RHM 241 Final Study Guide
RHM 241 Final Study Guide RHM 241
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Cohen on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RHM 241 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 307 views. For similar materials see Management of Food and Beverage Systems in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Chapter 1: Freestanding eating and drinking places include what types of operations? o Commercial operations such as chain properties or independent properties. Examples: fine dining, casual dining, quick service, family style, mom and pop, etc. What are some trends in hotel food service? o Room service, coffee shops, complementary breakfast and dinner, happy hour, having restaurants What types of institutions provide food service? o Hospitals, schools, private clubs Who had the responsibility for food preparation in early hospitals? Who typically has that responsibility today? o Early hospitals: The cook, head housekeeper, or the head nurse o Today: A manager with the help of dietitians What are three basic types of commercial food service operations? o Independent o Chain restaurants o Franchises What are some advantages and disadvantages of chain restaurants? Franchises? o Advantages of a chain restaurant: Name recognition, consistency, hire staff specialists, experiment without great risk, useful comparative financial information, and ready access to cash and credit. o Disadvantages of chain restaurant: Bureaucratic rules and procedures that can slow response times to market changes. o Advantages of a franchises: There is start up assistance, franchisor- sponsored training and materials, more revenue due to extensive advertising, name recognition, consistency of products and services, lower costs due to volume purchasing, and tested operating procedures. o Disadvantages of a franchise: Contacts restrict style and methods of operation, products and services, décor and furnishings, and equipment, and contract favors the franchisor. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a management company to run a noncommercial food service operation? o Advantages: more resources to solve problems, can negotiate better deals with suppliers, greater efficiency, and food service is operated by experts. o Disadvantages: assume too much control, they may decrease food and beverage quality, and the institution may become dependent on the management company. What factors affect food service trends? o Home meal replacement, new foods, consolidation, eatertainment, convenience stores, technology, and green restaurants Chapter 2: Into what three general categories can food service employees be grouped? o Managers o Supervisors o Entry-level production and service personnel What are the chief concerns of top managers? Middle managers? Supervisors? o Top-level managers: long-term plans and goals o Middle managers: shorter-term goals o Supervisors: short-term goals such as preparing employee schedules and helping employees through busy times that happen during almost every meal period What is typical way to organize top managers in a large corporation? o Organizational chart What sorts of tasks do restaurant or general managers typically perform? o The GM oversees five departmental heads, as well as a controller. The departments are: chef, restaurant (dining) manager, bar manager, catering director, and executive steward What is the difference between line and staff managers? o Line managers: have authority within or over one or more revenue- generating departments that directly provide goods and services to guests o Staff managers: provide support and advice to line managers. Do not have a direct impact on bringing in revenue What production personnel typically work in food service operations? o Chefs, cooks, bakers, pantry, stewards, head chef, assistant chef, sous chef, and storeroom and receiving employees What are typical duties of a host? o To directly supervise service employees o Front of the house o Seats guests o Gives guests menu o Welcomes guests o Answers phone What is a flat organization? o Every person, regardless of position, is supervised directly by the owner/manager What is the major difference between a country club organization and other types of organizations that provide food service? o The members (guests) are in charge What are misconceptions about the food service industry? o Dead-end jobs o Long hours o Hard work What are some challenges and opportunities in the food service industry? o Challenges: Jobs may be physically difficult Hours are long Far reaching decisions must be made Must work when others want to be entertained o Noncommercial food service opportunities usually count among their benefits more traditional work hours How does compensation in the food service industry compare to that of other industries? o Wage and salary compensation and benefits for entry-level food service positions are often higher than minimum wage, especially in areas of labor shortages Chapter 3: What is the management process? o Planning, organizing, coordinating, staffing, directing, controlling, evaluating What resources does a food service manager have available to meet the organization’s goals? o People, money, time, energy, products, equipment and space, procedures Why is it important to set aside time for planning? o Establish objectives o Create plans to attain them o Make revisions as necessary What is the purpose of an organization chart? o To give a current, accurate picture of how the operation’s human resources are organized Recruiting and hiring are part of which management activity or task? o Staffing Should a large number of people be encouraged to apply for a job opening? Why or why not? o With more applicants, you can find a person that best matches what you want Where does the