MCB 150 FINAL EXAM VOCAB CONT.
MCB 150 FINAL EXAM VOCAB CONT. MCB 150
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Logner on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCB 150 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Bradley G Mehrtens in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Biology in Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
MCB 150 FINAL EXAM: WHATS WHAT? mobile genetic elements plasmids and viruses Cell Theory 1) cell is fundamental unit of life 2) all living organism are made up of one or more cells 3) all cells come from preexisting cells Walther Flemming introduced term mitosis to describe the threadlike appearance of chromosomes Edouard van Beneden reported that the number of threads remains constant during cell division wilhelm waldeyer introduced the term chromosome four processes of the cell cycle cell growth, DNA replication, distribution of replicated chromosomes, cell division G1 phase cell growth, protein synthesis; takes a longer than the other phases S phase DNA synthesis G2 phase Checking/fixing damage in DNA, Checks stockpile to make it through M phase M phase MITOSIS!!!!! G0 period of quiescence, phase that occurs when a cell is stopped before S phase; metabolically active, nonproliferative lamin B stay attached to the nuclear membrane vesicles Lamin A and C unattached from the nuclear membrane when it breaks down Kinetochore protein structure on chromosomes that the spindle fibers attach to Kinetochore Microtubules MTs that attach to the kinetochores during mitosis Astral Microtubules MTs that extend to the outside of the cell during mitosis Polar Microtubules MTs that extend into the middle of the cytoplasm but do not attach to microtubules Anaphase A movement of sister chromatids to opposite poles via kinetochore MTs Anaphase B spindles distance themselves from each other further separating the chromosomes further away Cytokinesis cytoplasmic division Prophase disassemble interphase MT array and form mitotic spindles, centrosomes move to opposite poles, chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope dissociates Prometaphase kinetochore MTS move pairs of sister chromatids until they reach metaphase Metaphase all pairs of sister chromatids are lined up on the metaphase plate, connection between chromosomes break telophase new nuclei are formed, chromosome decondenses constitutive genes genes that are needed all the time and not regulated regulated genes genes that are turned on and off as needed by the cell operons multiple genes under the control of a single operator, transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA posttranscriptional regulation control of protein products once the mRNA has already been synthezied posttranscriptional control control of a protein//enzyme after it is already present in a cell viruses obligate intracellular parasites capsid nucleic acid protein coat on viruses basic virus shapes icosahedral, spherical, rod shapes attachment viral life cycle step where it attaches to the host cell surface receptors penetration viral life cycle step where it transfers its genetic material to host cell; either nucleic acid only or whole pieces of the virus early gene expression viral life cycle step that produces the enzymes needed for replication of viral NA late gene expression viral life cycle step that produces capsid proteins needed for assembly of viral particles and enzymes needed for their release release viral life cycle step where they are released from the cell assembly viral life cycle step where new viral particles are assembled from replicated NA and viral particles temperate phage make molecular decision to enter lytic or lysogenic cycle lytic cycle once the new viral particles are produced the cell is lysed lysogenic cycle viral NA is integrated into host cell and then turned off and no viral particles are produced replicase RNAdependent, RNAsynthesizing enzyme for viral particles retroviruses make RNA via a dsDNA intermediate using reverse transcriptase positive sense RNA virus RNA can be translated directly just like it is mRNA negative sense RNA virus RNA is complementary to mRNA plasmids extrachromosomal molecules of circular DNA, hold from a few to a few dozen conjugation horizontal gene transfer of plasmids through a conjugation tube vectors modified phages and plasmids used to move DNA between cells restriction enzymes endonucleases used to create vectors; found naturally in bacteria, made to degrade foreign DNA recognition sequences aka recognition sites, a few bases where the restriction enzymes cut the DNA recombinant DNA DNA fragments from different organisms brought together cloning the process of making identical copies of a DNA molecule (amplification); the isolation of a particular stretch of DNA (often a gene) from the rest of the cell's DNA requirements for a plasmid vector has to have ori; has to have restriction site for enzyme used; has to have some way to select for vector in cell; should have some way to distinguish vector alone from vector + insert polylinker collection of unique restriction sites in unconserved region of promoter site for reporter gene Transformation bacteria can be made transiently permeable to DNA in its surroundings and that DNA will enter the cell Transduction DNA is carried in by a phage genomic library collection of transformed cells represents an organisms entire genome cDNA library represents only the proteins that were being made in the cells you harvested at the time you harvested them microtubules long, relatively rigid hollow tubes made of a globular protein called tubulin; made up of 13 protofilaments surrounding a hollow core tubulin dimer, composed of two closelyrelated 55 kDa polypeptides GTP cap state of a microtubule where there are layers of GTP bound tubulin on the end of a microtubule dynamic instability alternating growth and shrinkage of microtubules when GTP bound tubulin is low Colchicine and colcemid drugs that block microtubule assembly by binding tubulin Vincristine and vinblastine (FDA approved) selectively inhibit rapidly dividing cells Taxol cancer drug, which stabilizes microtubules rather than block formation MOC microtubular organizing centers PCM pericentriolar material, collection of proteins; surrounds the centrioles, where microtubules originate from centrioles pair of structures made of microtubules in nine triplet arrangments Gamma tubulin exists in the PCM, "seed" for new microtubules Kinesin motor protein that moves toward the plus end of a microtubule Dynein motor protein that moves toward the minus end of a microtubule; moes cilia and flagella by microtubule sliding axoneme Functional unit in cilia or flagella; composed of 9 doublets and 2 independent microtubules basal body similar to the centriole, anchor for cillia and flagella
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