Psychology Exam 4 Study Guide
Psychology Exam 4 Study Guide PSYCH 3060
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3060 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Bruce King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDES CHAPTER 14: 1. There are three different ways to define a behavior as unconventional or abnormal: a. Statistical approach: defines a behavior as normal if most people do it. By this definition, abnormal behaviors are behaviors that are engaged in by relatively few people. b. Sociological approach: concerned with the social conditions that give rise to abnormal behavior. c. Psychological approach: evaluates the behaviors with respect to whether they cause an individual to feel distressed or guilty, and/or cause the person problems in functioning efficiently in ordinary social and occupational roles. 2. What is considered unconventional depends on the time and place in which the behavior is displayed. 3. Paraphiliacs are individuals whose sexual arousal and gratification to unusual behaviors are preferred over the usual and accepted sexual patterns for adults. 4. Unusual behaviors that are used to enhance sexual activity with a partner, not to compete with him or her, are called sexual variants. 5. It is not unusual for several paraphilias to coexist in the same individual. 6. One group of paraphilias commonly seen together are called courtship disorders, short for “disorder of phasing of the courtship behavior.” 7. The normal four-phase courtship sequence includes: a. Finding phase b. Affiliative phase c. Tactile phase d. Copulatory phase 8. Voyeurs have a disorder of the finding phase and prefer to seek sexual gratification by watching people undress without their knowledge or consent. 9. Two disorders of the affiliative phase are: a. Exhibitionism: achieving sexual gratification by exposing one’s genitals compulsively in inappropriate settings b. Telephone Scatophilia: repeatedly making obscene phone calls for sexual arousal. 10. Frotteurism is a disorder of the tactile phase and refers to repeatedly achieving sexual arousal by rubbing one’s genitals against others in public places. 11. These paraphilias are often associated with pedophilia: achieving sexual arousal by having sex with prepubertal children. 12. Fetishism refers to achieving sexual arousal when using or fantasizing about an inanimate object or a specific part of the body. 13. Transvestism (also called transvestic fetishism) refers to sexual arousal and gratification from dressing as a member of the opposite sex. 14. Other fetish-like paraphilias that focus on non-human objects for sexual arousal are: a. Urophilia: sexual arousal by the act of urination b. Coprophilia: arousal by feces c. Mysophilia: arousal by filth d. Klismaphilia: arousal by being given an enema e. Zoophilia: arousal by sex with animals 15. Sadists intentionally inflict pain and/or humiliation on others for sexual arousal and gratification 16. Masochists obtain sexual pleasure from having pain and /or humiliation inflicted on them. 17. Mainstream S&M is really dominance and submission which usually involves acting out well-scripted scenarios 18. Necrophilia refers to sexual arousal by having sex with dead bodies 19. The large majority of paraphiliacs are men. 20. Most paraphiliacs describe themselves as heterosexual, but have difficulty maintaining intimate (particularly affectionate) relations. 21. The paraphiliacs’ behavior(s) allows them to have control over the objects of their sexual arousal. 22. Therapy is generally unsuccessful in eliminating the paraphilia, often because the individual does not want to give it up. 23. However, management of paraphiliacs is sometimes possible by administering anti-androgen drugs that lower testosterone levels and reduce sexual desire. 24. Not all abnormal behaviors are called paraphiliacs. 25. Not all men who buy scanty, frilly panties for their female partners have a panty fetish. 26. Young children who occasionally dress up in clothing of the opposite sex do not usually grow up to be transvestites. 27. Most transvestites are heterosexual men and married. 28. Exhibitionists often behave as if they wish to be caught. 29. Strippers and nudists are not the most common examples of exhibitionists. 30. The best way to react to an exhibitionist is not to show disgust. 31. Voyeurs do not often like to go to nudist colonies to observe naked bodies. 32. A person may commit bestiality and not have a paraphilia. 33. Individuals involved in D&S act out highly structured scenarios in which pain-inducing behaviors are more symbolic than real. 34. Many men involved in D&S prefer the submissive role and are well educated and successful. 35. Most paraphiliacs have difficulties with intimacy. 36. Not all paraphiliacs wish to be cured. 37. Transvestism is most closely related to fetishism. 38. The most frequently caught paraphiliac offenders are exhibitionists. 39. Telephone scatophilia is most closely related to exhibitionists. 40. For pedophilia, sex researchers generally define a child as someone who is younger than 13 years old. 41. Weinberg and others have found that the distinctive features in non-clinical sadomasochism are domination and submission. 42. Urophilia, coprophilia, mysophilia, and klismaphilia involve sexual arousal by bodily discharges and thus might be considered specific types of fetishes. 43. The objects of paraphiliacs’ sexual arousal have in common that they are nonrejecting. 44. According to Simon, deviance is a problem of control, while perversion is a problem of desire. 