process of controlling begin? o In the budget Managers’ responsibility extends to which primary groups? o Customers o Owners o Area/regional directors o Other managers o Employees How can a restaurant positively affect a community? How can it negatively affect a community? o Positively: generating jobs and bringing in more money, participate in community events o Negatively: nuisance concerns, environmental concerns, entertainment concerns, and civil concerns What are examples of aspects of food service operations that are regulated by government agencies? o Sanitation, safety, building codes, employees, licenses, and taxations Why is the principle of hospitality important to every food and beverage operation? o To encourage guests to return Chapter 4: What is a feasibility study? o A form of market research that analyzes the possible site, relevant demographic statistics, probable competitors, and projected financial success of a proposed food service operation If you were asked to invest in a new commercial food service operation, what would you expect a feasibility study to show in relation to the proposed location, demographic statistics, probable competitors, and projected financial success? o The study would show positive and negative trends that may affect demand for the proposed facility such as the economic stability of the area’s volume of retail sales. The study would show the number of people living or working around the area, the availability of parking, traffic flow, and distance form the highway. o A feasibility study would show information about potential guests in the area such as age, gender, level of education, marital status, number of children, family income, type of employment, and location of residence. o Information about the competitor would include, location, type, business, operation times, prices, check averages, service type, seat number, alcohol sales, entertainment, promotional efforts, and chain affiliation. Potential guests would take surveys about their restaurant, banquet, and meeting room needs this would tell them what the demand would be like. What three analyses typically are included I ongoing marketing research? What type of information does each provide? o Property analysis: written, unbiased appraisal of a food service operation’s production and service areas, products, and services o Competition analysis: Identifies market area characteristics, evaluates the proposed site, analyzes the competition, estimating demand, projecting operating results o Market analysis: Identifies the food service operation’s current markets and examines marketplace factors and trends that provide opportunities or pose threats to the operation How can a food service operation gather guest profile information? o What are the major tools used to reach marketing objectives? o Sales efforts and advertising What are three types of internal selling? o Suggestive selling o International merchandising o Special promotions What are some advantages and disadvantages of advertising in newspapers and magazines, and on the radio and television? o Newspapers: Advantages: attractiveness, get out to all local families, many restaurants can advertise on one page, can be placed quickly Disadvantages: Newspaper readers typically skim through that section and poor quality of newsprint o Magazines: Advantages: reaches out to a specific audience, high quality of paper, and can show off appetizing food items and beautiful food service facilities Disadvantages: higher production costs and longer production time o Radio: Advantages: low cost, produced quickly Disadvantages: short lifespan o Television: Advantages: extensive coverage and can appeal to audiences matching its market Disadvantages: high cost What types of social media would be most useful to specific types of food service operations? Why? o Facebook: They can design their Facebook cover by thinking like a guest then providing information that their guest would like to know o Twitter: Linking menus to tweets and tweeting deals With what groups should a food service operation try to maintain good public relations? o Guests, the media, competitors, the chamber of commerce, the convention and visitors bureau, business groups and other community organizations, trade associations, and government groups, among others How does publicity differ from advertising? o Publicity is free, media coverage and advertising is paid for What marketing tactics can noncommercial operations use? o Attractive menus, hard-copy brochures, printed newsletters Chapter 5: Why should commercial food service operators be concerned with providing nutritious food for guests? o Everyone requires a nutritious, well-balanced diet to be healthy What are some important points that commercial food service managers should consider when assessing the nutritional content of food served in their operations? o How menu items are prepared and what ingredients are used o How to suggest substitutes for menu items or ingredients to help guests who express nutritional or other dietary concerns o The importance of providing feedback to their managers about guest reactions to menu items and their dietary preferences How do the six basic nutrients contribute to a person’s health and well being? o Protein – builds and repairs body tissues o Carbohydrates – supply energy o Fats – supply energy o Vitamins – helps body use oxygen to obtain energy from food o Minerals – building materials and body regulators o Water – 60% of a persons body What are some food sources of proteins? Of carbohydrates? Of fats? o Proteins – eggs, lean meats, fish, poultry, cheese, and milk o Carbohydrates – starches: cereals and cereal products, rice, corn, dried beans. Sugars: sugar, syrup, honey, jam, jellies o Fats – cooking fats and oils, butter, margarine Why is it