FINAL Cognitive Psychology Study Guide
FINAL Cognitive Psychology Study Guide PSYCH 2014
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CHAPTER 7: (14 and 15) Describe a nodelink system. ● Words, images, and facts are represented anodes that are connected to each other vlinks ● Represented as a hierarchical fishnet ● Represented as a hierarchical tree What are nodes? ➢ Nodes are specific locations in memory ➢ Often organized as a hierarchy ➢ The concepts: subjects, adjectives, objects What are links? ➢ Predicates Know what is meant by classinclusion relation and property relation links; recognize what words signify these types of links ➢ Can indicate classinclusion relation (straight lines) ○ ISA ➢ Can indicate property relations(arrows) ○ Has, has a ○ Is ○ Can What are the components of the Teachable Language Comprehender (TLC) proposed by Quillian (1968)? ● A wellknown and wellresearched network theory ● According to TLC, semantic memory has two main components ○ Nodelink system ■ Meaning of a concept is composed of all associated links ○ Question interface ■ Sensibility test to determine if we should pursue answering a question ● “Is a canary an arm? Explain the question interface and its functions. ● Question interface ○ Avoids unnecessarily taxing resourc to search for information that you won’t be able to find ○ Ex. People can give rapid answers to questions that deserve an immediate no 1 Be able to explain the three assumptions of TLC (equal link lengths, efficient filing, and spreading activation). ● If question interface determines question is sensible, TLC make 3 assumptions regarding the mechanisms governing the search of the knowledge network: 1. Equal link lengths ➢ TLC assumes that all links in the hierarchy are consistently of equal length ➢ It takes the cognitive system time to travel across links ➢ Therefore, questions that require accessing the same number of links will require the same amount of time to answer 2. An efficient filing system ➢ TLC assumes that the properties of an object are stored at the highest appropriate node ■ Has wings, has feathers, and lays eggs are stored with bird ○ Not stored withanary orcardinal orcockatiel ➢ This minimizes the demands on LTM and WM 3. Spreading activation ➢ The process that TLC proposes to occur when a question is asked: ➢ A search is performed to see if there is a network connection ➢ Energy spreads from the nodes activated by the question in all directors, one node at a time ■ Activates many unnecessary nodes What is the semantic distance effect? ○ The farther apart two nodes are in the network, the longer it has to discover how they are related What is the repeated path hypothesis? ○ It takes less time to answer a question that travels the same routes as those used by a previous question ■ Q1: is a canary a bird? ➢ Q2A: Can a canary sing? (Nodes are already activated!) ➢ Q2B: Do fish have gills? (Longer b/c now you have to think about fish) ■ Repeated path hypothesis predicts Q2A would have lowered RT than Q2B ➢ Occurs as a consequence of spreading activation ➢ Evidence for this hypothesis supports TLC Be able to interpret a hierarchical fishnet or tree diagram of a network model (e.g. of mammals or birds) and estimate which questions would take shorter/longer according to the semantic distance effect and repeated path hypothesis of TLC. ● Shortest = if they are closest together or most similar to the previous question 2 What is the typicality effect? ● Phenomena that has lead to some rethinking of TLC ● The difference in time it takes to answer questions about ordinary instances of a category versus unusual instances of a category ● Faster RT tois a sparrow a bird than tois an ostrich a bird? Explain how this observation challenges TLC. ➢ If links are equal length, how can this occur? ○ If a lion is just one link away from a mammal and so is a platypus, why does it take longer? CAN’T EXPLAIN THIS PHENOMENON Three theories of knowledge: FCM, Perceptual Symbol System, Connectionist Model Feature Comparison Model (FCM) ● Proposes that knowledge is represented as a semantic space organized according to concepts and their relatedness ○ Clusters represent more similar items ● Students asked to rate similarity of different birds and mammals (Rips, Shoben, & Smith, 1973) Defining features ➢ Aspects that are necessary and sufficient to specify the requirement of a category ○ Ex. Defining features of categorbird ■ Covered in feathers ■ Has wings ■ Lays eggs Characterizing features ➢ Aspects that describe commonly occurring characteristics of many (not necessarily all) members of a category) ○ Ex. Characterizing features of categorird ■ Builds nests ■ Eats seeds ■ Flies The perceptual symbol system ● Proposes that seemingly abstract knowledge is based on the perceptual mode (visual, auditory, etc.) in which we experience it. The perceptual information is STORED WITH the abstract knowledge. Emphasizes that we really experience things. Evidence ➢ Student answered “Does a pony have a mane?” Faster when it was preceded by “Does a horse have a mane?” Than “Does a lion