45. Asphyxiophilia: Larry puts a plastic bag over his head while he is highly sexually aroused. 46. Autogynephilia: Bob has repeated fantasies about himself as a woman while masturbating. 47. Bestiality: Jim has sneaked out to the barn to find a four- footed sexual partner. 48. Coprophilia: John is highly aroused by watching his partner have a bowel movement. 49. Exhibitionism: Walter is waiting in his car in the grocery parking lot to show his penis to the first woman who walks by 50. Fetishism: Bert is hanging around the Laundromat hoping to steal the object of his sexual desire from an unwashed basket of clothing. 51. Frotteurism: Billy must seek crowded places in order to get away with this paraphilia 52. Klismaphilia: Paul has paid a prostitute to give him an enema 53. Masochism: Carl is crawling on his hands and knees and being pulled by a leash in order to get sexually aroused. 54. Mysophilia: Lenny is becoming highly aroused by his partner’s nasal mucus. 55. Necrophilia: Henry is trying to find employment in a morgue in order to act out his paraphiliac fantasies 56. Pedophilia: Joe has volunteered to serve as counselor at the elementary school’s summer camp to have access to the objects of his sexual arousal 57. Sadism: Susan gets highly aroused whenever she ties her partner up and orders him to lick her feet. 58. Sexual variant: Sam gets highly aroused when his wife wears a negligee or teddy 59. Telephone scatophilia: David is describing his erect penis to a woman in his class he has called but does not know 60. Transvestism: Greg is wearing frilly panties and a bra underneath his suit and tie. 61. Urophilia: Stan asks his partner to urinate on him whenever they have sex 62. Voyeurism: Allen repeatedly peeks in windows in order to become sexually aroused CHAPTER 15: 1. Sexual assault occurs when a person does not want to have sex but does so as a result of a real or threatened use of physical force as a result of manipulation or pressure, or when he or she is unable to consent or resist. 2. In the U.S., definitions of what constitutes rape have changed dramatically over time. 3. Historically, the only type of rape that “counted” as a crime was forced penile-vaginal intercourse; “carnal knowledge of a female, forcibly and against her will.” 4. Today, however, the federal government has adopted a broader definition, and now rape is defined as oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by any body part or object, without consent or when the victim cannot give consent. 5. There are two basic ways to estimate the prevalence of rape: a. The first involves analyzing crime reports, or the number of cases officially reported to law enforcement. i. According to these reports, the rape rate has declined/decreased steadily since 1992, though it still remains too high. ii. Many experts believe that national crime reports like those provided by the FBI seriously underestimate the amount of sexual violence that women (and men) experience. b. A second, more accurate, method of determining rape prevalence involves using data from victimization surveys. i. The results of these surveys typically yield much higher numbers in terms of rape prevalence. 6. Most rapes are committed by someone the victim knows and happen at home 7. Most victims are women between 12 and 34 years of age, but anyone can be a victim of rape, including children, the elderly, the disabled, and men. 8. Rape by a date or an acquaintance is no less real than rape by a stranger. Rape is rape. 9. Research reveals that about 25% of college men have admitted to using some form of sexual aggression on a dating partner, with between 6% and 8% admitting to actually having committed rape or attempted rape. 10. Sometimes, unwanted sex occurs not as a result of physical force, but as a result of sexual coercion, which is defined as the use of physically or verbally coercive tactics to gain sexual compliance from another person who does not want to have sex. 11. Taking advantage of someone who is asleep, unconscious, or drunk is an example of a physically coercive tactic 12. Pleasing with someone or threatening to end the relationship unless the person complies is an example of verbally coercive. 13. Some instances of date rape may happen because men and women often misinterpret many of the cues and behaviors that happen on dates, each other’s intentions, or behaviors 14. People sometimes fail to accurately communicate their true intentions or wishes. Examples of this: a. Token resistance: someone says “no” but really means “yes” b. Compliance: someone agrees to sex when he or she really does not want to 15. Marital rape: rape in which the perpetrator is the victim’s spouse a. This has been a crime in the United States since 1993. b. Estimates of this type of rape are difficult to obtain, as many victims do not report the crime 16. Gang rapes: rapes involving more than one assailant a. These rapes are usually more violent than rapes committed by individuals 17. All states have laws addressing sexual activity involving minors. 18. Many states have specific laws that make it illegal for an adult to have sex with anyone under the age of consent a. This crime is called statutory rape. b. The mentally handicapped are often protected by these laws as well 19. Research on male rape reveals that men, like women, tend to be raped by someone they know. 20. Unlike women, however, male rape victims are more likely to have been raped during childhood. 21. Although some people have difficulty believing that a man can be raped by a woman, it does happen. 