Studyguide Test 3
Studyguide Test 3 Biol 151
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Proulx on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 151 at University of North Dakota taught by Professor Felege in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
STUDYGUIDE TEST 3 Ch 36, 29, 31, 32, 30, 3335 CH 36 – VIRUSES Understand the basic components and reproductive cycles of viruses. Understand the infectious cycle of HIV. Understand the basic components and reproductive cycles of viruses. 1. Understand the infectious cycle of HIV. Enveloped virus, typically affects WBCs, CD4 receptor on WBC is identified by GP120 on virus, HIV enters host, reverse transcriptase makes viral DNA, integrase enzyme incorporates it into nuclear genes, viral proteins translated, protease makes capsids for new viruses, new HIVs released 2. Identify the distinguishing feature of retroviruses. Retroviruses have RNA genome which must first be transcribed into DNA to make proteins 3. Define virus (obligate intracellular parasite), and explain why viruses are not considered to be alive (not a cell, cannot make own ATP/amino acids/proteins/nucleotides, dependent on host cell). 4. Explain the difference between enveloped (capsid shell made of proteins + outer plasma membrane envelope) and nonenveloped (just capsid shell made of proteins) viruses. 5. Compare and contrast viral lytic (virus enters host, transcribes its genome, makes proteins, replicates viral genome, virions exit cell, which is destroyed) and lysogenic (dormant stage, incorporated into cell genome with no viral proteins produced) cycles. 6. Describe some of the problems caused by emerging viral diseases (new illness suddenly affecting large number of hosts), and give at least one example. HIV, Ebola, Zika, influenza 7. Explain how the diversity of viruses is related to their genetic material. Mutation and natural selection continually change genomes and increase their diversity since their polymerases have high error rates and they lack repair enzymes. Rapid evolution. Extra!!! Epidemic (disease that rapidly affects many individuals) vs pandemic (worldwide) Virulent: causing severe disease Bacteriophage: virus that specifically infects bacteria Virus origins unknown: plasmids escaped from cells? Symbiotic bacteria that lost function and integrated into eukaryotes? First descendants of RNA world? Originated more than once Key lineages follow convention of genera type (HIV etc) strain Include dsDNA, dsRNA, +ssDNA, ssDNA, retroviruses CH 29 – BACTERIA Understand how bacteria (prokaryotes) are different from all other organisms (eukaryotes). Appreciate the significance of bacteria in nature. 1. Explain the significance of selected species of bacteria. Bacteria (mycoplasma, firmicutes, cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, spirochaetes, chlamydiae, bacteriodetes, proteobacteria) Archae (thaumarchaeota, crenarchaeota, korarchaeota, euryarchaeota) 2. Describe general features of prokaryotes. Lack membranebound organelles, no nucleus, unicellular 3. List and explain differences between the two major domains of prokaryotes. Bacteria have peptidoglycan in cell walls. Archaea have phospholipids made from isoprene, closerrelated to eukarya. Both have different kind of polymerases and ribosomes. 4. List and explain different types of “extremophiles”. Halophiles (salty), barophiles (high pressure), thermophiles (extreme temperatures), acidophile 5. Describe the different shapes and arrangements of prokaryotes. Cocci, bacilli, spirilli. Some adhere into chains (strep), some cluster (staph) 6. Explain the difference between Gram positive (stain purple, cell walls of peptidoglycan) and Gram negative (stain red, cell walls of peptidoglycan + outer membrane). 7. Describe the different types of motility found among prokaryotes. Nonmotile, flagella, swimming/gliding 8. Explain the significance of binary fission (similar to meiosis, without linear chromosomes), conjugation (cells joined by conjugation tube, plasmids donated between cells), and endospores (DNA walled off in bacteria to form endospore). 