important for a health-conscious individual to know the difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins? o Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed into the body and used when needed and do not need to be consumed on a regular basis. o Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed unto the bloodstream but not generally stored in the body and must be consumed on a regular basis. Why is it important for food service managers to know about recommended dietary allowances established by the Food and Nutrition Board? o To know the nutritional needs of most healthy people and to make sure we get the correct amount of nutrition in our diets Why would a nutrition audit be more valuable to institutional food service operations than to commercial food service operations? o Institutional food service operations are trying to give their guests nutritious and healthy food. What are some of the way nutrients can be lost through mishandling during storage or preparation? o Cleaning and trimming, oxidation, light, heat, water, misuse of ingredients How many calories should a person consume? o It depends on the person How can food service operations help people who need to control their intake of fats and cholesterol? o They provide healthy alternatives How are food service operations affected by menu labeling legislation? What position should they take on this legislation? Why? o Makes it difficult for organizations with numerous properties within jurisdictions to comply What procedures should a restaurant manager establish that would apply when a guest states that he or she suffers from a food allergy? o Designate a point person to take charge of interacting with guests who have food allergies o The point person speaks with the guest to determine special needs, and then consults with the chef o The chef checks ingredients and communicates the need for extra precautions to kitchen staff who prepare the meal o The manager, or server, or chef takes the meal to the guests and confirms it has been prepared to meet the guest’s needs o The person serving the meal should check back with the guests to make sure the meal is satisfactory Chapter 6: What are the three basic menu-pricing styles? o Table d’Hote o A la Carte o Combination What is a fixed menu? A cycle menu? o Fixed menu: a menu with the same menu for several months o A cycle menu: provide variety What are the differences between breakfast, lunch, and dinner menus? o Breakfast are standard o Lunch items are relatively quick and easy o Dinner has heavier items What are specialty menus? o They’re different from the main menu What are three basic rules in menu planning? o Know your guests o Know your quality requirements o Know your operation What fiver operational components have a direct impact on the kinds of menu items an operation offers? o Theme o Cost o Availability o Equipment o Personnel In what three ways should a menu be balanced? o Business balance: relationship between food costs, menu selling prices, the popularity of items, and other financial and marketing considerations. The menu must help attain financial goals o Aesthetic balance: The degree to which meals have been constructed with concern about colors, textures, and flavors of foods o Nutritional balance: More important for noncommercial food service operations. Managers should make sure the components of a well- balanced meal are available Into what three elements can a menu copy be divided? o Headings o Descriptive copy o Supplemental Merchandising copy What are some common menu-design mistakes? o Too small o Type is to small o No or inadequate descriptive copy o Every item is treated the same o Some things aren’t listed o Clip on problems o Basic info about the property is not included o Blank pages What are some of the questions food and beverage managers should ask when evaluating a menu? o Have the guests either complained about or praised the menu? o How does the menu compare with those competitors? o Is there enough variety in menu items? How does menu engineering help menu planners to evaluate menus? o Allows managers to study the impact of two credible variables How does menu engineering software help managers to plan, price, and evaluate menus? o Menu engineering software processes menu mix and contribution margin data for each item on the menu. The resulting information enables managers to evaluate possible changes to a menu’s current mix of items and to make sound pricing decisions. o Answers the following questions: What is the best price to assign a menu item? Which current menu items require repricing, retention, replacement, or repositioning on the menu? How should daily specials and new items be priced? How can the success of a menu change be evaluated? Chapter 7: How does a food service operation benefit from using standard recipes? How, if at all, do guests benefit when a standard recipe is used? o More efficient purchasing practices o Less likely to make too little food or too much food o Less supervision is required o Other employees can continue to do their job if the chef is gone What factors should a food service manager consider when standardizing existing recipes? o Decide on the desirable yield o List all ingredients o Decide whether to use weights or measures or both o Express all qualities in amounts that are most practical o Record procedures o Directions How can a food service manager convince a head cook or bartender of the need to develop standard recipes? o By explaining to employees why standardization is necessary and by involving employees in developing and implementing them How is an adjustment factor used to increase or decrease the yield of a standard recipe? o The number by which the amount of each ingredient in a standard recipe is multiplied to increase or decrease the recipe’s