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UW / Sociology / SOC 271 / Why do we not violate those relationships, bonds, and attachments?

Why do we not violate those relationships, bonds, and attachments?

Why do we not violate those relationships, bonds, and attachments?

Description

School: University of Washington
Department: Sociology
Course: Social Deviance and Social Control
Professor: April fernandes
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: sociology, deviance, and Social Control
Cost: 25
Name: SOC 271
Description: These notes cover the three lectures we had in week 2 as well as discussion during section of week 2. Thanks and Happy studying!
Uploaded: 04/14/2016
11 Pages 24 Views 3 Unlocks
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Week 2 Lecture 4


Why do we not violate those relationships, bonds, and attachments?



Monday, April 4, 2016

Announcements:  

Make sure your discussion questions are critical and relate to the readings- demonstrate an  understanding of the readings- No "google" questions- questions that are easily searchable online  

Hirschi: (1969)- Control theory  

∙ Asks a different question- instead of asking why people engage in deviant behavior, it asks why  not?  

∙ Why do people not engage in crime or delinquency?

Why NOT deviate

∙ It's human nature to be deviant  

∙ Bonds and attachments to significant others and institutions (family, law enforcement, religion,  education) prevent us from being deviant  

∙ Rational component- shame and guilt as payment for deviant behavior  


What is the meaning of control theory?



Why do we not violate those relationships, bonds, and attachments?

∙ EX: why would you not steal the professor's wallet?  

∙ A violation of the relationship with education jeopardizes what is important in getting that  education We also discuss several other topics like What is the shielding effect of electrons?

∙ If you don't care about the possibility of getting caught and failing the class, you are much more  likely to steal the wallet

Stake in conformity- we don’t want to jeopardize our relationships, bonds, and attachments because  they matter in terms of our future, goals, and happiness If you want to learn more check out What is autocrine cellular signalling?

Different from social control  

Deviance exists when there are weak or non-existent bonds  

Elements of social bond  

1. Attachment- emotional connection


What are amish families?



2. Commitment- committed to conventional actions  

3. Involvement- If you are involved in conventional actions, there is little to no time left for deviant  actions  

4. Belief- belief in values and norms  

If we maintain strong institutions, deviance becomes non-problematic  

Functionalism and control theory follow a basic assumption that deviance is in human nature  Examples of institutions and attachments  

Joyce Mitchel helped two prisoners escape in New York  

∙ Bonds with the inmates

∙ Not a strong bond with her employer, the prison system

∙ Not a strong marriage  

Amish families  

∙ Strong religious, social, and structural bonds  

∙ Strong sense of community  

∙ Rum springer- most come back to live with their community  We also discuss several other topics like What are relatively liquid assets?

Gangs  

∙ Establish their own bonds in an informal institution because they don’t have attachments  elsewhere  

Hirchi argues that gangs and the mafia don’t work with the control theory because their bonds and  attachments are deviant ones that lead to deviant behavior rather than preventing deviant behavior

Counter- Gangs and the mafia have their own rules and define deviance differently- conflict view  Merton (1938)- Anomie theory  

The legitimate Goal:

Anomie- The American dream  

∙ Home, family, stability, status, income, wealth, community, personal space  If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of progesterone?

The legitimate Means:

∙ If you work hard enough you will get there

∙ Education  

∙ Job

∙ Mortgage  

∙ Marriage  

Not everyone has equal opportunity to the resources to achieve the American dream  

Factors that get in the way:

∙ Criminal record  

∙ Educational access  

∙ Race (discrimination in incarceration, wage, job selection)

∙ Gender identity, sexual orientation  

∙ Social status, socio-economic status

∙ Mental and physical disabilities  

∙ Religion  

∙ Family status, wealth, and bonds  

∙ Language, accent  

∙ Differential access  

When these factors block people from their goal they get frustrated and have to innovate- either change  the goal or change the means- or both We also discuss several other topics like What is the temperance movement?

Ways people change the means or goal

Goals

Means

Conformity

+

+

Innovation

+

-

Ritualism

-

+

Retreatism

-

-

Rebellion

+-

+-

We also discuss several other topics like Is the power series infinite?

