PKSC 102 test 4 study guide
PKSC 102 test 4 study guide 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Addie Pearson on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Heather P Batt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Packaging Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
PKSC 102 TEST 4 STUDY GUIDE PACKAGE TESTING Quality testing – uses standard methods and machines to determine quality of material/combo of materials Environmental testing – use a fully made and approved package, subject to real world/ stimulated conditions, involves accelerated aging, measures the effects on environment Shock and vibration testing – how package stands up to rigors of shipping, storage and handling. - Sophisticated machines used to stimulate conditions - Advantages of short testing time and uniformity Organizations that provide testing procedures - ASTM- American society for testing materials - TAPPI- technical association of the pulp paper industries - FPA- flexible packaging association - ABA- American boxboard association - ISTA- international safe transit association Tests for Paper: must be conditioned using TAPPI standards: 24 hrs @ 73 +/- 3.5 Fahrenheit, +/- 2% RH - Tensile strength and elongation - Tear - Mullen burst strength - Stiffness - Opacity Tests for plastic - Gloss, haze, clarity - Slip, blocking, static - Impact fatigue - Flex resistance - Permeability testing: cc/mil/100in^2/24hr o Mocon method for O2, CO2, and WVTR (Water vapor transmission rate) o OR cup method for WVTR Specific tests for aluminum: - First digit indicates primary alloy - Last two digits indicates purity - Most foil alloy is 1235 (.65% Si and Fe) - Generally tested similar to paper except for conditioning Specific tests for aluminum foil - Pinholes - Wettability Tests for inks, lacquers and adhesives - Weight/gallon - Zahn cup (viscosity) - Printing characteristics - Adhesion- scotch tape tests and sotherland rub tests Identification of unknown materials: - Duplicate a competitor package - Check competition for patent infringement MACHINERY Often indiv. Machines made by indiv. Companies, but must operate together in a packaging line PMMI – Packaging Machinery and Manufacturing Institute Four options for increasing line production - Buy the newest equipment - Do something with existing equipment - Buy refurbished equipment - Hire a contract packager - (developing custom machinery is SUPER EPENSIVE) Linespeed- what really counds as output. - Cpm- containers per minute - Filler is critical part of determining line speed - Filler will always determine your lines per minute - REMEMBER- machines do not run at 100% efficiency - To calculate actual cpm: o Efficiency of each machine x cpm of lowest machine = actual cpm Packaging machinery- - Uses packages but does not make them - Includes code marking but does not include printing in general - Converting- makes the package, so considered part of the package machinery Constant fill level - Higher probability of give away - Use for transparent packages - For inexpensive product Constant volume - Less giveaway - For opaque package - Expensive product Machinery – filling - Vacuum fill o Seal package to filler, start vacuum pulls product into package - Gravity fill o Slower than vacuum, used for products that will foam slightly - Pressure and vacuuM fill o Used for thick and foamy products - Piston filler o Used for thick, paste products and liquids Dry product filling - Volume - Weight - Number count - Net weight fillers- weighs product only o Ex: scales weigh product as package is formed, drops exact amount into package - Gross weight fillers- includes weight of pack o Ex: scales subtracts weight of package and adds product until it reaches given fill weight; faster but more chance of giveaway PACKAGING LAWS AND REGS CRFs- code of federal regulations where you go to find the details of the laws SoP- Standards of Practice- now always laws but can be upheld in court of law and law suit cases Food and drug law 1906 – to protect consumer and fight against fraud Food drug and cosmetic act 1938 – banned poisonous substances and tried to address “over packaging”; important landmark but not effective Food additives amendment 1958 – fist law to directly affect packaging, anything that directly/ indirectly becomes part o the food is considered an ADDITIVE- including packaging components Five major provisions - Food additives defined (anything that comes in contact with the food) - Burden of prof shifted to industry - “the Delaney Clause”- outlaws carcinogenic additives - Established “GRAS” additives (Generally Recognized As Safe) - Established GMp’s (Good Manufacturing Practices) Four categories of substances that