have a mane?” ➢ Suggests properties are represented with perceptual characteristics in LTM ➢ Suggests semantic knowledge includes concrete elements in addition to abstract concepts 3 The connectionist model ● The connectionist model combines aspects of network theories/model, feature comparison model, and perceptual theory ● Assertions ○ The ability to answer questions depends on the entire pattern of connections in the neural networks) ○ Every node of knowledge is connected to every other node ■ Connections can be strong or weak ○ Perceptual experiences is a key component ■ Information is acquired through experience ● Instances and properties are connected by common units that link the name of an object (rose) with a general property (ex.has) and an output property (epetals) Define schemas and scripts. Schemas ➢ Knowledge we use for daytoday functioning is organized into schemas ➢ Schemas develop from experience & continue to develop ➢ A looselydefined knowledge structure that characterizes an object, being, or idea ○ Contains the overall form of the situation (the gist) but missing the specific details ■ The face prototype is a schema ○ Helps us to form expectations and interpret new information so we can think and act quickly Scripts ➢ A behavioral schema Be able to produce at least 3 positive functions of schemas (there are many more than 3 scattered throughout the slides for lecture 15 listed after the words ‘schemas help us to:’). 1. Provide background knowledge 2. Interpret missing or ambiguous information 3. Connect different ideas Recognize how the script applier mechanism (SAM) developed by Schank and Abelson (1977) demonstrates that schemas can provide background knowledge. ● Sam able to fill in missing information based on script that was inputed earlier ● This is a model for humans ● We have similar schemas in our brain. So when a friend tells us about their restaurant experience, we can fill in missing information because we have this schema already Be able to recognize the results of the Brewer and Treyens (1981) study. ● Students waited in a graduate student’s office ● Asked to recall items in the office ○ Correctly recalled schemaappropriate items ■ Chair, desk ○ Less likely to recall items that did not match schema ■ Skull ○ Incorrectly recalled schema items that were not presented ■ Books What negative aspect of schemas does this study demonstrate? ➢ That schemas can lead us to misinterpret or misremember what we have experienced ➢ It might be difficult to distinguish between knowledge provided by schema and actual memory for an event 4 Be able to recognize the major findings of the Sulin and Dooling (1974) study using passages about Helen Keller or a fictitious character and understand how these results suggest that cueing schemas through key words or a title can influence our memories. ● A schema may be cued by the title of a narrative 1. Participants in two groups read the same passage about a woman (“Carol Harris” or “Helen Keller”) 2. Asked to recognize sentences that occurred in the passage 5 minutes and 1 week later 3. “Hellen Keller” group incorrectly recognized sentences related to Helen Keller as having been present in passage after 1 week Be able to recognize schemas and schemalike predispositions in infants. ● Infants born witreflexes ○ Naturally ingrained schemas! ○ Innate responses triggered by certain environmental stimuli ○ Blink refle: close eyelid to flash of light ○ Moro reflex: arms extended when feel loss of support ○ Reflexes occur faster than conscious thought ○ “Hard wired” schemas ● Other schema predispositions seen in infants ○ Preference for faces ○ Preference for mother’s face ○ Preference for abstract objects arranged like faces (Ts) What is a narrative schema? Be able to recognize elements of the narrative schema. ● The basic story structure ● Continues to develop over the lifespan ● Can be recounts of personal experiences, other’s experiences, commentaries on events, fictionalized stories ● We rely on narrative schemas whenever we see or hear (read, watch a movie, talking to a friend, etc.) stories about others ● Essential elements of a narrative schema ○ Main characters ○ Setting ○ Theme ○ Plot 5 What are advance organizers? ● Advance organizers preview materials that help people learn new information by giving the order of the material prior to the specific details ● Advance organizers help us to understand new information ● Gives us a structure to build upon ● Ex. A diagram or an outline about the subject before a paragraph about the subject How can they aid in reading comprehension? ➢ Gives you a framework to build upon versus having to create your own What is a person schema? ● Connects personality traits with behaviors such traits would likely produce ○ Outgoing personality, suggests outgoing schema, would predict the person would make friends easily How is a person schema related to a stereotype? ➢ When person schemas are extended to encompass members of a particular group, it becomes a stereotype ➢ Stereotypes can lead to biased and prejudicial behavior Recognize