∙ Conformity- Going to college for an education and later, a job (legitimate goal, legitimate means) ∙ Innovation- Dealing drugs, embezzlement (legitimate goal, illegitimate means) ∙ Ritualism- Religious fundamentalism-- Edward Snowden (illegitimate goal, legitimate means)  ∙ Retreatism- Nudist colonies, hippy colonies- (illegitimate goal, illegitimate means) ∙ Rebellion- Revolutions, communist, socialist, black panther (either or, different combinations,  rejection as a whole system)  

Week 2 lecture 5

Wednesday, April 6, 2016

Consensus theories continued  

Review:

Definitions of deviance  

∙ Becker: Deviance is not the behavior but the reaction; who makes the rules ∙ Tittle and Paternoster: Middle class decides  

Consensus theories  

∙ Functionalism  

∙ Durkheim/Davis: Deviance is inevitable and serves positive functions in society  ∙ Begs the question: how is deviance controlled to acceptable levels?  

∙ Anomie:

∙ Role of structural barriers  

∙ Control:

∙ Why to people NOT deviate?  

Sampson and Wilson (1995)- inequality  

∙ Social disorganization theory- Place rather than population  

∙ Residential mobility- bad for community building  

∙ High poverty  

∙ Ethnic heterogeneity

EX: The U-District has continuous moving population and not a lot of community building- lack of  community which leads to higher crime rates  

The concentric zone model  

Battle between culture and structure:  

∙ Thesis: "…macrosocial patterns of residential inequality give rise to the social isolation and  ecological concentration of the truly disadvantaged, which in turn leads to structural barriers and  cultural adaptations that undermine social organization and hence the control of crime" (280)

Shaw and McKay (1954)  

Consistent levels of juvenile delinquency in certain neighborhoods  

Historical determinants  

∙ Residential segregation- historical and political roots  

∙ Public housing  

∙ Red-lining and block busting allowed for segregation  

∙ Housing covenants where the deed can only be sold to certain people  

∙ New York Times maps  

Deindustrialization  

∙ Loss of low-skilled, living wage employment  

∙ White flight

 Agriculture → industrialization → → → deindustrialized   ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓

Farming low skill living wages Technology Service  

 influx into cities ↓ ↓

 college educated low end and high end   high skill  

EX: Detroit- a lot of people go into low end service jobs without the living wage and benefits  

∙ Concentration effects - not a lot of options for low skill people to move  

∙ Effect on social control mechanisms  

Sykes and Matza (1957)- Neutralization  

∙ Deviance as learned behavior

Rationalizations  

∙ Denial of responsibility  

∙ Denial of injury  

∙ Denial of the victim

∙ Condemnation of the condemners  

∙ Appeal to higher loyalties  

Timing  

Subculture theory- different values and norms  

∙ Neutralization makes more sense because they are involved in dominant norms and values- they  feel shame and guilt in their deviance  

Examples of techniques of neutralization  

1. Denial of responsibility  

∙ Affluenza- "I didn't know any better"

∙ Drug/alcohol influenced me

2. Denial of injury  

∙ Bullying as just messing around

∙ Prostitution

∙ Graffiti

∙ Stealing small things from big stores  

3. Denial of the victim

∙ Death penalty  

∙ Sex offender treatment in prison  

∙ Stealing of greater value- retribution  

4. Condemnation of the condemners  

∙ Seeing people in power as hypocrites

∙ West borough Baptist church  

∙ Corrupt police  

5. Appeal to higher loyalties  

∙ Abortion clinic bombings  

∙ Edward Snowden

∙ Suicide bombers  

∙ Gang violence  

Week 2 Lecture 6

Friday, April 8, 2016

Sutherland and Cressey (1992)- Differential association  

Ratio of definitions favorable to deviance and definitions unfavorable to deviance ∙ Micro (individual) level  

∙ Affected by structural factors  

Learned behavior - interactions and associations  

 - skill and opportunity  

Definitions favorable to deviance  

∙ She was dressed like it

∙ It's not a crime if no one gets hurt

∙ Everyone cheats a little on their taxes

∙ I drive better when high

∙ Don’t be a punk

Definitions unfavorable to deviance

∙ Marijuana is a gateway drug

∙ Just say "no"

∙ Don’t drink and drive

∙ Turn the other cheek

∙ Abstinence only

∙ Children shouldn't raise children  

Where do definitions come from?  