yield: desired yield/original yield What is the difference between portion costs and total meal costs? o Portion cost: the cost of food incurred by preparing one portion of a menu item according to its standard recipe o Total meal cost: calculated for items that are combined to form meals that are priced and sold as one menu selection Why should standard recipes be used to prepare alcoholic beverages? o They provide consistency in the types and quantities of ingredients used to prepare each beverage item o They indicate the quantity of alcohol used in their preparation; they indicate the quantity of alcohol consumed by the guests What is the difference between the standard portion cost of a menu item and its actual food cost? o Standard portion cost for an item that is sold as a single menu selection. The standard portion cost indicates that cost incurred by preparing one portion of the menu item according to its standard recipe o The actual food cost is the combined food costs actually incurred for the production of all menu items sold for a period of time (meal period, day, week, month, etc.) How has technology simplified the recipe precosting process and made it more accurate and less time consuming? o Production managers can estimate the quantity of proportions required for a future shift, generate a recipe that has been electronically adjusted to yield the required number of portions, print the recipe required for a specific shift, and make it available in the applicable work station Why is it incorrect to assume that a lower food cost percentage is always better than a higher one? o Some foods may have lower food cost percent than another, however may produce a high contribution margin, and in turn be the more profitable and is better How might lowering menu prices actually produce an increase in total sales revenue? o Increase sales revenue, because lower prices may increase the volume of unit sales Chapter 8: What one phrase summarizes the importance of purchasing? o A food and beverage operation must have the required food, beverages, and other supplies on hand to produce and sell food and beverage items How can quality requirements be incorporated into the purchasing process? o Getting the most for your money o Buying the right product o Dealing with the right supplier What does the term make-or-buy decision mean? o How the manager determines if a food product should be purchased as a convenience food or is prepared on site What factors affect purchase quantities? o Changing prices o Available storage facilities o Storage and handling costs o Waste and spoilage concerns o Theft and pilferage concerns o Market conditions o Quantity discounts o Minimum order requirements o Transportation and delivery problems o Order costs How can buyers attempt to get reduced prices while maintaining quality? o Negotiating o Consider purchasing lower-quality products o Determine whether the operation actually must buy a particular product o Discontinue some supplier service o Combine orders o Reevaluate the need for high-cost items o Pay cash o Speculate about price trends o Change the purchase unit size o Be innovative o Take advantage of suppliers promotional discounts o Bypass the supplier When selecting a supplier, what factors should purchasers consider? o Location o Facilities o Financial stability o Technically ability of supplier’s staff o Honesty and fairness o Dependability What steps make up the receiving process? o Inspect incoming products against purchasing order o Inspect incoming products against specifications to confirm that the quality of the incoming products meets the operations standards o Inspect incoming products against delivery invoice o Accept the products o Move products to storage for quality and security reasons o Complete daily receiving reports or other forms as required to keep track of the suppliers who made deliveries that day and what they delivered What is meant by the term FIFO? o First-in, first-out – an inventory system of rotating and issuing stored food in which items that have been in storage the longest get used first How does a perpetual inventory system differ from a physical inventory system? o A perpetual inventory system allows managers to track items in storage on an ongoing basis in much the same way a checkbook record is maintained o A physical inventory system does not track what is added and subtracted from inventory on an ongoing basis How can the issue process be simplified? o Use perpetual inventory for only some items o How the employees obtain all the products they need for production at one time How do the procedures for purchasing, receiving, storing, and issuing beverages differ from the procedures used to control food products? o Managers are less likely to purchase specifications for alcoholic beverages o More theft in receiving o Prevention of unauthorized physical access, the need to keep effective records, and sanitary storage are important o Issued on a bottle-for-bottle basis In what ways can computerized systems simplify procedures used in purchasing, receiving, storing, and issuing? o E commerce can help food service organizations electronically link to suppliers to share product info, purchase specifications and pricing. o Online purchasing also allows suppliers to customize product offerings for a select clientele and it can reduce food service companies search time. o Inventory items can be tracked by unit and cost, and also when a reestablished order point is reached, an order to replenish stock can be electronically placed with the appropriate supplier. Chapter 9: What is the main purpose of production planning? o Determine the quality of menu items to prepare How can technology help food service managers and/or chefs with production planning activities? o Automated planning systems