22. Just like male perpetrators, women themselves report using coercion and even force to make their partners comply with their sexual demands. 23. There is a difference between the type of coercion used a. Coercion used by women is usually verbal b. Coercion used by men is usually physical 24. Studies of convicted rapists reveal that most have average IQs, have no more history of psychiatric illness than other criminals, are not oversexed, and have normal social skills. a. However, many were neglected and physically or sexually abused as children, or come from families in which they witnessed abuse of the mother by the father. 25. Most rapists possess distorted attitudes and beliefs about sex roles, female behavior, and a lack of empathy. 26. Several explanations for rape: a. Psychodynamic theories explain rape as resulting from psychopathology 27. Rapists can be divided into three types according to their motivation: a. Power rapists b. Anger rapists c. Sadistic rapists d. For these men, rape is not a crime of passion, it is a crime of violence and aggression. 28. Based on what we now know of date rapists, some researchers have proposed a fourth type of rapist: a. Opportunist rapist: distorted cognitive processes and for whom sex is the primary motivation for rape 29. Cultural factors and social learning also help explain why rape occurs. 30. Rape is much more common in sexually repressive societies that promote and glorify male violence, and where large numbers of people conform to conservative stereotypic gender roles and women occupy an inferior social and economic position. 31. Many mistaken beliefs about rape are so widespread that they are called myths. 32. Four rape myths: a. Women who are raped usually provoke it by their dress and behavior b. Women subconsciously want to be raped c. No woman can be raped if she truly does not want to be d. Women frequently make false accusations of rape 33. None of these rapes are true, but people who believe them tend to blame the victim for being raped 34. Rape victims experience short-term and long-term reactions in what is called post rape posttraumatic stress disorder 35. In the acute phase, a victim’s reactions may either be expressive or controlled. 36. In the period of long-term reorganization, the victim attempts to regain control of her or his life. 37. Long-term sexual problems are not uncommon 38. The reactions of a victim’s partner and family are important to the recovery process, and it is crucial that they do not attribute blame to the victim. 39. If you are ever raped, it is important to report the crime immediately and get a medical exam as soon as possible. 40. If you are ever raped, do not wash, douche, or change clothes until the exam is completed. 41. Today, most police forces have specially trained units, including counselors, to work with rape victims, and the U.S. Supreme Court has approved broad rape-shield laws to protect victims from feeling as if they are on trial during court proceedings. 42. There are three basic approaches to rape prevention: a. One focuses on the rapists and advocates the creation of safer physical environments and tougher laws and punishments. b. Another focuses on potential victims and suggests educating women to be less vulnerable to assault. c. The third, a social systems perspective, advocated changing society’s values and its attitudes toward how men and women interact with one another. 43. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other unwanted verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace or classroom is called sexual harassment. 44. The Supreme Court has ruled that this also includes the creation of a hostile or offensive work environment, and that a victim does not have to prove that sexual favors were demanded in exchange for job benefits. 45. Companies and schools can be held liable for not taking immediate and appropriate corrective action. 46. Another form of unwanted sexual attention that many people experience is stalking 47. Stalking behavior possesses three characteristic features, which are intentional and persistent contact or attempted contact by the stalker/pursuer that is unwanted by and psychologically aversive to the target. 48. This type of behavior typically becomes a crime when it poses a credible threat that places the target in fear for his or her safety. 49. We now know that sexual abuse of children is more widespread than previously believed. 50. Most victims are molested by someone they know 51. We can divide child molesters into two classifications: a. The Preference molester or “true” pedophile: primary sexual orientation is to children b. Situational molester: primary sexual orientation is to adults 52. Pedophilic sex offenders have been further classified according to whether they are sexually attracted to male children, female children, or both, and according to their psychological characteristics, such as personally immature, regressive, or aggressive. 53. Of pedophiles who have been caught, those who target girls average about 20 victims each, while those who target boys average nearly 200 vicitms each. 54. Although most pedophilic offenders are men, women also commit child sexual abuse. 55. Research reveals that the “typical” female offender is young, has poor coping skills, and an existing psychological issue, and has herself often been the victim of prolonged childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. 56. The effects of sexual abuse on children are often long lasting, but there is no single “post-sexual abuse syndrome.” 