how schemas are used in therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. ● Behavioral therapy for people on the autism spectrum includes teaching social scripts ○ Explicitly learning and practicing these social scripts helps prepare the person for realworld situations CHAPTER 8: (16 & 17) Why wouldn’t the behaviorists research imagery? ● Refused to study imagery because it cannot be objectively measured What is a mental image? ● The processing of perceptuallike information in the absence of an external source for the perceptual information (perceptuallike experience w/o an actual source. Ex. Image of a sight or sound but it’s not there right now) ● Occurs in all of the sense modalities ○ Visual imagery ○ Haptic imagery ○ Motoric imagery ○ Auditory imagery ○ Olfactory imagery ● Mental imagery results inimages ○ Perceptual experiences that occur in absence of an external source ○ You can form images based on memory ○ You can form images of things never experienced Be able to describe or recognize examples of the following types of imagery: Haptic feeling of being punched, softness of kitten, etc) Motoric a dance choreography steps, the image of the proper form of hitting a golf ball, movement based Visual a pretty rose, dog’s face, etc. 6 What is wayfinding? ● The cognitive processes used to navigate in a spatial environment in order to arrive at a goal ○ Ex. You can find your way back to a starting point by recalling images of current location and images you have passed along the way Be able to name and describe one of the functions of imagery. 1. Imagery can assist in wayfinding 2. Images can aid in remembering 3. Images can aid in problem solving ○ Reasoning (“brothers and sisters I have none; that man’s father is my father’s son” Who is in the photograph?) ○ Mentally performing arithmetic problems Be able to recognize descriptions of analog and propositional codes of imagery. There are two ways to characterize how images are coded 1. Analog code ➢ Preserves the relationship among elements of the images as if they were being experienced ○ Ex: a map maintains spatial relationships ➢ Sensory specific ➢ A lot of research (but not all) supports analog code 2. Propositional code ➢ Propositional code ○ A reaction to the analog code ○ A series of abstract descriptions (similar to words or sentences but represented in “mentalese”) ○ Not sensory specific 7 ANALOG CODE If given descriptions of the Finke and Pinker (1982) and Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978) studies, be able to recognize the results and how they support analog representation. ● Finke and Pinker, 1982 ○ Evidence for the analog code in STM ○ Screen 1 presented for 5 seconds ○ Screen 2 presented ■ Is arrow pointing to a dot from screen one? ○ RT and error rate increased as distance between arrow and dot increased ○ We have an analogist image! ● Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978) ○ Evidence for the analog code in LTM ○ Memorized a map and then asked questions about it while imagining it ○ Ex. “If you were traveling from the hut, how long would it take you to get to x?” ○ The longer the distance between the objects in the image, the longer the reaction time Performance on the hidden figures task (Reed & Johnsen, 1975) and rotating silhouette task differs depending on if the visual stimulus is present or imagined. Hidden Figures Task ● Asked if a figure was contained in the original stimulus ● Super easy when original shapes remain visible ● When done from memory, subjects were less accurate on some of the figures (like C) Rotating Silhouette Task ● Shown as silhouette and asked to rotate it 90 degrees ● Asked what shape it becomes ● MUCH easier when the silhouette remains visible How do these results challenge the analog coding of imagery? ➢ If representations were truly analog, there would be no difference between the results of memory and stimulus present conditions ➢ Cannot account for the alreadyorganized nature of images 8 PROPOSITIONAL CODE How did Broad (1968) determine if imagery and perception require overlapping cognitive processes? ● Used a dualtask method ○ VERBAL imagery task: verbal or spatial response ■ Hear a sentence. Asked to mentally repeat it and asked if it is a noun or not for each word. VERBAL response = “yes” or “no”. SPATIAL response = point to “Y” or “N” ○ VISUAL imagery task: verbal or spatial response ■ Imagine a large capital F. Told that the * would be traveling along the outside of the F. Asked if the * was at one of the corners of the F or not. VERBAL response = “yes” or “no” SPATIAL response = point to “Y” or “N” What were the results? ➢ Visual imagery does require some cognitive processes as visual perception ➢ Suggests that imagery and visual tasks use the same processes What is the symbolic distance effect? ● The more discriminable two objects are (i.e. the sizes are most different), the faster the judgement of which is larger or smaller ● Supports analog code! How does the Moyer (1973) study—requiring participants to identify the larger of two animals—provide evidence for the symbolic