Exam 3 Key Terms and Points
Exam 3 Key Terms and Points FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach
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Date Created: 04/13/16
FAD2230 KEY POINTS AND TERMS CHAPTER 14- FAMILIES AND THE WORK THEY DO Early America- most families worked closely with the land when it was seasonally necessary In the 19th century things switched from agriculture to industry 1890: 17% of women were in the labor force, most of whom were unmarried and without children 1975: only 55% of mothers with children under 18 worked and only 1/3 with kids under 3 worked outside the home (FIG. 14.1) Today it is common for mothers to work outside the home, but this number has remained relatively stable since 2000 People who have been unemployed for more than 6 months are far more likely than those who are employed to feel stress, sadness, worry, etc. which can in turn lead to domestic violence and harmful childhood upbringing living wage: wages that are above federal or state minimum wage levels, usually ranging from 100% to 130% of the poverty line; wage according to the housing prices of the area nonstandard work schedule: job schedules that are part-time, sub-contracted, temporary in nature, occur at night, or offer irregular work schedules household labor: in general, the unpaid work done to maintain family members and/or a home routine household labor: non-discretionary, routine tasks that can't be postponed, such as coking, washing dishes, or cleaning occasional labor: household tasks that are more time-flexible and discretionary, such as household repairs, yard care, or paying bills The average married woman does about 3 times as much of this work than the man (32 hrs: 10 hrs) per week 'The Second Shift:" at the end of a long workday, when women return to the house to work at home after their job, adding about 15 hours a week onto their schedule Regardless of employment status of parents, mothers spend more time with their children than do fathers time availability perspective: a perspective that suggests the division of labor is largely determined by (1) the need for household labor, such as the number of children in the home, and (2) each partner's availability to perform household tasks, such as the number of hours spent in paid work relative resources perspective: the greater the relative amount or value of resources contributed by a partner, the greater his or her power within the relationship, which can then be translated into bargaining to avoid tasks such as housework that offer no pay and minimal social prestige gender perspective: suggests that housework is so engrained in "women's work" that it functions as an area in which gender is symbolically created and reproduced Factors that shape the division of household labor: o Macro: sex, cultural attitudes toward gender, cultural expectations for mothers and fathers, historical period, value attributed to specific resources (e.g. money), and sex of children o Micro: personal inclination, employment status and number of hours worked, presence and age of kids, and comparison to others (e.g. fathers) work family conflict: a form of tension under which people feel that the pressure from paid work and family roles are incompatible in some way o People feel greater work family conflict when: the demands of paid work and family responsibilities are higher the resources that help them manage those demands are fewer the perception of demands they believe they must fulfill are higher role overload: feeling overwhelmed by many different commitments and not having enough time to meet each commitment effectively spillover: occurrence caused by the demands involved in one sphere of work carrying over into work of another sphere o stress of paying job comes home with you after work (negative) o joy of happy family life goes with you to work (positive) The amount of time that parents are spending with their kids is on the rise, regardless of employment status; mothers spend more time with kids than fathers; unemployed mothers spend more time with kids than employed mothers daycare centers: centers that provide childcare while the parents are at work family childcare providers: private homes other than the child's home where childcare is provided nannies/ babysitters: non-relatives that provide childcare in the home early childhood education and care (ECEC): an international term for daycare, preschool, and other programs to ensure that all children begin elementary school with basic skills and are ready to learn self-care: children who are unsupervised and able to take care of themselves The relationship between childcare and mother-care is controversial with little definitive conclusions able to be drawn. CHAPTER 15- FAMILY STRESS AND CRISIS: VIOLENCE AMONG INTIMATES crisis: a critical change of events that disrupts the functioning of a person's life family stress: tensions that test a family's emotional resources o acute: short-term stress o chronic: long-term stress General Adaption Syndrome (GAS): the predictable pattern one's body follows when coping with stress, which includes the alarm reaction, resistance and reaction o Alarm Reaction: metabolism increases and hormone levels rise o Resistance: maintaining elevated stage of alert o Exhaustion: can lead to depression, fatigue, frequent headaches, panic attacks, insomnia, and eating disorders Social Readjustment Rating Scale: a scale of major life events over the past year, each of which is assigned a point value; the higher the score, the greater the chance of having a serious medical event Patterns of Family Crisis: three stage including (1) event, (2)disorganization, and (3) reorganization; some families suffer permanent injuries, some come out stronger ABC-X Model: a model designed to help us understand the variation in the ways that helps us understand the various ways in which families cope with stress and crisis (see "pre-crisis") Double ABC-X Model: helps us understand the effects of the accumulation of stresses and crises and how families adapt to them (see "post crisis") power: the ability to exercise your will personal power: the degree of autonomy a person has to exercise his or her will social power: the ability to exercise your will over another person intimate partner power: a type of power that