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ANT2000 Test 4 Study Guide

by: Taylor Scheffing

ANT2000 Test 4 Study Guide ANT2000

Taylor Scheffing

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COMPLETE review and study guide for final test
General Anthropology
Andrews,Deborah J
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Scheffing on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT2000 at University of Florida taught by Andrews,Deborah J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 04/14/16
ANT2000 T est 4 11/17/2015 ▯ Presentation  Excavations began at Herculaneum in 1738 by Spanish engineer   Napoleon in Egypt 1798­1801  The Enlightenment th  Bishop of Ulster 17  Century  Charles Darwin: On the Origin of Species  Louis Henry Morgan 1818­1881 o SavageryBarbarismCivilization  Frank Hamilton Cushing o Did work in New Mexico and Florida o Thought the way to learn about other people was to live with them, eat their  food, etc.  Emic perspective­ seeing out of another person’s eyes, how they see  the world o First person to make archaeological maps of the Pineland site  Cushing and the Marco discoveries 1896  Key Marco Excavations 1896 o The Court of the Pile Dwellers  Paleobotany­ the study of plant material o Preserved plant remains  This guy found fingers and teeth when he was looking for artifacts o NAGPRA and respect for human remains o Illegal to dig up human remains because people used to think they were cool  and keep them  Results o Radiocarbon dates­ mound went back from 440 AD to 660 AD o Pottery analysis  Seriation­ pots are made piece by piece  Sherds­ little pieces of pots or pottery  What else can we learn from middens? o A classic midden profile, Pineland, Operation A o Would have habitation then fill it over and use it again o Profile: cut the mound away and see the levels of strata  Zooarchaeology o Almost always fish in this case o BCM5­ bound complex mound 5 o Provenience: telling us exactly where an artifact came fromfirst person to  use this?  Tiny snails o 1/16” screen produced the sample from Operation M3, Level 96 o 17 new species to the site o 3 are introduced to Florida o Environmental context: some snails worlds are 1 foot by 1 foot  The last village of South Florida native people left the peninsula in 1760 after  devastating raid by heavily armed Creek slaves17,000 people o This event effectively ended the 12,000 year history of Florida’s indigenous  people ▯ Archaeology  Archaeology reconstructs human behavior, social patterns, and cultural features  through the analysis of material remains and other sources  Propose and test hypotheses ▯ Paleontology and Palynology  Paleontology­ the study of ancient life through the fossil record  Palynology­ the study of ancient plants through pollen samples, used to determine a  site’s environment at the time of occupation ▯ Kinds of archaeology  Experimental archaeologists­ replicating ancient techniques and processes under  controlled conditions  Historical archaeologists­ use of written records to supplement archaeological  research  Colonial archaeologists­ historical archaeologists focused on colonized sites  Classical archaeologists­ focus on classical civilizations of the Old World, such as  Greece, Rome, and Egypt  Underwater archaeologists­ archaeology under water  Zooarchaeologists­ focus on the analysis of faunal remains in archaeological sites to  understand human cultural behavior and the landscape  Paleontologists­ look at plant and animal remains ▯ What do archaeologists analyze?  Archaeologists analyze human remains, animal remains, plant remains, artifacts such  as ceramics, lithic, charcoal, casts, metals, and visible remains such as structures  Archaeologists also examine microscopic remains ▯ Phytoliths  Phytolith­ “plant stone” is a microscopic crystal found in many plants, including  wheat, maize, rice, beans, squash, and manioc  Since they are inorganic, they do not decay, and can reveal what plants were once at  the site  Phytoliths can be recovered from teeth, tools, containers, ritual objects, and gardens ▯ Starch grain analysis  Starch grain analysis is another technique to recover microfossils of plants from the  stone tools used to process them  Starch grains preserve well in humid environments, and have been recovered from  stone tools, pottery, baskets, and human coprolites ▯ Example of starch grain analysis question  Williamson’s analysis of starch grains from a cave site in South Africa  Findings: over 50% of the residues were from plant starch grains  The results refuted the hypothesis that the tools were primarily used to kill and  butcher animals ▯ How are archaeological sites found?  Formal surveys o Ground surveys o Remote sensing  Historic records  By hypothesis  By accident  Remote sensing  Remote sensing found in ancient footpaths around Arenal volcano in Costa Rica  Excavating around these footpaths found stone tools, pottery, floors of houses, a  cemetery, quarries, stone coffins, cooking stones ▯ What happens when a site is located?  