distance effect? ➢ Presented with two animal names and had to identify which was larger ➢ Animal names to be compared were always same length (3letter, 4letter, 5letter) ➢ The larger the difference of the animal sizes, the faster the response time 9 Describe the mental imagery of someone with hemineglect due to a lesion in the right parietal lobe. Hemispheric neglect ● Unable to attend to objects in left visual field due to lesion in right parietal lobe ● Also have difficulty processing left side of their own mental images ● Patient can only imagine one half of plaza at a time How are individuals with a split brain useful in understanding the neuropsychology of mental imagery? Split brain hemispheres don’t communicate They do better on MENTAL ROTATION STUDIES when the image is shown to your right hemisphere (left visual field) This just suggests that the right hemisphere is involved/important in mental rotation What are the results? ➢ Faster and more accurate performance on mental rotation task when stimuli presented to right hemisphere (left visual field) Be able to recognize results of Kosslyn (1975) if given a description of the study. Imagery in the Blind ● Participants imagined two animals (target and context animals) and asked question about target animal ● Slower RT when target animal was relatively small compared to context animal ○ Ex. Bunny next to elephant would take more time to answer if the bunny has whiskers than if you asked when compared to a bunny and fly (because the bunny is bigger and zoomed in already) ● We can manipulate images, but it takes time Be able to recognize results from studies of mental imagery in congenitally blind participants if given descriptions of the studies (e.g. Kerr (1983) and the mental rotation studies). Kerr (1983) ➢ Replicated Kosslyn studies ➢ Subjects imagined target object (radio) and context object (paperclip or car) and asked to verify detail (“Is there a knob on the radio?”) ○ Slower RT when target object was relatively small to context object in blind and sighted participants ➢ Subjects examined by touch a 3D map and memorized location of several objects ○ Same results occurred from the other map study ○ Imagined map and asked to mentally scan from one object to another ○ Distance between objects and time to mentally scan was positively correlated ➢ Suggest that both blind participants and sighted participants manipulate images similarly! Mental Rotation ➢ Multiple studies similar to Cooper and Shepard (1973) letter rotation task that compare blind and blindfoldedsighted participants ○ Subjects touched wooden cutouts of letters and had to determine if letters were backward or normal ○ Letters rotated varying degrees ○ RT increased with increasing angle of rotation ➢ Suggests mental rotation uses spatial representation rather than visual representation 10 Define imagery value. Imagery value: how vivid a mental representation is Give an example of a word with low imagery value and one of a word with high imagery value. ➢ Low concrete (abstract such as soul) words had lower imagery values ➢ High concrete words (ex. table) had higher imagery values ➢ Words with higher imagery value more likely to be recalled in memory test Be able to recognize descriptions and implications of Paivio’s dual coding theory. Dual coding theory ● Some concepts (like abstract concepts) have a single code ○ Represented verbally (propositional code; abstract verbal sentence) ● Concrete concepts are dually coded ○ Represented verbally (propositional code) and with image (analog code) ● Coding affects memory retrieval ○ Higher recall on memory task for words with dual codes (IMPLICATION) ○ Meaning you have a verbal and a mental image of the code (ex. table) Define the picture superiority effect, and explain why it occurs. Picture superiority effect ● Pictures are remembered better than words ● Occurs because pictures are represented both as images (analog code) and verbally (propositional code) Be able to recognize descriptions and tasks of visual imagery versus spatial imagery. Visual imagery ● Mental representation of the appearance of an object ● Color, shape, size, brightness ○ Visual Imagery Task: What color is a football? Spatial imagery ● Mental representation of spatial relationships between parts of object or an object and its location in space ● 2 types: high spatial visualizer and low spatial visualizer ● Can be measured with form board test ○ Requires subjects to choose which objects can be rotated and arranged to form a shape Which type of imagery seems to facilitate solving math problems? ➢ High spatial visualizers What is environmental spatial ability? ● Ability to navigate in new places successfully ● Includes the ability to form accurate mental representations of largescale environments (buildings, neighborhood, cities) 11 What is eidetic imagery? ● The ability to maintain a mental representation that has the quality of reviving an earlier perceptual event with great clarity ● “Photographic memory” ● Eidetic images are not the same as after images (such as when you see a waterbottle