∙ Parents  

∙ Social media

∙ TV

∙ Music

∙ Programs  

∙ D.A.R.E

∙ Laws

∙ Friends  

∙ School

Factors that influence definitions of deviance  

∙ Frequency- How often do you hear definitions?

∙ Duration- How long have you heard these definitions or held to them?

∙ Priority- Who is defining deviance and are they an important figure?

∙ Intensity- What is the importance of your relationship to the person defining deviance?  

Higher ratio of those definitions you relate to that are favorable to deviance, the more likely you are to  commit deviance  

This is a consensus theory because there are clear lines between what is favorable and unfavorable to  deviance  

Consensus theories  

∙ Functionalism  

∙ Anomie theory  

∙ Control theory  

∙ Neutralization

∙ Differential association theory  

∙ Social disorganization theory  

Conflict perspective  

∙ Disagreement over norms and definitions of deviance  

∙ Focus on power  

∙ Where does power come from  

∙ Who makes definitions  

∙ Who is affected

∙ How are violators punished  

∙ How is deviance controlled  

Best (2003)- Constructionist  

Deviance is socially constructed  

∙ We create meanings and definitions of deviance  

∙ These definitions and meanings change over time and space  

∙ EX: marijuana, changing thought and law, gender norms, alcohol, fashion, sexual behavior,  divorce, same sex issues, segregation  

No act or behavior is inherently deviant  

∙ How did a particular act, behavior, or population come to be defined as deviant  

Claims and claimsmakers  

∙ Claims and counter claims as reasons why we see these shifts over time  

EX: Jaywalking

Social construction of space

∙ Definition and redefinition

Claims and claimsmakers  

∙ How did both sides express their perspectives?

Creation of crime

∙ Punishment for drivers "pleasure cars"

∙ In the absence of laws  

∙ The role of technological advancement

When no one follows the rules

∙ Media news coverage

∙ PSA-esque campaigns

∙ Informal social control  

∙ Shame and ridicule- term "jaywalker"  

EX: Smoking  

In 1965 42% of the population smoked

In 2012 18.1% of the population smoked

∙ Smoking bans (2014)  

∙ 81.5% of the US is under a smoking ban on workplaces, restaurants, bars ∙ 49.1% bans smoking in all workplaces, restaurants and bars ∙ 28 states with comprehensive bans- no smoking indoors ∙ 10 with partial bans- no smoking in workplaces and restaurants  ∙ First ban enacted in 1975 (Minnesota)

∙ First statewide ban in 1995 (California)  

1950's- The claimsmakers were doctors, ads, dentists, gov

Claims:

∙ Second hand smoke is safe

∙ Good for health and beauty  

∙ Aesthetic cool

∙ Mariboro man  

∙ Masculinity- American- freedom  

Current- The claimsmakers are doctors, ads, dentists, gov

Claims:  

∙ Negative effects on sex

∙ Second hand smoke is dangerous

∙ Addictive

∙ costs a lot

∙ Deteriorates health

∙ Birth defects

∙ Cancer

∙ Slow death

∙ Makes you ugly

∙ Rots teeth

What changed and why?