57. Sexual relations between relatives who are too closely related to marry is called incest. 58. Brother/sister sibling incest is approximately five times more common than parent-child incest, although father-daughter and stepfather-stepdaughter incest account for 80% of all arrests. 59. Incestuous fathers often appear to be shy and family- oriented publicly, but are dominating and authoritarian in their own homes. 60. In these cases, the mothers are usually aware that incest is going on. 61. It is important for children who have been sexually abused to receive counseling and support from professionals and organizations familiar with sexual abuse. 62. Today, many states have enacted sexually violent predator/sexual predator laws that allow a person who has been convicted of a violent sex crime to be civilly committed after he/she has served a full prison sentence if it can be demonstrated that he/she possesses a mental disorder and poses a continued threat to the community 63. An adult woman can still be raped even if she does not want to be. 64. Rape was originally defined as forcible male-to-female vaginal penetration 65. The percentage of reported rapes that are false is lower than for most other crimes 66. Anyone can be a victim of rape, including a man 67. If a woman willingly engages in necking or petting with a man, she can still charge him with rape if he then forces her to have sexual intercourse. 68. Rapists do not necessarily prefer victims who are feisty and who will try to physically resist. 69. Most convicted rapists believe that their victims want to have sex with them or deserve to be raped 70. About 55% of all rapists are NOT found to be psychotic. 71. Date rape is just as real as rape by a stranger. 72. Muehlenhard and colleagues found that over one third of all college women had said “no” to a date when they really meant “yes” to having sex. 73. A man can be convicted of rape even if the woman agreed to have sexual intercourse 74. A man can be raped by a woman 75. Woman who are raped have not done anything to provoke it 76. Many victims of rape do not show emotional reactions afterwards. 77. A man who tells sexual jokes, makes sexual references, and/or stares obsessively at a female coworker can be prosecuted for sexual harassment even if he does not demand sexual favors 78. About 80% of all child molesters are known by their victims 79. Not all pedophiles are child molesters 80. In families with father-child incest, the large majority of mothers do not try to protect their children 81. All cultures have some form of incest taboo 82. Victims of sexual abuse tend to blame themselves 83. People with mental disabilities are often protected against sexual abuse by the same laws that protect juveniles. 84. Four examples of sexually coercive behavior: a. Getting a partner intoxicated in order to have sex b. Having sex with someone who is asleep or unconscious c. Using guilt, anger, or pleading to get someone to comply d. Verbally threatening to end the relationship, continuing to persist over the other’s objections 85. In gang rape, the individual responsibility for things a person does can be diffused or forgotten 86. Psychodynamic theories of rape explain it as resulting from psychopathology 87. The majority of date rapes are probably committed by opportunistic rapists 88. In the period of long-term reorganization of post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder, victims attempt to regain control of their lives 89. Charges of sexual harassment are usually prosecuted as civil suits under the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 90. Sexual harassment usually occurs in a relationship where there is unequal power/power differential 91. Research has shown that the more a man believes in traditional stereotypic gender roles, the more accepting he is of sexual harassment. 92. Teenagers who have sex with other teenagers are often protected from prosecution for statutory rape by Romeo and Juliet laws 93. Regressive pedophile: Kyle has always had sexual relations with adults, but work and marital problems have led him to drink, and when he feels sexually inadequate he molests a child. 94. Personally immature pedophile: Harry has never had a successful relationship with a woman and seeks our children, whom he can control, for sexual gratification 95. Anger rapist: Jack rapes because he despises all women, whom he blames for his lack of success 96. Aggressive pedophile: Ethan has sex with his prepubescent boys and beats them before and afterwards 97. Power rapist: Albert feels insecure and inadequate. He commits rape to reassure himself of his sexual adequacy, strength and potency 98. Sadistic rapist: Grant loves it when his rape victims try to resist and enjoys hurting them for a prolonged time 99. Opportunistic rapist: Frank is sexually aroused and impulsively forces his date to have sex with him when they are alone 100. Sexual harasser: Doug tells crude and sexual jokes and makes sexual comments to his female employees 101. Situational molester: Chris’s sexual urges are primarily toward adults, but he has fondled a child and had the child touch his penis. He considers his behaviors abnormal 102. Bisexual pedophile: Brad considers himself to be heterosexual, but he is sexually attracted to both male and female children 103. Preference molester: Ian has no interest in adults as sexual partners. His sexual orientation is to children only. CHAPTER 16: 1.Sex is a multibillion-dollar-a-year business. 2.This could not have happened unless there was a large demand for such material. 