and close your eyes and can still imagine it) Given descriptions of the methods of experiments on mental imagery and performance (Roure et al, 1999; Schackell & Standing, 2007), be able to explain the results. ● Volleyball players tested on ball passing abilities then randomly assigned to one of two groups ➢ Imagery group ■ Met to practice mental imagery of passing a served ball to a teammate; 30 minutes, 3x/week, 2 months ➢ Control group ■ Meet in a social setting for the same amount of time ● Imagery groups improved from pretest to posttest ● Subjects in imagery group with highest physiological arousal on last practice session showed largest gains Explain the following mnemonics and describe when each would be especially useful for aiding memory retrieval: Method of Loci ➢ Items to be remembered are associated with specific locations so that person can mentally walk through and encounter items in order ➢ Useful when items must be maintained in sequence KeyWord Method ➢ Use words you know as keys for learning new words ➢ Helpful for remembering names foreign language vocabulary, science terms PegWord Method ➢ Prememorize rhyme ○ “One is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, four is a door, five is a hive, six is sticks, seven is heaven, eight is a gate, nine is a line, ten is a hen.” ➢ Imagine each toberemembered interacting with the objects (pegs) of the rhyme ➢ Once you know the rhyme, it can be used again and again for different lists ➢ Useful in helping people with amnesia and other memory impairments to remember lists of daily tasks 12 CHAPTER 9: (18 and 19) Why is language a cognitive universal? ● All normally healthy people over the age of 4 have a native language ➢ Universals in language development ● 6,500+ languages ➢ Universals in structure of language What is an utterance? ● Linguistic expressions ● Conveys MEANING Does it have to be a sound? ➢ NO ➢ May be speech sounds or gestures What are the four necessary components of language? ● Message (semantics) ● Physical constraints (syntax) ● Medium of communication (articulation/gesture) ● Social constraints (pragmatics) Define semantics. ● Words or gestures that convey packets of meaning to a listener ● All systems of communication have a semantic component (meaning) Describe and give examples of the 3 universal principles children use to map meaning to speech sounds: Reference principle ➢ Children interpret utterances to be about real world objects and not the feelings of the speaker ➢ Ex. “That’s a pretty balloon” child would realize that you’re talking about an actual object, the balloon, rather than an inner image that they’re coming up with. Utterances are about real things. ➢ REFERSE TO REAL WORLD VS. AN ABSTRACT THING Whole object principle ➢ Children show a preference for identifying words with whole objects rather than part of an object ➢ Ex. “Look at the bird” would see the WHOLE bird, not just the tail Nonredundancy of words principle ➢ Children act as if there is only one name for an object and every name has only one single referent ○ If children hear an unfamiliar word, they try to connect it to something that they do not know the name of in their field of vision ➢ Ex. “Look at the chipmunk” they link to the little brown animal they don’t know the name of and assume THAT is the chipmunk 13 What is syntax? ● Rules for how sentences should be put together ● Facilities extraction of meaning from a message ● Sentence structure/word order ● “I studied for the exam.” ● “If only I had studied for the exam.” How is it related to the meaning of a message? ➢ Knowing syntactic rules allows a speaker to convey distinctions ■ Tense ● Past, present, future ■ Mood ● Wishes, intentions, necessity ■ Aspect ● Conditions that are continuing or ending ➢ Different sequences of identical words convey different meanings ■ The dog bit the man ■ The man bit the dog ➢ Allows individual words to have different meanings depending on where in a sentence they occur ■ All students have read some books ■ Some books have been read by all students Know which of the following are universal media of language: speech, gesture, reading, writing. ● Speech ● Gesture What is babbling? ● Consonantvowel pairs Does it differ between deaf and hearing infants? ➢ No What are pragmatics? ● The social use of language ● A system of rules for social cooperation in language ● How we use language in specific contexts for specific purposes ● Includes nonspeech elements used to coordinate with spoken sentence to convey message Be able to recognize examples of pragmatic rules. ➢ Limits on what can be spoken about ➢ How to speak ➢ Listener’s expectations about how information will be presented What is the difference between a Pidgin language and a Creole language? ● Pidgin blended fragments of two languages (comes before the creole) ● Creole a pidgin that becomes a native language (a language learned as the first language of children) What is a phoneme? ● The individual sounds that make up words 14 What evidence suggests there are syntactic universals? ● Simple sentences contains: