New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CHE 8A: Quiz 4/18 Study Guide

by: Mackenzie Hayes

CHE 8A: Quiz 4/18 Study Guide CHE 8A

Mackenzie Hayes

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes trim down the lecture notes from class into the most relevant material for the quiz, with excerpts from the lecture and diagrams to help out
organic chemistry - brief
Sarah Lievens
Study Guide
Organic Chemistry
50 ?




Popular in organic chemistry - brief

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Hayes on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHE 8A at University of California - Davis taught by Sarah Lievens in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see organic chemistry - brief in Biological Sciences at University of California - Davis.


Reviews for CHE 8A: Quiz 4/18 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/14/16
Chem 8A: Quiz (4/18) Study Guide ● Hybridization ​= model of reality ○ Blend atomic orbitals on single (localized) central atoms; works for molecules ○ @ any particular atom we can predict: ■ Shape ■ Orientation ■ Hybridization ■ What orbitals are part of bonds 1. Can look at Hybridization​y e- groups(General Chemistry) ○ # e- groups around atom = # of orbitals in hybridization i. 4 → s + p + p + p → sp3 ○ Hard with bond-line structure 2. Count pi bonds (only works with octets, no expanded or deficient atoms) ○ Pi bonds require p orbitals → side / side overlap ○ As opposed to sigma bonds: ○ 0 pi bonds → all sigma → sp3 ○ 1 pi bond → need one unhybridized p orbital → sp2 + (p) ○ 2 pi bonds → need two unhybridized p orbitals → sp + (p + p) ○ Works for all atoms with more than 1 bond ○ H → only has 1 orb → 1s (ALWAYS UNHYBRIDIZED) ○ X → Halogen → (F, Cl, Br, I) ■ Prefer not to hybridize ■ Bond through p orbital as a sigma bond ● sp3 → tetrahedral → 109.5 bond angle ● sp2 → trigonal planar → 120 bond angle ● sp → linear → 180 bond angle ● Different atoms or lone pairs held closer / further from nucleus ○ Sigma bonds stronger than pi → better overlap ■ Sigma + pi > sigma alone ■ Triple > double > single ● Acids + Bases: ○ Arrhenius Acids + Bases: ■ Acids ​= donate H+ in H20; have H+ in formula ● HCl, HBr, H2SO4, H3PO4 ■ Bases ​= donate OH- in H2O; Have OH- in formula ● NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, NH4OH* (*doesn’t actually have OH) ■ Works well in water reactions BUT ● Organics don’t “like” H2O and some things don’t fit ○ Bronsted-Lowry Acids + Bases: ■ Acids ​= donate H+ ● Works for all Arrhenius Acids + other stuff ● CH3COH, H2O, NH3 ■ Bases ​= accept H+ ● Works for all Arrhenius Bases + anything that has extra e- (anything with a lone pair) ● Cl-, CN-, NH3, H2O ○ Lewis Acids + Bases: ■ Acids ​= accept electron pair into empty orbital ● H+, CH3+, BH3, Zn2+ ■ Bases ​= donate lone pair into empty orbital ● Essentially same as Bronsted-Lowry Bases ○ Relative Strengths: ■ Relative ability to donate H+ ■ pKa: ● Small # = donates lots of H+ (good acid) ● Large # = keeps H+ (bad acid) ● More about Bronsted-Lowry: ○ Neutralization → conjugate pairs play “pass the proton” ■ HCl + H2O → Cl- + H3O+ ■ Acid + Base → Base + Acid ■ End up with conjugate pairs: ● Acid form has extra H+ ● Base form missing H+ ■ HCl/Cl- H3O+/H2O ● Stronger Acid forces Weaker Acid to take the H+ (proton) ○ Organics will look atstrength not dissociation ● Measure Acid Strength by How Well it Donates H+: ○ Ka = [H3O+][A-] / [HA]​ = acid dissociation constant ○ HA + H2O → A- + H3O+ ○ pKa = -log(Ka) ■ In Ochem: pKa range = -10 → 50 ■ In Ochem pKa1<pKa2 (pKa1 is stronger; based on relativity) ● What makes a good (stronger) acid? ○ HA → H+ + A- ○ H+ portion is always the same → conjugate base is what varies ■ Conjugate base determines the acid strength ○ Conjugate bases with stable -charge state are easier to form ○ What makes a -charge stable? ■ Atomic size - how big is the orbital with the -charge? ● Larger = greater area to disperse, less concentrated -charge ● -charge = a heavy weight, easier to carry the bigger you are ● Down periodic table = better acids ● *know generally = ​HF < HCl < HBr < HI (better acid → ) ○ H / F = closer in size = good overlap but extra e- is a super noticeable ○ H / I = SUPER different size = I is huge so won’t notice an extra e- ● OChem goes less off size and more off Electronegativity: ○ More EN atoms = more willing to carry -charge weight ○ EN are essentially more “buff” ■ CH4 < NH3 < H2O < HF (better acid → ) (size is same) ○ EN: 2.5 3 3.5 4 ● Acid Strength and Structure ○ How well the conjugate base holds the -charge ■ Stable -charge = stronger acid / weaker base ■ Unstable -charge = weaker acid / stronger base 1. Atomic Size: a. Larger atom with -charge = better acid 2. Electronegativity: a. More EN atom with -charge = better acid 3. Resonance: a. Split -charge over more atoms = better acid Ex:​CH3COO-: (pKA = 3-5) ● Share -charge over 2 atoms (the 2 O’s) ● Resonance​ → multiple valid Lewis Dot structures ○ Vary in placement of electrons (pi e- (pi bonds) / charges / lone pairs) ○ Structure with -½ charge on both O and dotted bond line = “resonance hybrid” (reality) ○ -1 charge shifted back and forth so much that each O gets -½ charge 4. Hybridization: ■ sp has more s orbitals + less p orbitals than sp2 or sp3 ■ More s orbitals = less node @ nucleus ● → e- get closer to the nucleus, +charge lowers the energy ● Alkane: pKa ~ 50 ○ sp3 = ¼ s + ¾ p ● Alkene: pKa ~44 ○ sp2 = ⅓ s + p ● Alkyne: pKa ~25 ○ sp = ½ s + ½ p 5. Induction:(minor factor) ■ Electronegativity working at a distance ■ Starts with EN neighbours (like a cheering section, moral support) ● Don’t actually help at all but still make the load easier ● Pull e- toward themselves + lessen -charge a tiny bit on that atom ■ 1. More EN atom is → more effect ■ 2. More neighbours it has → more effect ● Like if 50 neighbours stole from you, you’d realize faster than if only one was ■ 3. Closer EN atoms are → more effect ● Who gets the proton? ○ Stronger acid (smallest pKa) loses H+ first ○ Strongest base (conjugate base of large pKa acid) gain H+ first ○ → conjugate acid gains H+ compared to reference ○ → conjugate base loses H+ compared to reference ● REMEMBER: ○ Many functional groups have specific pKa ranges ■ Predictable due to combos of size, EN, hybridization, resonance ■ Functional group = single central atom w/ specific bonds ○ Functional group: pKa: ○ Carboxylic Acid 3-5 ○ Alcohol 15-18 ○ Amine 35-40 ○ Alkane ~50 ○ Alkene ~44 ○ Alkyne ~25


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.