involves decision making among intimate partners, their division of labor, and their sense of entitlement Sources of Power: o coercive power: based on the ability to achieve your will based on force o reward power: ability to offer material or nonmaterial benefit to achieve your goal o expert power: stems from a person's abilities or special knowledge o informational power: comes from the information a person may use in order to persuade another person to do something he or she wouldn't otherwise do o referent power: stems from the identification of the less dominant person toward the more dominant person o legitimate power: based on the person's claim to authority or the right to exercise his or her will resource theory: theory of power that suggests that the spouse with the more prestigious or higher-paying job can use that advantage to generate more power in the relationship and thereby influence decision-making relative love and need theory: a theory of power that looks at the way that love itself is feminized, defined and interpreted doing gender: a theory of power that suggests that we take power differentials between men and women for granted and continue to reproduce them intimate partner violence: violence between those who are physically and sexually intimate; can encompass physical, economic, sexual, or psychological abuse conflict tactics scale: a scale based on how people deal with disagreements in relationships o non-aggressive responses o psychologically aggressive responses o physically aggressive responses Types of intimate partner violence: o common couple violence- less frequent and less likely to escalate or cause severe injury o intimate terrorism- motivated by a desire to control the other partner o violent resistance- self-defense o mutual violent control- both are violent and battling for control stalking: conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to be fearful learned helplessness: the physiological condition of having a low self-esteem, feeling helpless, and having no control, which is caused by repeated abuse o Control tactics: blaming the victim inducing shame lowering self-esteem creating financial dependency isolating the victim threatening retaliation exploiting love and hope exploiting commitment to the relationship creating fear and abandonment Battered Women's Syndrome: a recognized physiological condition, often a subcategory of post-traumatic stress syndrome, used to describe someone who has been the victim of consistent and/or severe domestic violence intergenerational transmission of violence: a cycle of violence passed down to dependents o Micro-level explanations of violence: intergenerational transmission, and stress explanation o Macro-level: patriarchy, cultural norms that support violence (wrestling, boxing, etc.) and familial norms CHAPTER 16- THE PROCESS OF DIVORCE intergenerational transmission of divorce: pattern that people whose parents divorce are more likely to divorce o micro- level factors: age at marriage, parental status, parental divorce, non- marital childbearing, sex of children, race and ethnicity, education, income, degree of similarity between spouses, couple's ages o macro- level factors: level of socioeconomic development, religion, divorce laws no-fault divorce: type of divorce that does not require the blame of the other spouse legal separation: binding agreement signed by both parties that provides details about child support Phases of separation: o pre-separation: one or both partners begin to think about the benefits of separation o early-separation: who will move and who will stay; how do we tell the kids? o mid-separation: maintaining 2 households, arranging visitation for the kids, living on reduced income o late-separation: couple must learn to live together as 2 single people stations of divorce: the interrelated emotional, legal, economic, co-parental, community, and psychic dimensions of divorce, which together attempt to capture the complexity of the divorce experience alimony: payment by one partner to another to support the more dependent spouse for a period of time legal custody: one parent has the legal authority to make decisions for the child (where to go to school, where to live, emergency situations, etc.) sole legal custody: a child arrangement in which legal custody is granted solely to the parent with whom the child lives joint legal custody: custody agreement in which non-custodial parents (usually fathers) retain their legal rights with respect to their children physical custody: a child custody arrangement that determines where the child will reside sole physical custody: a child custody arrangement in which the child lives with one parent and visits another parent joint physical custody: a custody agreement in which children spend a substantial portion of the time in the homes of both parents, perhaps alternating weeks or days within a week divorce meditation: a non-adversarial means of resolution in which the divorcing couples, along with a third party, such as a therapist, negotiate the terms of their financial, custody, and visitation settlement child support order: a legal documentation delineating the amount and circumstances of the financial support of noncustodial children binuclear family: a type of family consisting of divorced parents living in two separate households but remaining one family in spirit for the sake of the children CHAPTER 17- FAMILY LIFE, PARTNERING, AND REMARRIAGE AFTER DIVORCE Father's transition to full-time parenting is difficult because... o they lack the confidence in their parenting abilities o they have little money and find it difficult to provide for their kids o they had to make dramatic changes and give up a degree of freedom Trends in remarriage: o racial and ethnic trends- whites were the most likely to remarry but now it's Hispanics and Asian Americans; black may be less likely to remarry because they are less likely to marry in the first place o sex differences- men are more likely to remarry than women and will do so more quickly; this may be related to the need-or lack thereof- to remarry; also older women are less likely to remarry whereas older men tend to remarry younger women men tend to have more experience imitating contacts there is a double standard of aging: the view that women's