subject, verb, object ● 6 possible combinations of sequences for subject, verb, object ● Survey of 2,000 languages reveals only 3 of the combinations ○ SVO (English) ○ SOV (Japanese) ○ VSO (Arabic) ● Similarities of syntactic forms in languages ● Suggests universal cognitive limitation to our ability to process information When do children become familiar with their mother’s language? ● 3rd trimester (in the womb) How have researchers used the highamplitude sucking procedure to determine this (DeCasper & Fifer, 1980; DeCasper & Spence, 1986)? ➢ Pregnant women read a storybook aloud 2x/day for last 6 weeks of pregnancy ➢ Played recordings of mothers and others reading familiar story and new stories ■ Highamplitude sucking procedure controlled auditory stimuli ■ Infants preferred familiar story and mothers’ voices ■ Control infants preferred mothers’ voices but did not display story preference What is prosody? ● The rhythm, stress, and intonation pattern of the voice (singsong quality) Be able to recognize the general developmental pattern of semantic and syntactic understanding in children. ● Semantic understanding precedes s yntactic understanding ● By age 4, child understands grammatical rules (semantics + syntax) How do the speech discrimination abilities of very young infants differ from 12monthold infants? ● Young infants can discriminate more speech sounds than 12monthold infants ○ Basically when the infant is born, they are programed to distinguish between all speech sounds, but we lose this later on if the sounds aren’t common to your native language ○ 12 month old infants are more sensitive to speech sounds from surrounding linguistic environment and can no longer distinguish sounds not used in native language When does the vocabulary spurt occur in children? ● Between 18 24 months What is the role of fast mapping in this spurt? ➢ Fast mapping: words and meanings can be acquired after very few exposures 15 What is regularization? ● A downward languagelearning trajectory ● Children apply standard grammatical or syntactic rules incorrectly ● Previously, they knew correct the forms by rotethey heard it and they repeated it. Now, as they learn the correct grammatical rule, it decreases because they apply them incorrectly, then it increases again as they learn the correct rule When does it occur? ➢ Around 4 years of age and lasts 1 year Be able to recognize examples of regularization. ➢ Mouses instead oice ➢ Goed instead of went Describe the behaviorist, nativist, and emergent views of language acquisition. Behaviorist view (no one thinks this is how it works) ○ Acquisition through environmental experience ○ Operant conditioning reinforcement principles ■ Correct utterances rewarded by parents (if a parent smiles, etc) Nativist view ○ Behaviorism cannot account for language acquisition because of thpoverty of the stimulus ■ Poverty of the stimulus ● Children not exposed to enough data tolearn as much grammar/language as they do ○ Instead, universal grammar (born with this) fills in the gaps ○ Innate linguistic parameters for acquiring grammatical rules are triggered when an infant hears their native language Emergent view ○ Tries to merge behaviorist view and nativist view ○ Language learning is based on general cognitivebased learning mechanisms ■ Children detect patterns in language through statistical probabilities ■ Vocab and grammatical knowledge based on social and contextual cues if rewarded, you’ll probably do it again ■ Experiencedependent mechanisms must have EXPERIENCE for the statistical probabilities to build up Be able to recognize the method, results, and conclusions of Saffran, Aslin, and Knowlton (1996). ● Can 8montholds extract words from continuous speech? Method ➢ Familiarization Phase ○ Two minutes of continuous speech ○ Four nonsense words repeated in random order composed of 3 different syllables from a set of consonantvowel pairs 16 ➢ Preference Phase ○ Center light blinks to direct attention to begin trial ○ Left or right light and speaker begin flashing and repeating stimulus respectively for 15 seconds ○ When infant turns away from the light/sound for at least 2 seconds, the stimulus stops ○ 12 trials: 6 familiar words, 6 nonwords that contained some of the same syllables Results ➢ Experiment 1: novelty preference for nonwords ➢ Experiment 2: novelty preference for partwords Conclusions ➢ Indicates infants can recognize structure of words after only 2 minutes of exposure ➢ Word segmentation from speech can be accomplished based solely on statistical relationships between neighboring speech sounds ➢ Infants are sensitive to statistical probabilities ○ Suggests innately biased statistical learning mechanisms rather than innate rules of language ➢ Supports emergent view of language acquisition CHAPTER 9 & 10: (20 and 21) Which hemisphere is dominant for language for most righthanded and lefthanded people? ● Left hemisphere What is the purpose of the Wada test? Be able to recognize the procedure of the Wada test. ● Used to determine hemispheric dominance (which hemisphere is dominant) ● Sodium amobarbital