Biology 2 Final Exam Study Guide
Biology 2 Final Exam Study Guide Bio 1144
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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If Victoria isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Test 4 Material ▯ Ch. 48 - Respiratory System -gas exchange (O2 and CO2) -Gas exchange site: thin moist surface (epithelium), lots of capillary beds, a barrier- forming concentration gradient ▯ Gills – fishes, some amphibians • Aquatic – available oxygen in very low abundance (less that 1% of air) • Air – about 21 % oxygen • In H2O, O2 exchange is more difficult: gills must be more efficient • Gill structure: gill filaments, gill lamellae (capillary beds loaded), gill arch • Typical gill design ▯ Fish have 5 pairs gills ▯ Amphibians have 3 pairs ▯ Blood enters gills at back end of gill region: (flow back ▯ front) ▯ Water (with O2) enters at front of gill region: (flow front ▯ back) ▯ “coutercurrent exchange mechanism” ▯ Oxygen diffuses as long as there is a gradient (from high ▯ low) ▯ Oxygen from h2o diffusing into deoxygenated (O2 poor) blood ▯ Oxygen conc. is highest at front of gill region, lowest at back end ▯ Fish must open mouth and possibly be swimming (energy expended – minimal) ▯ Highly efficient IN WATER ▯ Cutaneous Respiration – skin • Highly efficient • Thin, moist surface, capillary beds, no barriers to diffusion • Some fish, mostly amphibians (very thin moist skin) ▯ Buccopharyngeal Respiration • Gas exchange through the lining of the mouth cavity • Amphibians ▯ Lung Respiration • Fish/amphibians: simple sacs • Reptiles/birds: larger sacs, more lobes ▯ more exchange area • Mammals: largest, more lobes, “vascularized sponge” ▯ Gas exchange not very efficient: with each inhalation/exhalation cycle, only < 1/6 air is replenished • Pathway of Air: ▯ Most of pathway: lined with mucous secreting, ciliated epithelium, warming ▯ Some of pathway: lined with cartilage rings (so it stays open as a tube) • External Nares • Nasal Cavity • Internal nares • Pharynx of mouth cavity – point that resp. and dig. systems cross paths ▯ Glottis: opening to respiratory tube ▯ Epiglottis: flap to prevent items entering glottis • Larynx – voice box • Trachea – windpipe • 2 bronchi- (bronchus- singular) at fork of trachea ▯ have partial cartilage rings ▯ one goes to each lung ▯ right bronchus- wider, straighter ▯ left bronchus • Bronchioles ▯ Do NOT have any cartilage rings ▯ Smallest diameter, smooth muscle wall ▯ Empties into air sac ▯ Alveoli: site of gas exchange ▯ Capillaries: oxygen out, CO2 in ▯ Inhaled air: high O2 (low CO2) ▯ Blood in capillaries: low O2 (high CO2) ▯ Exhaled air – high CO2 (low O2) • Diaphragm: involuntary smooth muscle ▯ Large (curved up) muscular organ, separating abdominal and thoracic cavities ▯ Rib cage above, abdominal cavity below ▯ Inhalation- diaphragm contracts and moves/pulls down- expanding chest cavity (rib cage) ▯ Lungs to “expand” – pulls air in ▯ Exhalation – diaphragm relaxes and moves/pulls up – rib cage compresses lungs to “expel” air ▯ Ch. 49 – Urinary system ▯ -waste disposal: ions, urinary wastes ▯ H2O ▯ Electrolytes- balance between ions and H2O • There can be an imbalance in ions, changing electrical charge • H2O movement – osmosis: diffusion of water across selectively permeable membrane ▯ Osmoregulation • The regulation of the balance between ions and water in bodily fluids, cells, tissues, and organs • Any change in ion concentration (increase or decrease), causes redistribution of water by osmosis • Example: ▯ Red blood cells, if put into fresh H2O, swell and explode (Can not be restored) ▯ Red blood cells, if put into salt water, shrink and shrivel up (CAN be rehydrated) ▯ H+ Secretion • Maintain pH ▯ Excretion of nitrogenous wastes ▯ Gains of H2O: most by drinking ▯ Losses of H2O: most by urine, least by feces ▯ Nitrogenous Watstes: vertebrates • Ammonia- toxic if builds