begin by generating and analyzing sales history information What are the two basic classifications of cooking methods? o Moist-heat cooking methods o Dry-heat cooking methods Why should fruits and vegetables be pared as thinly as possible? o To reduce nutrient and product loss What guidelines should be followed in making salads? o Use fresh, ripe products o Use a variety of colors o Use varied textures. Crisp, soft, and smooth combinations work well o Use the right tools o Freshen washed vegetables o Chop or cut salad ingredients in pieces of uniform size o Handle prepared salad ingredients gently o If salad dressings are added to salads rather than served on the ride, add them right before serving o Keep refrigerated until serving time What are the effects of overcooking? o Destroyed nutrients and distorts flavor, texture and shape What factors influence the tenderness of meat and poultry? o Type and amount of connective tissue that is present Why does fish generally require shorter cooking times than meet and poultry? o Has relatively little connective tissue What causes eggs to become rubbery? o Boiling When cooking with milk, what precautions should be taken? o Keep low heat o To prevent scorching, heat in double boiler, steam jacketed kettle or a steamer What steps can be taken to control foods and beverages during production? o Require that all standard cost control tools, such as standard recipes and standard portion sizes, be consistently used o Ensure that weighing and measuring tools are available, accurate, and always used o Ensure that only the amount of food actually needed for production is issued o Train personnel to comply with required food production procedures o Minimize wasted food o Monitor and control employee eating/drinking practices o Make sure that items removed from storage but not used are returned to storage areas o Inspect and approve items that have spoiled in storage o Maintain production record o Analyze sales and production records o Study and resolve production bottlenecks o Study system for managing equipment, layout and design, and energy usage o Confirm labor saving convenience foods or equipment items do reduce labor costs o Recruit, train, and schedule personnel who are genuinely concerned about preparing and offering high-quality products that meet the property’s standards Chapter 10: How does cart service differ from platter service? o Cart service: Used in some dining rooms featuring gourmet foods and an elegant atmosphere. Food items are partially, or completely, prepared at the table o Platter service: Food production employees portion and arrange foods attractively on platters. Servers bring the platter to the table and serve the guests on their plates How does family-style service differ from plate service? o Family-style: Food is placed in bowls or platters on the table and guests serve themselves from the platters o Plate service: Servers take guests orders after the guests are seated. Servers give order to production staff. Servers bring the plates to the table and present them to guests. What is the primary goal of most table-service operations? o To provide service for guests seated at tables Why are standard operating procedures important for service? o To meet or exceed the guests expectations What factors should managers consider when determining the number of tables to assign to food servers? o Number of seats o Type of service style used o Expected guest turnover o The server’s experience o Whether any servers are being trained during the shift o Distance to the kitchen and bar o Variety of menu items o Number of food servers scheduled for a specific meal period What are some important points servers should know to properly and legally serve alcoholic beverages with care? o The guest’s exact order should be noted and served. This includes requests for “on the rocks”, “up”, a specific brand, a particular garnish, and so on o Drinks should be delivered on a cocktail tray, which the server should carry in one hand while serving the drinks with the other. The server should never place the tray on the table o Drinks are typically served from the guest’s right with the server’s right hand o Glasses should be cleared from the table as soon as they are empty, guests should be asked if they wish to order another drink What are some guidelines food service managers and servers can follow to help reduce the possibility of a troublesome confrontation with an intoxicated guest? o Alert backup o Remove alcohol from guest’s sight and reach o Be nonjudgmental; do not refer to the person as being “drunk” o Be firm o Minimize the confrontation o Remind intoxicated guests that driving while intoxicated is dangerous and against the law, and suggest an alternative form of transportation o Keep a personal record of the incident What factors should managers consider when determining what types of hardware and software would be bets to meet the operation’s dining needs? o If they want cash drawers and how many they need depending on the banking system used o How many terminals to purchase What are examples of POS outputs (reports) that would help you to run hotel or restaurant’s food services? o Guest Check Printers o Word Station Printers o Receipt Printers How does a server banking system differ from a cashier banking system? o Server banking system: the server or bartender also carries out the responsibilities of the cashier o Cashier banking system: a cashier settles every check and its responsible for all transactions What precautions can managers take to protect the operation from theft by bartenders? o Operations sometimes hire a shopper service to check bartenders. The service provides a secret shopper who poses as a guest to observe the beverage operation. They then check the bartenders routinely for theft and