injected into one of the hemispheres through carotid artery ● Induces period of anesthesia for hemisphere (brain is asleep) ● Can test language function of awake hemisphere ● Place object in hand and asked to identify ● When the hemisphere which is dominant for language is injected (typically left), aphasia for 23 minutes Know the locations (which lobe) and functions of Wernicke’s area, Broca’s area, and the angular gyrus. ● Located in the dominant (usually left) hemisphere Broca’s Area ➢ Located in frontal lobenear motor cortex ➢ Analyzes s yntax of incoming messages ➢ Activates motor cortex involved in speech production (so that you can move your mouth and say what you want to say) Wernicke’s Area ➢ Located in temporal lobe near primary auditory cortex ➢ Involved in semantic processing of spoken and written language (understanding what language means. Comprehension) Angular Gyrus ➢ Located in p arietal lo near Wernicke’s area ➢ Provides an understanding of the categories of words (ex. Specific nouns) 17 What is the general term used for a language impairment? ● Aphasia What is a hemispherectomy? ● Surgical removal of one of the hemispheres ● Can relieve effects of epilepsy ● If dominant hemisphere is removed, language is affected ● Language consequences related to age of surgery What are the longterm consequences of removing the hemisphere dominant for language in very young children (less than 20 months)? ➢ Delay of onset. Lose what language they have. But can relearn. ➢ Normal development What are the longterm consequences of removing the hemisphere dominant for language in adults? ➢ Selective aphasia (going to lose language) ➢ Irreversible damage What is the cause of Broca’s aphasia? ● Lesions to Broca’s area What are the symptoms? ➢ Nonfluent aphasia ➢ Difficulty speaking in complete sentences (lose fluentness of speech) ➢ Halting, effortful speech ➢ Short and ungrammatical expressions ➢ Some difficulty comprehending complex sentences ➢ AWARE of difficulties ➢ “Yes...ah...Monday...er Dad and Peter H...and Dad...er hospital..and ah...Wednesday...Wednesday nine o’clock...and oh ...Thursday...ten o’clock, ah doctors...two...an’ doctors...and er...teeth...yah.” What is the cause of Wernicke’s aphasia? ● Lesions to Wernicke’s area What are the symptoms? ➢ Fluent aphasia ➢ Loss of ability to understand spoken or written language ➢ Can produce rhythmic, grammatical, and effortless speech but lacks meaning (nonsensical) ➢ NOT aware of difficulty ➢ “Well this is...mother is away here working her work out o’here to get her better, but when she’s looking, the two boys looking in other part. One their small tile into her time here. She’s working another time because she’s getting, too” 18 What is the cause of anomia? ● Lesions to angular gyrus What are the symptoms? ● Inability to retrieve names of instances of categories (ex. Specific vegetable, noun, room in house) ● May sound inarticulate ● Can understand nouns when used by others Be able to recognize the symptoms of an individual with a lesion to the equivalent of Wernicke’s area in the nondominant hemisphere ● Nondominant hemisphere (usually right) ● Area is involved in understanding metaphor and figurative language ● Would interpret “Nancy has a heavy heart” literally Be able to recognize a situation in which the nondominant hemisphere is particularly important for language processing. ● Important for making connections and generating alternative understandings ● If you read a passage without a title, the right side of your brain will be very active because it is trying to make connections and understand what the theme/what the passage is about! Choose Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, or spina bifida. What is the cause for the condition? Describe the cognitive symptoms for the condition and how they illustrate the independence of language and intelligence. Williams Syndrome ● Deletion of region of chromosome 7 ● Incidence of 1/10,000 ● Stereotypical features (“elephant” face) ● Low intelligence (IQ 50 75) ● Very poor spatial skills (can’t find way around, can’t do math, can’t draw) ● Normal grammatical ability ● Sophisticated vocabulary ● Exceptional conversationalists ● Awesome advanced language! But poor spatial skills :( What does the SapirWhorf hypothesis propose? ● Proposes that a person’s language determines their perceptions/understanding of the world ● Referred to aslinguistic relati (can’t think outside of our language, therefore we will perceive the world differently) ○ Rule 1: If the number of words for a phenomenon in two languages differs, than speakers may understand the two phenomenon differently ○ Rule 2: If the number of words for a phenomenon in two languages is the same, than speakers will tend to understand them equivalently 19 Be able to describe a study on color categorization and explain how the results challenge linguistic relativity. ● Cultures differ in the number of color terms in their language ● Berlin & Kay (1969) ○ Anthropologists studied participants who spoke 20 different languages ○ Asked to group 329 color chips ○ No