are not “food additives” and not subject to regulation 1. May not reasonably be expected to become a component of the food (like a plastic handle used for support is not expected to become part of the food it is holding) 2. Are GRAS 3. Are prior sanctioned 4. Are regulated – passes a series of tests What do you do if you have developed a NEW POLYMER? - Test with rat studies (able to test the life span of a rat) - File a food additives petition with FDA - FDA approves or disapproves - If approves, add it to list of acceptable materials Fair packaging act 1966 – nutritional label required, ingredients listed in decending order, name/address of company/distributor, quality declaration (lower 30% of PDP (principal Display Panel) Nutrition Labeling and Education Act 1990 – revised 1966 req., specifies label format, established new diet standards, defined different declaration statements, did not include diet supplements yet Poison prevention act 1970 – child resistance packaging and warning labels Taper Evident Act – 1982 – tamper evident, not “proof” or “resistant”. Required for over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals only Transportation safety act of 1974 – covers hazardous materials, 1990 – HM181 adopts global standards ENVIROMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS Heath laws focused on FEDERAL level Environmental laws focused on LOCAL level Federal laws and regs: - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) o Deals with solid waste issues - Clean water act - Clean air act - Indirectly packaging related o VOC’s (Volatile Organic Corrosives) o Water – based inks, coatings and adhesives o Incinerators o Solvent recovery o Special Case: CFC’s and Foamed plastics (EPS) – Expanded Polystyrene State laws and regs: - Bottle bills: 11 states; cleaner than states w/o bottle bills - California “proposition 65” requires you list carcinogens that cause birth defects - Iowa groundwater prevention act – packages proven to affect ground water can be banned - Mandatory recycling (ACTUALLY SEPARATION) laws - Comprehensive solid waste recycling source reduction laws - Packaging review boards (some states have these) - Degradable “high cone” plastic ring for carrier cans - Beverage container pull tabs bans (except Florida) - Aseptic “Brick Pack” ban in Maine – actually takes up less space in a landfill and can be recycled Packaging and solid waste - Packaging is the largest contributor to solid waste – 30% by weight or volume EPA hierarchy of solutions to solid waste st 1. Source reduction – 1 best 2. Recycling 3. Incineration with energy recovery 4. Landfill – last resort Design packages for disposal - Must design packages with minimal impact on environment - Also must consider that other countries have different rules than the US (German green dot program) Plastic recycling sorting codes - SPI - Society of Plastics Industry - 1 = PETE – polyester – water bottles, coke bottles - 2 = HDPE – lids, milk jugs, lids to sourcream - 3 = PVC – clear plastic wrap - 4 = LDPE – bread bags, Ziploc bags - 5 = PP – tubs things come in, screw caps - 6 = PS – clear, straw berry containers - 7 = other (includes multilayer) PACKAGE DEVELOPMENT Responsibility falls on one or more people, never committee Where is it housed? - Corporate R&D (research and development) long range (less applied) - Division lever R&D - Plant technical department (more applied) Four types of package development projects 1. Modification of existing product (ex. PET bottles with PE cup base) 2. Expansion of product line through uses of existing package that has been used for similar or different products (ex. Tennis ball can design for pringles) 3. Development of new package for new product (ex. Plastic squeeze bottle replacing glass 4. Development of new package for new product (ex. Modified atmosphere package for precut salads Two development paths - total system path: the main path, product and package developed together - Package development path: used by packaging companies, develop package first then get feedback from users… INEFFICIENT Typical package development sequence - Start with a need (marketing) - Use or develop basic product information - Develop the package using: o Laws (food contact etc) o How materials behave in combinations o Kind of machinery required o Shape and graphics restraints o Environmental considerations - Typical package development sequence o Also use basic functions as a guide o After initial development: Environmental tests (accelerated testing) Simulated and real shipping test o All of the above done in conjunction w/ marketing and manufacturing, development market driven
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