∙ Medical evidence- 1965 Surgeon General report on smoking  

∙ Advances in research techniques- First time people found that smoking causes lung cancer  ∙ Causes chronic bronchitis  

∙ Weakening of influence of tobacco companies- Cigarette Ads banned on TV and media  ∙ Evidence for claimsmakers stronger- Public service ads and programs against smoking  ∙ Visible effects  

Discussion section 2

Thursday, April 7, 2016

Durkheim: Consensus- Functionalism

∙ Deviance serves a positive function in society- beneficial influence

Assumption- society is self-regulating  

Davis: Applied functionalism to prostitution  

∙ Positive functions:

∙ jobs- men don’t cheat- ugly to ugly- wives don’t have to do what they don’t want to- men get  physical release- avoid preying on virtuous women  

Criticisms of functionalism theory

∙ Women in prostitution- If they are here, they aren't in other jobs

∙ No children come from it  

∙ Doesn't talk about how much deviance is appropriate or functional- no quantity  ∙ Doesn’t discuss who benefits

∙ Male power structure- traditional society and family structure is oppressive  ∙ Power and conflict- ignores whom, power, and how much  

Positive functions of deviance

∙ Reaffirms boundaries of society- what is good and bad  

∙ Societal evaluation- indication of changing values in society  

Consensus theories

1. Functionalism- assumption- pro-social - nurture

2. Control- assumption- people are inherently deviant- nature  

3. Anomie- assumption- Social structure and deviance is learned- nurture

4. Learning- assumption- learned behavior - nurture

Dependent variable ← ← ← Independent variable  

 ↓

 Test these and isolate them  

 Variables tend to reflect theories like functional, control, and anomie  All theories can work together

Understand their assumptions and criticisms  

EX: Human nature  

1. Evil

2. Social  

3. Environment  

All three theories of human nature can work together potentially to form a new theory  

Control theory - Why NOT deviate  

∙ Bonds and attachments keep us from deviance  

∙ Assume deviant is in nature  

Four components of social bonds

1. Attachment- most important- emotional

2. Commitment- rational

3. Involvement- physical application of attachment- more time spent on conventional activities  leaves less time for deviant activities  

4. Belief- agreeing- awareness and understanding of the rules and norms  

Criticisms

∙ Assumes bonds can only be in non-deviant people  

∙ Doesn't take into account gang behavior  

Anomie theory - Merton- Structural obstacles to access American Dream  

∙ Needs, desires, and goals of societies  

∙ Goals and needs change- not everybody ascribes to the same ones and not everyone has the  means to the goal  

∙ Anomie comes from misbalance of societal goals, factors, and obstacles preventing people from  their goal  

∙ Factors and ways to adapt chart

Ways people change the means or goal

Goals

Means

Conformity

+

+

Innovation

+

-

Ritualism

-

+

Retreatism

-

-

Rebellion

+-

+-

∙ Conformity- Going to college for an education and later, a job (legitimate goal, legitimate means) ∙ Innovation- Dealing drugs, embezzlement (legitimate goal, illegitimate means)

∙ Ritualism- Religious fundamentalism-- Edward Snowden (illegitimate goal, legitimate means)  ∙ Retreatism- Nudist colonies, hippy colonies- (illegitimate goal, illegitimate means) ∙ Rebellion- Revolutions, communist, socialist, black panther (either or, different combinations,  rejection as a whole system)  

Criticisms  

∙ Why some working class go to crime and others do not

∙ Not everyone wants the American Dream  

∙ What about other countries and cultures  

Societal disorganization theory- Sampson and Wilson- used Shaw and McKay as a starting point  ∙ Place rather than the population  

∙ Ecological framework

∙ Concentric zone theory- Shaw and McKay  

∙ What makes higher crime rates- poverty- ethnic heterogeneity- residential mobility- lack of  community  

∙ Deindustrialization  

Ecological fallacy- EX: all women are voting for Hillary- What about those who aren't  

EX:  

City A  

60% men suicide  

100% Protestant  

City B

10% men suicide  

100% catholic  

Assumes that Protestants are more likely to commit suicide than Catholics when that may not be true  

Techniques of neutralization- Sutherland

∙ Rationalize deviance in 5 ways  

∙ We understand the normative system and make excuses of justifications for deviant behavior  

Differential association- Sutherland was writing a textbook when he came up with this theory ∙ Social learning theories  

∙ Deviance is learned in communication

∙ We learn by associating with certain people- hanging around a lot of deviant people, learn  deviance by association- bad influence factor  

Criticism  

∙ Facebook and social media learning deviance  

∙ Learn deviance from other places

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