It depends  The location on private or public lands can determine results  The presence of human remains can determine the results  The necessity of obtaining state or federal permits for construction or development  can trigger laws and regulations  The remains of King Richard III, who died in 1485, found under a parking lot in  Leicester, England ▯ Cultural resource management  Cultural resource management­ focuses on sites slated for development often in a  quick, salvage mode ▯ Human presence  If a site is found to be a hominin site, concentrated work begins  The area is mapped  Surveys are conducted  Artifacts and samples are collected  Analysis is done in labs ▯ Systematic survey  Systematic survey provides a regional perspective by gathering information on  settlement patterns over a large area Principle of superimposition  In an undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest layer is on the bottom  The layer the artifact is located in is after the time of manufacture of the artifact  Deposition units are then identified by cultural context  Archaeological deposits tend to be horizontal layers ▯ Surveying and mapping  Before excavation, the surface area is surveyed and mapped.  A grid is drawn to  subdivide the site, to mark the exact location of each feature and artifact in relation to  each other   ▯ Excavation techniques  Shovel tests  Test pits can be dug to provide an analysis of the site  Careful digging through each layer, which is a labor intensive strategy ▯ Excavation  Excavation­ digging through the layers of deposits ▯ Screening  Screens are used to recover small remains as the soil passes through the screen ▯ Flotation technique  Soil samples are sorted using water and a series of very fine meshes.  When the water  dissolves the soil, the carbonized plant remains float to the top and heavier remains  such as fish bones sink to the bottom ▯ Relative dating  Sequence dating­ establishing the relative chronological position  Chronology is established by assigning dates to geographic strata and the remains  located within them  Stratigraphy­ the science that examines the ways in which earth sediments  accumulate strata, or layers  Cross dating­ when sequences are already established, then the effort is to determine  the position of the component at hand ▯ Fluorine absorption analysis  Based on bones fossilizing in the ground for the same length of time absorb the same  proportion of fluorine from the local groundwater ▯ Radiocarbon dating  Technique used to date organic remains  It is a radiometric technique since it measures radioactive decay  The absorption of C­14 stops upon death  C­14 breaks down into nitrogen since it is unstable  Its half life is 5,730 years  By measuring the proportion of C­14 in the organic material, the date of death can be  determined  The date is then correlated to calendar years  Note: since the half life is relatively short, it is only used on items less than 40,000  years old Potassium­Argon technique  Another radiometric technique K­40 is a radioactive isotope of potassium that breaks  down into argon­40 gas  The half life of K­40 is 1.3 billion years, so it can be used on very old fossils  It can be used only for inorganic substances suck as rocks and minerals ▯ Other techniques  Uranium series dating­ measures fission­tracks produced during the decay of  radioactive uranium into lead  Thermoluminescence  Electron Sprin Resonance­ measures electrons that are constantly trapped in rocks ▯ Dendrochronology  Tree ring dating based on the study and comparison of patterns of tree ring growth.   Trees grow a ring every year, and the thickness depends on the climate patter that  year.  Wide rings during wet years, narrow rings during dry years.  Rings are assigned to specific calendar years  Limited to certain tree species including oak, pine, juniper, fir, boxwood, yew, and  spruce  Cannot be used on olive, willow, poplar, fruit trees, and cypress  The comparative trees have to come from the same region since they need to have  grown under the same climate patterns ▯ Video  Silver Glen Springs  Living tree grew on top of the mound  The mound is gone but the tree is still standing there  The springs were used for 10,000 years  All that’s left of their material culture are stone knives, scrapers, etc.  Identified 2 prehistoric villages  Used different techniques including testing across large areas, small diameter augers,  stratigraphic testing for radiocarbon samples o Finding about what people are eating and depositing on the land form  Understanding how people utilized and understood the land  Used shell mounds as a place for refuge Finding human remains  Depends on the age of the remains  NAGPRA­ gives ownership of Native American human remains and artifacts to  Native American tribe with the cultural affiliation ▯ Kennewick man  In 1996 an almost complete skeleton that was about 9,000 years old was discovered  in a reservoir  Scientists wanted to study the remains but a local tribe sought ownership  In court, the scientists argued that the skeleton resembled people of the South Pacific,  not the local tribes, although it had originally been identified as Caucasoid  Based on this scientific opinion, the federal court held that there was no cultural  affiliation and allowed the scientists to keep and study the remains  However, after scientific study was conducted, the scientific conclusions were that  these remains were an ancestor of the local people! DNA confirmed the oral history  of the local tribes ▯ Presentation  Middle east: wheat, barley, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs  Andean region: squash, potatoes, quinoa  Southern China  Mesoamerica: maize, beans, squash, dog, turkeys  Northern China: dog, pigs, chicken  Sub­Saharan Africa: African rice, pearl millet  Eastern US: goosefoor, sunflower, squash  Domestication of dogs o Domesticated before plants o Darwin proposed that dogs originated from a wold and jackal mating together  or just evolved from one species o Came from the Gray wolf  Human and dog interaction o Domestication through human and animal trust o Humans domesticated these animals to hunt with them