up, early product of protein metabolism ▯ Fish ▯ Easily gets rid of it in water • Urea- product of protein metabolism, can be stored for longer periods of time ▯ Amphibians, mammals ▯ Some water must be released to get rid of urea • Uric acid- produced in small quantities, ▯ Reptiles, birds ▯ Usually released in semi-paste form, less water is lost ▯ Major Organs • Kidneys- major organ involved in urinary system ▯ Vertebrates: pairs ▯ Fish: simple sacs ▯ Mammals, birds, reptiles: more complex ▯ Metanephric kidneys: advanced kidney is drained by a ureter, has lots of nephrons, filters at much higher pressures. ▯ Ch. 49 Figure of kidney: renal pelvis, renal cortex, renal medulla, ureter ▯ Renal cortex: outer covering of kidney ▯ Renal medulla: contains nephrons ▯ functional unit of kidney ▯ Ureter: tubes draining from kidney, carrying waste material to urinary bladder (left and right ureters) • Urinary bladder: storage • Urethra: release urine from body • Nephron: functional unit of kidney (figure 49.10) ▯ 18 L blood filtered per day ▯ composed of… ▯ renal corpuscle ▯ glomerulus – capillary bed, filter (GF – glomerular filtrate) ▯ bowman’s capsule – surrounds glomerulus, receives GF ▯ Renal tubule – receives GF from bowman’s capsule ▯ Proximal tubule (closest to BC) ▯ Lower loop ▯ Distal tubule (furthest away from BC) ▯ Collecting duct – water is reabsorbed into body ▯ 3 Stages: 1. filtration – glomerulus/bowman’s capsule, form GF 2. reabsorption – proximal tubule (60%) ▯ movement of glomerular filtrate (GF) out of tubule, back into blood ▯ Requires active transport - (ATP) 3. Secretion – distal tubule ▯ Movement out of blood, into tubule ▯ Active transport – (ATP) ▯ Fish Nephron Differences ▯ Fresh water fish ▯ Environment ions < body ions ▯ Environ water > body water ▯ Constant intake of water (do not drink) ▯ LARGE glomerulus ▯ Short tubule – NOT to resorb water (the shorter the tubule, the less water absorbed) ▯ Release dilute waste – mostly water with some ammonia ▯ Salt water fish ▯ Environment ions > body ions ▯ Environ water < body water ▯ Constant LOSS of water ▯ Drink saltwater ▯ Store ions in tissues (urea) ▯ Small glomerulus ▯ Long tubules – get back water ▯ Concentrated waste – lots of ions, minimal water lost ▯ Mammals ▯ Loop of Henle – constricted portion of tubule (loop), filtering of GF is slowed down ▯ Allows more water and goodies reabsorption ▯ Allows more concentration (secretion) of wastes onto tubule ▯ 20 x more concentrated ▯ Plan: ▯ Concentrated wastes with minimal “goodies” and minimal water ▯ Waste product in mammals: urea ▯ Ch. 50 – Endocrine System Figure 50.1, table 50.1,2 ▯ Hormonal control of bodily functions ▯ Signaling molecules • Neurotransmitters (nervous system) • Pheromones – released from the body (scent) • Hormones – compounds secreted internally into bloodstream to cause response elsewhere ▯ Have specific target cells ▯ Endocrine glands – ductless • Secretes products into bloodstream ▯ Exocrine glands – have ducts to discharge or release secretions onto a surface • Ex. Sweat glands, salivary glands ▯ Few Vertebrate Endocrine Glands & Associated hormones: • Hypothalamus/Pituitary gland ▯ Hypothalamus : produces “releasing hormones” that regulate pituitary hormones ▯ FSH-RH: follicle stimulating hormone- releasing hormone ▯ LH-RH: leutenizing hormone-releasing hormone ▯ Pituitary (anterior): secretes hormones that regulate other endocrine glands ▯ Gonadotropins- FSH, LH ▯ Thyrotropins – act on thyroid gland ▯ Adrenocorticotropins – act on adrenal glands ▯ Growth hormone – stimulates cell division for new cell production ▯ Prolactin hormone – stimulates mammary glands to produce milk ▯ Melanophore-stimulating hormone – responsible for pigment dispersion within skin ▯ Pituitary (posterior) ▯ Vasopressin- acts on kidney to reduce urine flow ▯ Oxytocin- stimulates contraction of the uterine muscle wall during birth. AND