an atheist world. Theosophy through abstraction they are supposed to operate like a window. He wants his paintings to be ascetic prompts for spiritual experiences. Kandinsky had synesthesia. He loved music without a tonal center. It’s never really resolved together.. Just like how it doesn’t go from major to minor. He feels the war is just what Europe needs to clense itself. The Blue RiderSaint George riding into Europe. Franz Marc, The Large Blue Horses. Also a German artist. He has a very short career because he’s killed in the war (WW1). He had a feeling that he was going to die in the war. Reds, Oranges, Yellows are usually closer to us. Blue/Greens go to the back. But he reverses this. This creates a very flat painting. Marc is very concerned about the fate of the animals in the WW1. He wants you to think about the fate of the primitive. Animals are simple, untouched and going to be hurt the most. End of Expressionism. Cubism, Futurism etc. Major Figure: Pablo Picasso. He’s very interesting, controversial, and arrogant. He lived a very long time. Didn’t die until the 1970’s. He painted for a very long time. He was born in Spain and was very gifted. He chose intentionally to paint in avant garde. He wanted to paint in simplicity. But he could also paint very academically. Supposedly he would tell a story about himself. His mother would tell him he would succeed in anything he wanted to do. So he said he decided to become an artist and he so he became Picasso. One of his most famous is Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. He starts to break down the window of the world. He does that by shattering the image. It doesn’t allow for it to have a sense of depth. The people are in impossible positions. You see different positions simultaneously. He was very interested in African masks. And he used them in his art. It’s a society that’s untouched. They violate the laws of renaissance proportions and composition etc. Georges Braque, Violin and Palette. Braque beames friends with Picasso and together they invented cubism. Analytic Cubism… A very intellectual, analytical elitist art form. When Matisse saw this work he said “Oh, it’s just Braque and his little cubes” and the name stuck. The object has been smashed. Analytic cubism is so interested in shapes, viewing the world from different angles, it moves away from color. It’s very monochromatic. The edges don’t have much in them. There’s a contained shape. It’s very classicalstatic, no emotion, doesn’t move out of the frame, no political commentary. Picasso again: Portrait of DanielHenry Kahnweiler. A jewish man who deals in modern art. Can kind of see where his face is. Where his hands are. Synthetic Cubsim, Still Life with ChairCaning. It seeks to move backward from analytic cubism. More like a collage. He uses found objects… putting things directly into your painting. He’s making a comment on a still life in a table. Picasso creates a still life with a lemon… You get the sense you’re looking at a table in a cafe. The rope looks like the rope around the table. You might be looking down at the table the is at the table. There’s also another lemon… or the same lemon. There’s cups or glasses maybe? Then there’s part of a piece of paper JOU… maybe the newspaper? But it could also be a game? He’s saying our life, real life in the newspaper is also like a game. What’s real and what isn’t real? The chair looks realy but it actually a print. But the painted shapes aren’t pretending to be anything other than paint on the canvas. 4/7/2016 Italy was in economic problems in the early 20th century. There had been a huge earthquake.. Many people were illiterate. Out of this backdrop comes a futurist group. They say we want to destroy our past and make way for a machine driven future. It’s misogynistic. They hate feminine things. They love speed. Severini, Armored Train in ActionExtremely flat like a cubist image. Very colorful. It’s zooming off the page. This is politicalunlike cubism. Futurism is about war and destruction and speed. Boccioni, Unique forms of continuity in space. The figure doesn’t have arms because he’s moving so fast. He arms turn into wings. It’s made of bronzeinstrurial era being embaraced. It’s a person wearing armor. The idea of a figure with no arms, going forward, with almost wings, reminds you of the. Supremacism. Malevich, Suprematist Painting. Thinks of the icon not as religious but as a very nice type of object that embodies. He thinks his art is profoundly spiritual. Wants you to feel transported to another place.It’s about mathematical. The purity of pure mathmatical shapes and pure colors (primary). He uses rectangles and squares and sometimes in circles and triangles. He’s thinking of it as an airplane. His art represents machinery. There is really only one rectangle (although there are 8)....he’s saying it’s the same rectangle in different forms. You are the one changing positions. This is his idea of how is art is transcending everything.. Proletariats unite! They can understand even if they can’t read. He had to flee the US. Malevich, Suprematist Composition. White paper on white. First non objective painting Modernist art. Tatin, Corner Counter Relief He makes it seem like a metal spider. Dada, Surrealism, De Stijl, Modern Architecture, and Abstract Expression Dada embraces illogical things. Chance, irrationality, dreams, total nonsense, all of those opposites brought us WW1 so we are going to do the opposite. They proposed a stupid word for their movement. In french it means toy horse (to ride on), in hindi it means the tale of a sacred cow, in russian it means yes yes. So it means everything and nothing. They created art and also performances. They would dress up and speak nonsense. It was a way to refuse rationality. Exhibition of artwe will accept everything. He enters a ready made object. You just take an object and say that it is art. He puts his pseudonym name on it. He’s a juror for this art. He also displays a bicycle wheel. Fetish. Surrealism Two Children and Threatened by a Nightingale Id, ego and superego. Embracing the irrational and finding meaning and logic in the irrational/subconscious. Ernst was part of the dada movement but then switched to surrealism. The nightingale is flying harmlessly above. There’s a person on the ground murdered, someone walking off with a butcher knife, a burglar on the top of the house. The sky is beautiful bright colors. The people are monochromatic. Ernst associated birds with dead. He looked back to his past and when his sister was born his parrot died. So he thought his sister was a parrot reincarnated or somehow she caused it’s heath. Salvador Dali, Last Supper. Came from Spain. Very gifted. He had a?
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