attractiveness and femininity decline with age, but that men's do not the pool of eligible partners is larger for men than for women because of cultural norms women are more likely to have children living with them than men are The instability and fragility of remarriage may reflect a problem in many area of marriage: o individuals may fail to make a real commitment to remarriage o the couple may fail to become a cohesive unit o individuals may fail to communicate appropriately with one another o remarried couple must deal with more boundary-maintenance issues than do couples in first marriages blended family/ reconstituted family: another term for step-family; a family that may consist of stepparents, step-siblings, or half-siblings siblings: children who share both biological parents step-siblings: children not biologically related but whose parents are married to one another half-sibling: a child who shares one biological parent with another child mutual child(ren): the child or children born to a couple that has remarried residential stepchild(ren): a child or children living in the household with a remarried couple more than half the time nonresidential child(ren): a child or children living in the household of a divorced parent less than half the time The unique features of stepfamilies: o stepfamilies come about because of a loss through death or divorce o the parent/child relationship has a longer history than the new couple's relationship o a biological parent lives elsewhere o children in stepfamilies hold membership in two households o the model for step-parenting is ambiguous and poorly defined o no legal relationship exists between stepparents and stepchildren o the children in stepfamilies have additional sets of relatives Several components of the step family relationships make them complex: o former spouse subsystem: the relationship becomes more complicated as former spouses remarry or become involved in significant relationships; tensions are more likely to arise if one of the former spouses marries quickly before other family relationships have been reorganized and stabilized o remarried couple subsystem: remarried couples overwhelmingly report being unprepared for remarried life, including the exchange of children, money and decision making o sibling subsystem: the typically competitive struggles among siblings can become more heated in remarried families, because children must learn to share parental time, hosehold space, and parental affection CHAPTER 18- FAMILY STRENGTHS, CHALLENGES, AND REORGANIZATION baby boom generation: people born in the years after WWII through the early 60s life expectancy: the amount of time a person can expect to live from birth centenarian: a person who lives to be at least 100 years Today the elderly have the lowest rates of poverty of any age group, but for much of history the reverse was true; SSC was created to help vulnerable elders Social Security: a federal government-sponsored cash assistance program for seniors and survivors life- stage perspective: a perspective that claims development proceeds through a fairly set pattern of sequential stages that most people experience life-span perspective: a perspective that claims development is a lifelong process, is multidirectional, and consists of both positive and negative changes involving gains and losses life-course perspective: a perspective that sees age-related transitions as socially produced, socially recognized, and shared- a product of social structure, historical forces, and culture Marital satisfaction is based on: o sexuality o the division of household labor Widowhood is higher among women then among men because: o mortality rates among females are lower than for males o wives are typically a few years younger than their husbands and consequentially have a greater chance of outliving them o widowed women are less likely to remarry than are men The process of grief and bereavement: 1. denial- many people first refuse to believe that they or a loved one is dying 2. anger- when coming to accept the truth, some people become angry 3. bargaining- the dying person or loved one may try to forestall death by striking a bargain with God 4. depression- depression may set in when they dying person or their loved ones realize they cannot win the fight against the illness or disease 5. acceptance- eventually, patients or loved one may come to accept the approaching death companionate grandparenting: a type of grandparenting where the grandparents and grandchildren enjoy recreational activities, occasional overnight stays, and even babysitting with an emphasis on fun and enjoyment remote grandparenting: a type of grandparenting in which the grandparents and grandchildren are emotionally or physically distant involved grandparenting: a type of grandparenting in which the grandparents and grandchildren have frequent interaction or possibly even live together kinkeeping: maintaining ties among family members Racial and ethnic differences in grandparenting styles: o Obligation and responsibility Anglo-American grandparent may be a "spoiler" if they interact and give gifts often, but have minimal responsibilities and obligations to raise them Apache grandmothers are basically parent substitutes within the family o grandparents as part of a viable, functioning family network o economic security and economic responsibility Recent rise in retirement age because: o Social security- created many incentives to keep working (delayed retirement credit) o improved health and longevity o pension type o less physically demanding jobs o decline of retiree health insurance o joint decision making o the recession of the 2000s gerontologists: researchers studying issues affecting the elderly activates of daily living (ADLs): general day-to-day activities such as cooking, cleaning, bathing, and home repair Alzheimer's disease: the most common form of dementia; at present, it is incurable formal care: care provided by social service agencies on a paid or volunteer basis informal care: unpaid care by someone close to the care recipient sandwich generation: a generation of people who are in the middle of 2 living generations providing care to members of cohorts on both sides of them, parents and children
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