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CLEMSON / Packaging Science / PKSC 1020 / What are the specific tests for aluminum?

What are the specific tests for aluminum?

What are the specific tests for aluminum?


School: Clemson University
Department: Packaging Science
Course: Introduction to Packaging Science
Professor: Heather batt
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: PKSC 102, PKSC 1020, Batt, Intro to Packaging Science, Packaging Science, machinery, laws, regulations, environmental, Test 4, and Test 3
Cost: 50
Name: PKSC 102 test 4 study guide
Description: condensed notes on the test. good luck everyone!
Uploaded: 04/13/2016
7 Pages 161 Views 2 Unlocks


What are the specific tests for aluminum?


Quality testing – uses standard methods and machines to determine quality of  material/combo of materials

Environmental testing – use a fully made and approved package, subject to real  world/ stimulated conditions, involves accelerated aging, measures the effects on  environment  

Shock and vibration testing – how package stands up to rigors of shipping, storage  and handling.

- Sophisticated machines used to stimulate conditions

- Advantages of short testing time and uniformity  

Organizations that provide testing procedures

- ASTM- American society for testing materials

- TAPPI- technical association of the pulp paper industries

- FPA- flexible packaging association

What are the four options for increasing line production?

- ABA- American boxboard association

- ISTA- international safe transit association

Tests for Paper: must be conditioned using TAPPI standards: 24 hrs @ 73 +/- 3.5  Fahrenheit, +/- 2% RH We also discuss several other topics like What is the conversion of an alkene to alkane?

- Tensile strength and elongation

- Tear

- Mullen burst strength

- Stiffness

- Opacity  

Tests for plastic  

- Gloss, haze, clarity

- Slip, blocking, static

- Impact fatigue

- Flex resistance

- Permeability testing: cc/mil/100in^2/24hr

o Mocon method for O2, CO2, and WVTR (Water vapor transmission rate) o OR cup method for WVTR

Specific tests for aluminum:

What do you do if you have developed a new polymer?

- First digit indicates primary alloy Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between a transfer payment & a tax expenditure?

- Last two digits indicates purity

- Most foil alloy is 1235 (.65% Si and Fe)

- Generally tested similar to paper except for conditioning

Specific tests for aluminum foil

- Pinholes

- Wettability  

Tests for inks, lacquers and adhesives  

- Weight/gallon

- Zahn cup (viscosity)

- Printing characteristics  

- Adhesion- scotch tape tests and sotherland rub tests

Identification of unknown materials:

- Duplicate a competitor package

- Check competition for patent infringement  


Often indiv. Machines made by indiv. Companies, but must operate together in a  packaging line

PMMI – Packaging Machinery and Manufacturing Institute

Four options for increasing line production

- Buy the newest equipment

- Do something with existing equipment

- Buy refurbished equipment

- Hire a contract packager

- (developing custom machinery is SUPER EPENSIVE)

Linespeed- what really counds as output.

- Cpm- containers per minute  If you want to learn more check out Who is the two important prime ministers alternated power?

- Filler is critical part of determining line speed  

- Filler will always determine your lines per minute

- REMEMBER- machines do not run at 100% efficiency  

- To calculate actual cpm:  If you want to learn more check out How did economic dissatisfaction contribute to the cold war’s end?

o Efficiency of each machine x cpm of lowest machine = actual cpm Packaging machinery-

- Uses packages but does not make them

- Includes code marking but does not include printing in general - Converting- makes the package, so considered part of the package  machinery

Constant fill level

- Higher probability of give away

- Use for transparent packages  

- For inexpensive product  

Constant volume

- Less giveaway

- For opaque package

- Expensive product  

Machinery – filling

- Vacuum fill

o Seal package to filler, start vacuum pulls product into package - Gravity fill

o Slower than vacuum, used for products that will foam slightly - Pressure and vacuuM fill

o Used for thick and foamy products Don't forget about the age old question of How much money do women make for every dollar a man makes?

- Piston filler

o Used for thick, paste products and liquids

Dry product filling

- Volume

- Weight

- Number count

- Net weight fillers- weighs product only  

o Ex: scales weigh product as package is formed, drops exact amount  into package

- Gross weight fillers- includes weight of pack

o Ex: scales subtracts weight of package and adds product until it  reaches given fill weight; faster but more chance of giveaway


CRFs- code of federal regulations where you go to find the details of the laws

SoP- Standards of Practice- now always laws but can be upheld in court of law and  law suit cases If you want to learn more check out How to draw a lewis dot diagram?