stimulates the release of milk by mammary glands • Metabolic hormones & Associated Glands ▯ Thyroid gland ▯ Thyroxine – promotes normal development of embryonic nervous system ▯ Adrenal gland ▯ Cortisol - anti-inflammatory hormone ▯ Aldosterone – promotes reabsorption of salts in the nephric tubule of the kidney ▯ Epinephrine (adrenaline) – builds the body up for emergency situations ▯ Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) – bringing body back to normalcy ▯ Digestive hormones ▯ Gastrin – secretion of HCL in stomach ▯ Cholycystokinin- stimulates contraction of gallbladder to release bile into small intestine. AND stimulates pancreas to release enzymatic juices into small intestine. ▯ Ch. 51 – Reproductive system ▯ Asexual Reproduction • One parent • No gametes • No reproductive organs (usually) • Produces genetically identical offspring - “cloning” • Result of mitosis followed by cytokinesis • Simple, energetically cheap, FAST • Examples: ▯ Binary fission – parent divides by mitosis/cytokinesis into two equal parts ▯ Transverse ▯ Longitudinal ▯ Budding – unequal division, piece breaks off ▯ Gemmulation ▯ Gemmule – encapsulated “bud” ▯ Phylum porifera (sponges) ▯ Fragmentation – a multicellular organism has fragments or pieces break off • Asexual production : NO genetic variation • Some organisms exhibit asexual AND sexual ▯ Good environment ▯ asexual ▯ Bad environment ▯ sexual ▯ Sexual Reproduction • Gametes (sex cells) required ▯ eggs, sperm • 2 parents (mostly) ▯ at involves least two types of reproductive organs • energetically expensive – especially on female side • takes time • Genetic variation – offspring are genetically different • Gametes by result of meiosis/cytokinesis (reduces chromosome #) • Fertilization – fusion of male and female gametes (restores chromosome #) and creates new genetic combination ▯ Zygote = fertilized egg ▯ Egg (1N, 23) + sperm (1N, 23) = zygote (2N, 46) • hermaphroditism (monecious) – both sex organs in same individual ▯ “sex reversal” – fish ▯ “self-fertilization” – uncommon ▯ “cross fertilization” – mostly. Involves two individuals. • Parthenogenesis - development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg ▯ Presence of sperm (or male) may or may not initiate this development • Biparental sexual reproduction (dioecious) – most common ▯ 2 individuals, 2 sex organs, 2 sex cells ▯ Reproductive Patterns (modes): 3 in vertebrates ▯ Oviparous – condition of eggs being laid outside of female body ▯ Fertilization may be internal or external ▯ From abandonment (sea turtles) to extensive care (birds) ▯ Nonoviviparous ▯ Fertilization internal, egg retain ▯ Embryonic nutrition from yolk of egg ▯ Young born “live” ▯ Fish, reptiles, amphibians ▯ Viviparous ▯ Condition of live-bearing with a maternal connection ▯ Placenta ▯ Development within oviduct or uterus (mostly) ▯ Only some reptiles and mammals (except 3 species) ▯ All nourishment for fetus and gas exchange is with placenta ▯ Fertilization is ALWAYS internal ▯ Involves parental care – protection ▯ Why Sexual reproduction over Asexual Reproduction in higher animals? • Costly on female side • Advantage: genetic variation ▯ Some individuals will survive tough environmental conditions/changes ▯ If all individuals were the same, 100% survival or 100% loss • Natural selection – measure of differential survival & differential reproduction ▯ Those that survive get a chance to reproduce and pass on good traits that allowed them to survive • In asexual reproduction, natural selection can wipe out ALL individuals at once ▯ These organisms are more susceptible to extinction ▯ no genetic variation ▯ Vertebrate Reproductive System • Origin and maturation of germ cells ▯ Primordial germ cells – from yolk sac • Vertebrate gonads (ovary, testis) ▯ Arise from a pair of “genital ridges” along dorsal wall of embryo, migrate ▯ Male Repro System • Gonads – testis (testes) ▯ Develop in abdominal cavity and descend into scrotum • Seminiferous tubules – site of sperm production, within lobes • Leydig cells – found between lobes of testes, secrete testosterone • Sertoli cells – found near wall of seminiferous tubules, provide nutrition to developing sperm and cells involved in spermatogenesis • Male Duct System ▯ Epididymis: sperm storage and maturation site, where sperm develop ability to swim ▯ Vas deferens: duct for sperm transport during ejaculation ▯ Ejaculatory duct: rapid sperm transport ▯ Urethra: tube passing through penis for sperm transport • Copulatory organ ▯ Penis: w/urethra • Accessory glands – add secretions into male duct system (sperm does not pass through these) ▯ Seminal vesicle: secretes prostaglandins, which cause uterus to rapidly contract to assist swimming sperm. ▯ Prostate gland: secretes lubricant for production of seminal fluid ▯ Bulbourethral glands: fluid that is released through the urethra to remove traces of urine • Hormonal control of Male Repro system At puberty • Hypothalamus secreting LH-RH, FSH-RH ▯ pituitary ▯ FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) - initiates sper, production in seminiferous tubules ▯ LH (leutenizing hormone) – stimulates leydig cells to release testosterone ▯ Testosterone: required for development of male reproductive system and for secondary sex characteristics: patterning & distribution of body hair, thickening of vocal chords, skeletal muscle mass • Spermatogenesis ▯ Figure 51.6 ▯ Reduce chromosome number from diploid to haploid ▯ Mitosis ▯ meiosis I ▯ meiosis II ▯ Spermatozoan ▯ Head region ▯ Contains nucleus, with chromosomes ▯ Capped my acrosome (contains enzymes to help create small hole in egg membrane) ▯ Midpiece ▯ Abundant mitochondria (ATP production) ▯ Tail ▯ Flagellum ▯ Female Reproductive System (Figure 51.8) • Ovary (gonad) ▯ Egg production (ovum) ▯ Hormone secretion ▯ Estrogen & progesterone ▯ At puberty, about 400,000 ova per ovary (primordial ova) ▯ No eggs produced after birth ▯ Primordial cells producing ova form during embryonic development • Oviduct (uterine tube) ▯ Normal site of fertilization ▯ Not connected to ovary, but overhanging it • Uterus ▯ Implantation site, attached by placenta ▯ Lining of uterus: endometrium: builds up with tissue and vessels/capillary beds ▯ If fertilization & implantation occurs: endometrium continues to develop; hormones from mother and fetus maintain it ▯ If no fertilization, endometrium sloughs off, released from the body • Cervix (distal end of uterus) • Vagina (birth canal) ▯ Receptacle for male copulatory organ • Vulva – external genitalia of female; labia majora, labia minora, clitoris • Hormonal control of Female Repro System At puberty ▯ Hypothalamus FSH-RH, LH-RH ▯ Pituitary ▯ FSH & LH > to gonad/ovary through blood • Ovarian follicle- ovum + surrounding cells ▯ Variable stages of maturation ▯ Follicle cells secrete ▯ estrogen & some progesterone ▯ Estrogen effects: formation and maintenance of female repro organs ▯ Secondary sex characteristics: patterning & distribution of body hair, more fat tissue under the skin ▯ Corpus luteum (yellow body) – remnant of follicle after ovulation’ ▯ Secretes progesterone (and some estrogen) ▯ Progesterone promotes gestation (pregnancy) ▯ Increases secreting activity of uterine glands • Timing of Reproduction ▯ Environmental cues and hormonal activity ▯ Most animals – estrous cycle ▯ Monoestrous: one breeding season per year (deer, bears) most animals ▯ Diestrous: twice per year (dogs) ▯ Polyestrous: many times per year (rodents) ▯ Menstrual Cycle – 28 day uterine cycle ▯ Ovarian effects: ▯ Days 1-12 – follicular phase (involves FSH), stimulates follicle to release estrogen ▯ Day 14 – ovulation, release of egg from follicle (involves LH) ▯ Days 15-28 – luteal, To secrete progesterone (LH) ▯ Uterine effects ▯ Days 1-5 – menstrual phase, outer portion of endometrium