3.About 75% of men and 41% of women have intentionally looked at Internet porn. 4.1/3 of all use of the Internet is to access porn sites. 5.The Presidents Commission of 1970 and subsequent researchers have generally concluded that exposure to nonviolent sexually explicit material has no harmful effect on individuals. 6.Many men are aroused by sexually explicit material depicting violence toward women. 7.Exposure to sexually explicit material with violent themes often results in men becoming less sympathetic toward rape victim, having greater belief in rape myths, displaying increased hostility to women, and being more likely to say that they would commit rape themselves if they were certain they would not get caught. 8.Behavioral scientists have concluded that it is the depictions of violence toward women in this material, not the sexually explicitness, that is potentially harmful 9.Most people find some types of sexually explicit material offensive, but attempts to censor or ban this material raise questions about First Amendment rights. 10. What is erotica to one person is pornography to another, and who is to decide where to draw the line? 11. Prostitution is illegal in all parts of the U.S. except for a few counties in Nevada. 12. 10%-23% of the male respondents indicated that they had paid for sex on at least one occasion. 13. Female prostitutes can be divided into three types according to status: a. Streetwalker: solicit in public b. B-girls and brothel girls: work in a brothel c. Call girls: generally work out of their own apartments 14. Male prostitutes who cater to homosexuals are called hustlers. 15. The primary reason most individuals engage in prostitution is economics (the need for money). 16. Most street prostitutes were sexually or physically abused as children. 17. Most customers are middle-class and married. 18. Opponents of prostitution argue that many children are forced into prostitution and that prostitution spreads sexually transmitted infections and is often associated with other crimes. 19. Proponents of legalization argue that licensing and required health checks would reduce both STIs and the influence of organized crime. 20. Most people who become prostitutes do not do so because of abnormal sexual needs, but because of economic need. 21. When exposed to sexually explicit material, most people do not show an increase in sexual behavior. 22. The 1970 President’s Commission concluded that there was no significant link between exposure of adults to sexually explicit materials and sex crimes. 23. Prostitution is the only sexual offense for which more women than men are prosecuted. 24. Erotica and pornography are not synonyms and do not mean the same thing. 25. When Denmark legalized the same of hard-core pornographic material to adults, there was a marked decrease in sex crimes afterward. 26. People are most aroused by looking at sexually explicit material showing behaviors they regard as normal. 27. A majority of both men and women are physiologically aroused by sexually explicit material. 28. There is no substantial evidence that sex offenders have had more exposure to sexually explicit material than have non- offenders. 29. Exposure to violent sexually explicit material often results in men adopting attitudes that are more supportive of sexual violence against women 30. The feature that distinguishes a prostitute from other women who engage in illicit sexual intercourse is the lack of discrimination with which she offers herself to men for hire. 31. Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas believed prostitution was necessary. 32. A hustler is on the same status level as a female streetwalker 33. Pornography is distinguished from erotica in that it is literature or art with a sexual theme that is considered to be obscene 34. Research suggests that it is exposure to material portraying violence toward women, rather than just sexual explicitness, that results in potentially harmful sexual aggression 35. In Miller v. California, 1973, the Supreme Court rules that material was obscene if by contemporary community standards it depicts patently offensive sexual conduct, it lacks serious literary, artistic political, or scientific value, and it appeals to prurient interests 36. The Comstock Law, passed in 1873, made the mailing of material considered to be obscene a felony 37. Probably the foremost reason many people use sexually explicit material is that they enjoy the sexual arousal it produces 38. With regard to pornography, men and women rate themes in which there is active subordination of women as the most degrading 39. Some negative effects of frequent viewing of pornography on the Internet include view women as sex objects, retain stereotyped views of gender roles, more permissive sexual attitudes, and lower sexual satisfaction 40. Hustler: Sam accepts money from men on the street who want to have sex with him 41. John: Joe pays women to give him oral-genital sex 42. Not a prostitute: Joan has sex with her boss in the hope that it will get her a promotion 43. Pimp: David takes 75% of the money earned by six women who do tricks on the west side of town 44. Gigolo: Hank works out of an escort service and is paid by older women to have sex 45. Brothel prostitute: Susan has sex at a legalized house in Nevada 46. B-Girl: Sally solicits for sex in a downtown bar 47. Call girl: Stephanie works out of her own apartment, and her clients must make an appointment to have sex with her 48. Streetwalker: Bonnie solicits men in public
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