matter the language, participants selected the same chips as the best example for 8 colors (can also group them correctly!) ■ Red, yellow, green, blue, brown, pink, orange, purple ■ Called ocal colors ● The 8 focal colors are universally recognized even among people whose languages do not have words for all these colors. Therefore, all participants were able to understand the the phenomenon of different colors, even if the colors weren’t in their vocabulary (breaks rule #1) If a language has only 2 color terms, which 2 colors will be associated with the terms? ➢ Black and white Based on the different types of numbering systems, why would a Japanese or Mandarinspeaking child be expected to reach a higher level of arithmetic competency sooner than an Englishspeaking child? ● Because these languages have more predictable progressions they only have to learn the first 10 digits. In English you have to know 120, 30, 40, 50 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 Who would be more accurate on an imagery task that required rotation: a deaf individual who communicates with American Sign Language or a hearing individual who does not sign? ● The deaf individual Why? ➢ Because deaf individuals who sign mentally rotate incoming signs to understand signer’s perspective (they have had a lifelong practice of doing this!) Be able to recognize how speech perception occurs according to the motor theory, the cohort model, and the fuzzy logic model. Motor Theory ➢ Speech perception relies on analysis of synthesis ○ People try to mentally simulate creation of speech sounds ○ If simulated sound matches the sound the brain has registered, the person can identify it ○ Listeners use a speaker’s facial movement to assist this process ■ The McGurk Effect ● The inability to hear sounds correctly when a speaker’s utterances and lip movements do not match ● When a speaker’s lips are configured to make [ga] sound, but the sound presented is equivalent to [ba], listener reports hearing [da] or [tha] ■ Evidence: listener’s use the speaker's facial movement to assist this process! ➢ Can’t entirely explain speech perception because we can understand speech over the phone or in the dark 20 Cohort Model ➢ An interaction model of speech perception ➢ Speech recognition occurs in two stages at the word level ○ Stage 1: Detection of component sounds at the beginning of a word ■ Activates acohor all possible words from longterm memory that have a similar set of sounds ○ Stage 2: Processing of all other possible sources of information to eliminate words that are not the target word, including ■ Broad context of word ■ Acoustic information from other parts of the sound stream that makes up the word ➢ Ex. “Nancy looked at the map.” Fuzzy Logic Model (OUTCOMES = UNCERTAIN = FUZZY!) ➢ People have idealized prototypical forms of speech sounds in their longterm memory and use these prototypes to determine which sound they just heard ➢ Speech perception occurs in stages: ○ Evaluation stage ■ Features of the auditory signal are compared with featureprototypes from LTM ■ What percentage of input features match thprototypes? ○ Integration stage ■ Estimation of the reverse percentage what percentage of prototype matches the features of the signal? ○ Assessment & decision stage ■ Determine the bestfitting match between auditory signal and candidate prototypes 21 ● Fuzzy logic model ○ Outcomes of stages are uncertain ○ We do the best we can after considering all possible factors and just make a decision ● Cohort model ○ Produces final, definitive guess ● Both involve processing multiple aspects ○ Lowlevel aspects of auditory signal (bottomup) ○ Highlevel contextual information (topdown) Describe the McGurk effect. ● The inability to hear sounds correctly when a speaker’s utterances and lip movements do not match ● When a speaker’s lips are configured to make [ga] sound, but the sound presented is equivalent to [ba], listener reports hearing [da] or [tha] When does it occur? ➢ When someone’s auditory and lip input do not match What is the cause of primary progressive aphasia? ● Deterioration of brain tissue affecting areas important for speech and language (shrinking brain tissue) What are the symptoms? ➢ Steady deterioration in ability to understand language ➢ Other cognitive functions remain preserved!!! ➢ Begins with difficulty understanding specific words, followed by deterioration in ability to identify names of objects, then, loss of understanding other people’s speech and comprehending written word ➢ In the end, individual becomes mute and lose all language What is the cause of conduction aphasia? ● Lesions to arcuate fasciculus and auditory cortex in left hemisphere What is the arcuate fasciculus? ➢ A bundle of axons that connect Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area What are the symptoms? ➢ Individual can understand what is being said but cannot repeat it correctly (disconnection between comprehension and articulation) ➢ Difficulty reading aloud ➢ Spontaneous speech is not impaired 22
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