sloughs off, discharged loss of blood ▯ Days 6-14 – proliferative phase, buildup of endometrium ▯ Days 15-28 – secretory phase, massive increase of progesterone ▯ Ch. 52 – Animal Development ▯ Embryonic development – cellular differentiation • Most animals exhibit similar embryonic developmental processes • Advanced animals – embryo w/ 3 germ layers (triploblastic – endo, meso, ectoderm) ▯ 5 Stages to development: • fertilization • cleavage • gastrulation – when 3 germ layers develop • neurulation – neural tube development • organogenesis – organs develop, things become specialized * some animals may include a larval stage as well • fertilization – internal or external, egg and sperm fuse to form zygote • cleavage – repeated cell division without cell division ▯ blastula: ball of cells ▯ 2 poles: help determine future axes of embryo ▯ vegetal pole – often larger blastomeres, more yolk ▯ animal pole – less yolk, more cytoplasm, smaller blastomeres ▯ meroblastic cleavage: incomplete cleavage, only animal pole undergoes cell division ▯ blastoderm – flattened disk of cells ▯ holoblastic cleavage: entire, complete cell division, and the first division produces two equal sided blastomeres ▯ mammals, amphibians, reptiles ▯ In mammals, ▯ Fertilization & cleavage in oviduct, most of the time ▯ Implants of uterine wall ▯ Maternal factors: near the end of cleavage, maternal factors play less of a role & embryo is directing the shifts • Gastrulation ▯ Blastula (hollow ball) develops into gastrula with 3 germ layers and primordial germ cells ▯ Endoderm: forms respiratory tube, lungs, thyroid gland, epithelial lining of gut tract, liver, pancreas, gallbladder ▯ Mesoderm: forms heart, kidneys, connective tissues, blood, muscles, appendages, notochord ▯ Ectoderm: forms neural tube which produces nervous system & integumentary system ▯ Band of tissue pinches in to create opening – blastopore ▯ Invagination ▯ In chordates & echinoderms, blastopore becomes anus (deutorostomes) ▯ Archenteron – displaces blastocoel to become dig. tract ▯ Primordial germ cells (PGC) ▯ Specialized group od cells migrate to future site of gonads ▯ May arise independently of 3 layers ▯ 2 functions ▯ protect/propagate genetic content of species ▯ undergo meiosis to produce gametes ▯ notochord develops: mesoderm derived structure providing rigidity along dorsal axis of embryo ▯ defines phylum chordate ▯ produces signaling proteins to establish tissue patterns ▯ hox genes development • Neurulation ▯ Neural tube development from ectoderm ▯ All neurons & supporting cells of CNS originate from neural tube ▯ Neural plate: thickened ectodermal cells around notochord ▯ Cells on each side of NT fuse to form an enclosure ▯ Neural crest – unique to vertebrates ▯ Cells overlying dorsal portion of NT ▯ These cells migrate to other regions of the embryo to form all neurons and supporting cells of PNS th ▯ Cells sometimes called “4 germ layer” • Organogenesis ▯ Each germ layer produces different organs ▯ Many organs are formed during or immediately after neurulation ▯ Organs become functional at different times during development *controlled by HOX genes ▯ Control of Cell Differentiation: ▯ Each cell’s fate determined by: ▯ Autonomous (within) specification – differential acquisition of various cytoplasmic factors during cell division ▯ Conditional specification – acquisition of properties through cell-to- cell signaling mechanisms ▯ Morphogens: (signaling proteins) molecules that impart positional information and promotes developmental changes at the cellular level ▯ Figure 52.14, p. 1104 ▯ With conditional specification, cell (or group of cells) makes a morphogen (signaling protein) inducing response in other cells ▯ Morphogenetic Field – group of embryonic cells that produce a specific body structure ▯ Uniquely specified to become a particular structure
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