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Corrections in America Chapter 12

by: Alexander Vinegar

Corrections in America Chapter 12 CJ 2030

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Criminal Justice > CJ 2030 > Corrections in America Chapter 12
Alexander Vinegar

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About this Document

These notes cover part of the Corrections final exam.
Corrections in America
Spencer Hochstetler, M.S
Study Guide
Corrections in America, final exam
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexander Vinegar on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 2030 at University of Cincinnati taught by Spencer Hochstetler, M.S in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Corrections in America in Criminal Justice at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 12 Corrections for Juveniles   Important info     Court cases (Week 13 Day 36 ­37)  Knowing the age­crime curve affect our policy choices because it suggests a large  amount of criminal and deviant behavior occurs during late adolescence and early  adulthood o Use of “preventative detention” and lock up juvenile offenders until they are little  older  Juvenile Corrections History o Based on English common law  Children under the age of seven were presumed to be incapable of holding criminal intent  Ages 7 to 14, offenders were not held responsible unless the state could  prove they could clearly distinguish between right and wrong  14 or older, offenders were assumed to be responsible for their acts and  therefore deserving of punishment o The philosophy of parens patriae      “parent of the fatherland”      Under the philosophy the juvenile is under  Juvenile justice is based on….      Younger offenders may not be responsible for their actions      Some children need protection by the state  In response to juvenile crime….      In 1899 first juvenile courts opened in Chicago  Processed in juvenile court are….      Delinquent       Child who has committed an act that if committed by an adult would  be criminal      Neglected      Child who is not receiving proper care because of some action or  inaction of his or her parents      Dependent      Child who has no parent or guardian or whose parents are unable to  give proper care  Juvenile court systems.…. o The juvenile court system was viewed as an informal process and juveniles did not  have formal due process rights o The Supreme Court intervened in Kent v. United States (1966) o The Court said that juveniles must be given basic due process rights in any  hearing that can result in their transfer to the adult CJ system  In re Gault (1967) o The Court specified what these rights are:      Right to notice of the charges in time to prepare for trial      Right to counsel      Right to confrontation and cross­examination of accusers  Privilege against self­incrimination, at least in court  In re Winship (1970) o “Beyond a reasonable doubt” becomes the standard for delinquency hearings  The juvenile justice policy was affected….. o Media, convinced the public  that super predators were a growing problem o Impacted public policies in particular deterrence and rehabilitation o Also increase in residential placement of juveniles and transfers too adult courts  Process in place to transfer juvenile offenders to adult court (people who have discretion) o Statutory exclusion (Legislators)      Certain offenses are required to be processed in adult court and not  juvenile court o Juvenile waiver (Juvenile court judges)      Judges determine whether an adult sanction is more appropriate for  the crime committed o Direct filing (Prosecutors)      Prosecutors choose whether to file in adult or juvenile court


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