improper behavior From the manager’s perspective, what are the two primary objectives of suggestive selling? o Increase sales of most profitable items o Increase check average Chapter 11: What basic precautions can prevent the chemical poisoning of food? o Only buy food from a dependable source o Carefully wash fruits and vegetables What conditions must be present for germs to multiply? o Moisture o Food temperature danger zone o Acidity How is food poisoning different from food infection? o Food poisoning occurs when germs get into food and produce wastes. o Food infections are caused by bacteria and viruses in food that are consumed with food and later reproduced inside the body How can food service managers help ensure that incoming products are wholesome? o Purchased through commercial sources that comply with all applicable local, state, and federal sanitation laws What are some guidelines for preparing food in a sanitary way? o Food should be cooked with as little hand contact as possible; the correct utensils should always be used to handle food o Food-production surfaces should be cleaned and sanitized before use to avoid cross-contamination of food products o Potentially hazardous foods should be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 145 degrees for 15 seconds o Potentially hazardous foods should be reheated to an internal temperature of 165 degrees within 2 hours o Internal temperatures should be monitored with accurate thermometers o Potentially hazardous foods should be thawed safely o Sensory tests should be used in combination with temperature checks What procedures can service personnel follow to help ensure that guests are served wholesome food? o Plate food when its needed for pickup service o Employees should not touch food with hands when portioning o Use a scoop to dispense ice What major components of OSHA laws affect food service operations? o Recordkeeping requirements – OSHA requires employers to maintain certain records. These range from a daily inspection report on employer vehicles used to transport guests to reports dealing with employee injuries and illnesses o Inspections – OSHA inspectors may visit an operation to look for potential safety hazards. After an inspection, OSHA officials may hold a meeting with the operation’s representatives to discuss and review any violations and to address remedial actions. Follow-up inspections may be scheduled o Fines – If a food service operation does not comply with OSHA requirements and fails to take remedial actions suggested by OSHA officials, fines are possible What common types of accidents occur in food service operations? How can each be prevented? o Burns: Follow recommended procedures when using any cooking equipment and when lighting gas equipment Plan ahead. Always have a place prepared for hot pans before removing them from a range or oven Use dry potholders to handle hot pots and pans Never use pans with loose handles or rounded bottoms Do not overfill pots, pans, or kettles Stir food carefully with long-handled spoons or paddles Do not reach into hot ovens Allow equipment to cool before cleaning it Know how to put out fires Prohibit horseplay Be careful with hot liquids Use caution around heat lamps o Muscle strains and falls Keep floors clean and dry at all times Keep hazardous objects such as boxes, mops, and brooms off floors Repair cracked or warn stair treads Wear properly fitting shoes with low heels and non-skid soles Walk and use caution when going through swinging doors Use a sturdy stepladder when reaching for objects in high places Make sure that entrances and exits are clean and safe Keep all work and walk areas well-lighted o Cuts Keep knives, cleavers, saws, and other sharp tools in racks or special drawers when not in use Use the correct size cutting tools and make sure they have the proper blade Use safety guards and any other safety items provided on equipment Be careful with grinders Use caution when operating slicers and other electronic cutting tools When using sharpening steels, be sure there is a finger guard between the handles and the steel o Equipment accidents Ensure that all electrical equipment and connections conform to national, state, and local electrical code requirements Carefully follow the manufacturers instructions whenever operating electrical equipment Always unplug electrical equipment before cleaning it Practice preventive maintenance o Fire Properly clean and maintain cooking equipment and exhaust hoods/filters Limit smoking to restricted areas Be sure there is adequate fire extinguishing equipment available Consider using specialized detection devices that can detect smoke, flames, and /or heats Consider using automatic sprinkler systems What is the purpose of accident investigations? How should they be conducted? o Assess exactly what happened o Determine why the accident occurred o Suggest what should be done to prevent recurrences o Follow up What is management’s role in sanitation and safety programs? o Incorporating sanitation and safety practices into operating procedures o Ensuring that sanitation and safety concerns take priority over convenience o Training employees in sanitary and safe work procedures o Conducting sanitation and safety inspections o Completing accident reports, assisting in investigations, and doing whatever is necessary to ensure that problems are quickly corrected o Assisting in treatment and seeking medical assistance for injured employees or guests when necessary o Reporting necessary repairs or maintenance, changes in work procedures, or other conditions that are potential problems o Conducting sanitation and safety meetings o Urging that active participation of all staff members in solving sanitation and safety problems How can safety checklists be used to better ensure safe operations