9. Differentiate among the different types of symbiotic relationships. Mutualistic, parasitic, commensalistic 10. List and explain Koch’s Postulates. Same germ present in all sick individuals, isolate said germ and grow in culture, use culture to induce same sickness, isolate same germ from newly sickened individual 11. Defend the statement that bacteria and archaea are the most important, diverse, and abundant organisms on the planet. Only life form for billions of years, eukaryotes outnumbered 10 to 1, dominant in terms of numbers and volume of living material 12. Explain the six "feeding strategies" that bacteria and archaea use to produce ATP and obtain carbon building blocks. Photoautotrophs (self made from light), chemoorganoautotrophs (self made from organic mol.), chemolithoautotrophs (self made from inorganic mol.), photoheterotrophs (light for energy but organic mol. for carbon), chemoorganoheterotrophs (organic mol. from other organisms), chemolithotrophic heterotrophs (inorganic mol. from other organisms) 13. Give several examples of the importance of bacteria in human health (mostly non pathogenic, antibiotics derived from them and fungi), in bioremediation (clean pollution and wastewater, degrade toxic compounds), and in ecosystems (cyanobacteria underwent oxygenic photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation). Extra!!! Study through enrichment cultures, metagenomics (samples not grown in culture), direct sequencing (sequence specific gene extracted from organism) CH 31 GREEN ALGAE & LAND PLANTS Appreciate the diversity of land plants. Understand the life cycle common to all land plants (alternation of generations). Diploid sporophytes vs haploid gametophytes Understand the similarities and differences between mosses, ferns, and seed plants. 1. Explain the ecological importance of green algae and land plants. Oxygenic photosynthesis, build/hold soil, retain water/prevent runoff, reduce wind impact, primary producers for other organisms, lower CO2 concentrations 2. Describe the evolutionary adaptations that allowed plants to survive and reproduce on land. Prevent water loss with cuticle covering and stomata pores, flavonoids absorb UV light and prevent thymine dymers in DNA, growing upright with vascular tissue (lignin), gametangia (antheridia and archegonia) kept gametes from drying out and damage, retain eggs instead of shedding them, alternation of generations 3. Explain “alternation of generations.” Diploid sporophyte meiosis haploid spores growth haploid gametophytes mitosis haploid gametes fertilization diploid sporophyte 4. Explain the significance of vascular tissue. Tracheids developed first and are contained in all vascular plants, then vessel elements developed which reduce resistance. Decreases competition for space and light. 5. Explain the significance of seeds. Microspore/megaspore mitosis gametophyte (pollen/egg) fertilization/mitosis embryo/seed. For effective dispersal. 6. Distinguish between gymnosperms (unenclosed seeds, often in cones) and angiosperms (seeds within ovary/fruit). 7. Distinguish between the sporophyte (mature plant/flower) and gametophyte (pollen/egg) phases of angiosperms. 8. Describe the development of male gametophytes (pollen) and female gametophytes (embryo sacs) in angiosperms. Stamen and carpel develop microsporangia meiosis microspores mitosis pollen grains. Ovules contain megasporangia meiosis megaspore mitosis egg. Double fertilization: one pollen + egg makes diploid zygote, other pollen forms triploid nutritious endosperm. 9. Compare the traits of green algae, bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, and identify a few examples from each group. Green algae (ulvophytes, coleochaetes, stoneworts), Nonvascular plants (liverworts, hornworts, mosses), Bryophytes/seedless vascular (lycophytes, whisk ferns, ferns, horsetails), Gymnosperms (ginkgo, cycads, redwoods etc, pines etc, gnetophytes), Angiosperms CH 32 – FUNGI Appreciate the ecological importance of fungi in the natural environment. Understand the features that distinguish the major groups of fungi. 1. Explain the significance of extracellular digestion and explain adaptations associated with this strategy. Hyphae can absorb simple compounds from external environment. Many can digest lignin and cellulose using enzymes. 2. Describe at least four types of symbiotic relationships that fungi can have with other organisms, and give an example of each. EMF (ectomycorrhizal, usually basidiomycota, hyphae form outer sheath on root), AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal, usually glomeromycota, hyphae penetrate cell wall and contact cell membrane of plants), endophyte (fungi that live in aboveground plant parts), lichen (fungi that offer protection + cyanobacteria or algae that offer carbs/energy). 