Food and drug law 1906 – to protect consumer and fight against fraud  

Food drug and cosmetic act 1938 – banned poisonous substances and tried to  address “over packaging”; important landmark but not effective

Food additives amendment 1958 – fist law to directly affect packaging, anything  that directly/ indirectly becomes part o the food is considered an ADDITIVE including packaging components

Five major provisions

- Food additives defined (anything that comes in contact with the food) - Burden of prof shifted to industry

- “the Delaney Clause”- outlaws carcinogenic additives  

- Established “GRAS” additives (Generally Recognized As Safe) - Established GMp’s (Good Manufacturing Practices)

Four categories of substances that are not “food additives” and not subject to  regulation

1. May not reasonably be expected to become a component of the food (like a  plastic handle used for support is not expected to become part of the food it  is holding)

2. Are GRAS

3. Are prior sanctioned

4. Are regulated – passes a series of tests

What do you do if you have developed a NEW POLYMER?

- Test with rat studies (able to test the life span of a rat)

- File a food additives petition with FDA

- FDA approves or disapproves  

- If approves, add it to list of acceptable materials

Fair packaging act 1966 – nutritional label required, ingredients listed in decending  order, name/address of company/distributor, quality declaration (lower 30% of PDP  (principal Display Panel)

Nutrition Labeling and Education Act 1990 – revised 1966 req., specifies label  format, established new diet standards, defined different declaration statements,  did not include diet supplements yet

Poison prevention act 1970 – child resistance packaging and warning labels

Taper Evident Act – 1982 – tamper evident, not “proof” or “resistant”. Required for  over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals only

Transportation safety act of 1974 – covers hazardous materials, 1990 – HM181  adopts global standards  


Heath laws focused on FEDERAL level

Environmental laws focused on LOCAL level

Federal laws and regs:

- Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

o Deals with solid waste issues

- Clean water act

- Clean air act

- Indirectly packaging related

o VOC’s (Volatile Organic Corrosives)

o Water – based inks, coatings and adhesives

o Incinerators

o Solvent recovery

o Special Case: CFC’s and Foamed plastics (EPS) – Expanded Polystyrene  State laws and regs:

- Bottle bills: 11 states; cleaner than states w/o bottle bills

- California “proposition 65” requires you list carcinogens that cause birth  defects

- Iowa groundwater prevention act – packages proven to affect ground water  can be banned

- Mandatory recycling (ACTUALLY SEPARATION) laws

- Comprehensive solid waste recycling source reduction laws

- Packaging review boards (some states have these)

- Degradable “high cone” plastic ring for carrier cans

- Beverage container pull tabs bans (except Florida)

- Aseptic “Brick Pack” ban in Maine – actually takes up less space in a landfill  and can be recycled  

Packaging and solid waste

- Packaging is the largest contributor to solid waste – 30% by weight or volume EPA hierarchy of solutions to solid waste

1. Source reduction – 1st best

2. Recycling

3. Incineration with energy recovery

4. Landfill – last resort  

Design packages for disposal

- Must design packages with minimal impact on environment

- Also must consider that other countries have different rules than the US  (German green dot program)

Plastic recycling sorting codes

- SPI - Society of Plastics Industry

- 1 = PETE – polyester – water bottles, coke bottles  

- 2 = HDPE – lids, milk jugs, lids to sourcream  

- 3 = PVC – clear plastic wrap  

- 4 = LDPE – bread bags, Ziploc bags  

- 5 = PP – tubs things come in, screw caps  

- 6 = PS – clear, straw berry containers  

- 7 = other (includes multilayer)


Responsibility falls on one or more people, never committee  

Where is it housed?

- Corporate R&D (research and development) long range (less applied) - Division lever R&D

- Plant technical department (more applied)

Four types of package development projects

1. Modification of existing product (ex. PET bottles with PE cup base) 2. Expansion of product line through uses of existing package that has been  used for similar or different products (ex. Tennis ball can design for pringles) 3. Development of new package for new product (ex. Plastic squeeze bottle  replacing glass

4. Development of new package for new product (ex. Modified atmosphere  package for precut salads

Two development paths

- total system path: the main path, product and package developed together  - Package development path: used by packaging companies, develop package  first then get feedback from users… INEFFICIENT  

Typical package development sequence  

- Start with a need (marketing)

- Use or develop basic product information

- Develop the package using:

o Laws (food contact etc)

o How materials behave in combinations

o Kind of machinery required  

o Shape and graphics restraints

o Environmental considerations

- Typical package development sequence  

o Also use basic functions as a guide

o After initial development:

 Environmental tests (accelerated testing)

 Simulated and real shipping test

o All of the above done in conjunction w/ marketing and manufacturing,  development market driven

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