and work areas? o Focus on: equipment, facilities, food handling practices, and food service employees o Checklists are reviewed and managers can see if their safety and sanitation practices are up to par and show if an operation needs to change possible hazards o These forms show a manager’s efforts to maintain a sanitary and safe food and beverage operation Chapter 12: What concerns should managers and owners address when redesigning a kitchen? o Physical fatigue o Noise o Lighting o Temperature o Government safety codes What are four types of work-area layouts? o L-Shaped Layout o Straight-Line Layout o U-Shaped Layout o Parallel Layout What are some things a food service manager should keep in mind when redesigning receiving and storage areas? o The receiving area should be as close as possible to the receiving door o Should be large enough to handle all items ordinarily received o Room for a scale, dolly or cart, and other receiving equipment o Storage areas include space for dry, refrigerated, and frozen products o Dry storage should have floor to ceiling walls o Lockable storage What are some factors that contribute to a dining room’s atmosphere? o Cleanliness, dining room furniture, dining room lighting, the amount of natural light, the types of colors and fabrics of tablecloths, the types of colors of glasses and dishware, the type of flatware used, paintings, photographs, wall hangings, or other decorations What items are typically found at a cashier workstation? o POS system, telephone, payment card terminals, miscellaneous items for sale, menus, dining room sketch and server assignments What are three basic types of bars? o Service bars, public bars, and combination public/service bars What are some bar layout guidelines? o The bartender should be able to perform related activities in one place o Sufficient lighting and work counters at proper heights should be provided. Countertops should be approximately 34 inches from floor level o Doorways or pass-throughs should be wide enough to accommodate products and supplies to be placed behind the bar o Workspace should accommodate employees What are some factors managers must consider when selecting food service equipment? o Cost, sanitation and safety, design and performance, operating efficiency, maintenance, capacity, construction, other factors What are some common types of food service equipment? Beverage service equipment? o Food service equipment: Refrigerated equipment Ranges Ovens Tilting braising pans Steam-cooking equipment Broilers Deep fryers o Beverage equipment Beverage control unit Glass sensor Guest check sensor Empty bottle sensor Order entry device What are some common types of ovens? o Range ovens, deck ovens, roasting ovens, convection ovens, rotary ovens, microwave ovens, infrared ovens, recon ovens, and combi ovens How has an emphasis on green kitchen and restaurant design changed traditional equipment and layout decisions? o The changes are the use of solar panels, development of rainwater reuse systems, smart irrigation systems, energy management systems, use of LED lighting, variable speed and demand-based ventilation systems, use of more efficient windows, water aerators, and use of digital demand controllers Chapter 13: How do food service managers benefit from using the uniform system of accounts appropriate for their operation? o Uniformity of account definitions provides a common language with which managers from different food service operations within the same industry segment can discuss their options How is the operations budget used as a control tool? o Addresses all revenue and expense items appearing on the business’s income statement Why is the income statement a measure of the effectiveness of food service managers? o Income statements provide important financial information such as, revenue and gross profit. So if your profit is high that means the manager is doing a good job How are food costs calculated? o Cost of sales=beginning inventory + purchases – ending inventory What is the purpose of a balance sheet? What do the assets, liabilities, and equity sections of a balance sheet represent? o Reports the financial position of a food service operation on a specific date by showing its assets, liabilities, and equity o Assets – represent anything a business owns that has commercial or exchange value o Liabilities – represent the claims of outsiders (such as creditors) on assets o Equity – represents the claims of owners on assets Why would creditors of a food service operation prefer that the operation’s balance sheet indicate relatively high current and solvency ratios? o To provide a greater cushion should the operation experience financial problems How do food service managers determine whether food and beverage costs are reasonable? o Calculating the food cost percentage and the beverage cost percentage What are some factors that could contribute to a high food cost percentage? A high beverage cost percentage? o Poor portion control, excessive food costs, theft, waste, spoilage, or a host of other factors What five common operating ratios are of interest to food and beverage managers? How are they calculated? How do the managers use them? o Liquidity ratios: current ratio = current assets/current liabilities o Solvency ratios: solvency = total assets/total liabilities o Activity ratios: average food inventory = (beginning + ending inventory)/2 o Profitability ratios: profit margin = net income before taxes / total food and beverage revenue o Operating ratios: food cost percentage = cost of sales (food)/cost of revenue What types of software are available to help with accounting tasks? o Accounts receivable software o Accounts payable software o Payroll accounting software o Financial reporting software
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