3. Describe the structure of fungal cells. Chitin cell walls, one/many nuclei per cell, some form haustorium. 4. Describe the functional role of a haustorium. Formed by some fungi, outgrowth of fungal cell that penetrates plant cells to exchange substances 5. Describe the distinguishing features of the major groups of fungi including: chytrids (aquatic, motile cells, all symbiotic types); ascomycetes (lichenformers, diverse habitats, some singlecelled yeasts); zygomycetes (yoked hyphae, soildwellers, saprophytes/parasites); and basidiomycetes (mostly multicellular, lignin decomposers, EMF). 6. Identify the distinct reproductive structures of the four traditional groups of fungi. Swimming gametes (from chytrids, gametes have flagella, only motile cells in fungi), zygosporangia (haploid hyphae meet and form yoked hyphae through plasmogamy), basidia (clublike cells that each produce 4 spores), asci (saclike cells that each produce 8 spores). 7. Sketch and explain the life cycle of a common mushroom. Mature sporophyte basidia in gills make spores through karyogamy then meiosis 4 haploid spores spores germinate into hyphae hyphae fuse through plasmogamy to form heterokaryotic mycelia sporophyte grows 8. Describe how fungal life cycles differ from animal or plant life cycles. No male/female gametes, time of fertilization is unclear because plasmogamy (cytoplasm fusion) is separate from karyogamy (nucleus fusion). 9. Describe the distinguishing features of: lichens (ascomycete + cyanobacteria/algae, mutualistic); mycorrhizae (fungi + plant roots, EMF or AMF); Pilobilus (can shoot its sporangia for dispersal); nematodetrapping fungi (fungal cells trap nematode and degrades it with enzymes). Extra!!! 2 growth forms: singlecelled yeast OR multicellular mycelia septa divide hyphae, materials flow through pores coenocytic fungi: lack septa, cells not divided, essentially one giant cell CH 30 – PROTISTS 1. Define protist (have no synapomorphy/trait that is found exclusively in protists, diverse, mainly aquatic), and explain why the protists are considered a paraphyletic group. All eukarya except for plants, animals, and fungi are protists. 2. Give several examples illustrating the medical and ecological importance of protists. Caused potato famine, malaria, harmful algal blooms, some protists synthesize toxins. 10% eukaryotic species but very abundant, carbon fixation, primary producers/plankton. 3. Describe these key innovations of the protists, explain why they were important, and outline the major hypotheses for how they evolved: nuclear envelope (infoldings of plasma membrane, separates transcription and translation, more control over gene expression), multicellularity (cells could specialize for different functions, arose many times), structures for support and protection (many have cell walls, some have shells, some have unique internal supporting rods), mitochondria (endosymbiosis theory, archaea engulfed a bacteria, some protists later lost mitochondria), chloroplasts (endosymbiosis again, protist engulfed cyanobacterium). 4. Describe the diversity of feeding (ingestive: phagocytosis with pseudopodia and no cell wall, absorptive: nutrients uptaken through membrane proteins, photosynthesis), locomotion (amoeboid, flagella, cilia, passive flotation), and reproduction (sexual reproduction originated in protists, also can be asexual) seen in protists. Extra!!! 7 phyla in eukarya, all protists except for animal/plant/fungi branches include Amoebozoa, Opisthokonta, Excavata, Plantae, Rhizaria, Alveolata, Stramenopila Also know!!! Characteristics of life: cells, organization, metabolism, response to environment, growth, reproduction, evolution/adaptation (lines thru ones viruses lack or cannot carry out on their own) Key traits of animals: multicellular, heterotrophs, move, neurons/muscles Diploblast (two tissues in embryo, ecto+endo), triploblast (all three tissues in embryo) Ectoderm (skin/nerves), Endoderm (digestive tract), Mesoderm (internal structures) Protostome (mouth first), Deuterostome (anus first) Feeding: suspension, deposit, fluid, mass Viviparous (birth live young), Oviparous (deposit fertilized eggs), Ovoviviparous (retain eggs in body then birth live young) LOOK OVER ALE’s
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