o Dogs are social animals and thrive in packs  Zooarchaeology o Study of animal remains excavated from archaeological sites o Goal= understand relationship between humans and animals o Zooarchaeologists are so diverse and many different anthropologists study  zooarchaeology  Faunal remains o The items left behind when an animal dies (bones, teeth, shells, hair, hide,  scales, DNA, blood)  Terms o Specimen o Element o Samples o Collection  7 wonders of the world o Great Pyramids of Giza  Only one with remains in present day o Hanging Gardens of Babylon o Statue of Zeus at Olympia o Temple of Artenis o Mausoleum at Halicarnassus o Colossus of Rhodes ▯ Broad Spectrum Revolution  Around 15,000 BO in Middle East and 12,000 in Europe  Broader range of plants and animals were utilized  This led to food production­human control over the reproduction of plants and  animals ▯ The Holocene  By 10,000 BP the glaciers had retreated such that the range of hunting, gathering, and fishing was extended­ Example: to the British Isles and Scandinavia  Microliths were used as fishhooks and in harpoons ▯ Innovation  Process of preserving meat and fish with smoke and salt became important  Such preservation wasn’t as important during the Ice Age due to freezing ▯ The Neolithic Revolution  Neolithic is the term for the new technique of grinding and polishing stone tools  Primary significance of the Neolithic was the new economy ▯ Transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic  Dependence on domesticated foods (more than 50%)  The archaeological signature of Neolithic cultures includes dependence on  cultivation, sedentary lifestyle, and the use of ceramic vessels ▯ Plant domestication  Humans intentionally cultivated plants  Assist plants in growing o Pruning, weeding, prevent animals from consuming ▯ Human selection  Human selection of seeds from plants with favorable characteristics  Seeds were taken to new environments and different pressures influenced the  characteristics that favored survival ▯ Genetic changes associated with domestication  Larger seeds  Larger plants  Higher yields  Loss of seed dispersal mechanism  Less brittle axis in wheat and barley as an example  Brittle husks (easier to remove during processing) ▯ African Neolithic  Nabta Playa site 12,000 BP  Domesticated cattle  They collected sorghum, millet, legumes, tubers, and fruits as wild plants  8000 BP pottery started ▯ African Cattle Complex  Cattle used primarily for milk and blood, rather than meat, which was for ritual  ceremonies  Modern African herders still do not kill cattle often for meat  Cow blood as super food China  China was one of the first areas to develop farming based on millet and rice  Millet Northern China  Rice Southern China Yangtze River  These appear to be independent inventions Independent Centers of Domestication Maize  Teosinte is the wild ancestor of maize  Starch grain analysis from Panama shows maize grown there by 7800­7000 BP  By 4000 BP maize was present and became more important than other foods, and  mesquite trees were converted to corn fields Millet  Millet domesticated twice in two different places, China and Africa ▯ ▯ Old World and New World domestication occurred around the same time based on the  date of squash seeds found in Peru ▯ ▯ A dozen plants out of 200,000 account for 80% of the world’s farm production ▯ ▯ Geography and the spread of food production  The broad east­west spread of domestication in Europe and Asia was much easier due to the similarity of climates by latitude  For the New World and Africa, the north­south narrowness impaired the transmission due to the variety of climates along longitudes 238  Kottak says that the dry climate of Texas and the plains impaired the spread of maize ▯ Costs and benefits of food production  Foragers have more leisure time  Yields are more reliable with food production  Foragers diets are more varied and healthy since they are higher in protein and lower  in fats and carbs  Dental caries increases with food production  Communicable diseases and exposure to pathogens increases with food production  Environmental degradation increases with food production ▯ Egalitarian Societies  A society that lacks social status distinctions  Distinctions are based on: o Age o Gender o Individual qualities, talents, and achievements ▯ State  A state is a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central  government and a decision of society into classes  Marked contrasts in status, power, wealth, and privilege distinguish cities and states  from the societies that came before them ▯ Hydraulic Systems  Suggested cause of state formation o Drainage o Irrigation o Flood control o Water control ▯ Childe’s Key Attributes of Early States  Larger, more populous cities  Functional differences between cities and villages  Taxation  Monumental architecture  Ruling class  Writing or other record keeping  Science  Sophisticated art  Long distance foreign trade  Territorial social divisions ▯ Attributes of States  Control of a regional territory  Farming economies supporting dense populations  Taxation and tribute  Stratified social classes  Monumental architecture  Record­keeping system ▯ Jericho  Earliest known town  Located in Israel  Settled by Natufian foragers  Around 11,000 years ago  3,000 years before pottery  Buried dead under their floors  Had long distance trade ▯ Chiefdoms and Early States  Recognized archaeologically by: o Monumental architecture o Central storehouses o Irrigation systems o Record keeping o Prestige goods ▯ Catalhoyuk  Located in Turkey  9,000 years old  Largest settlement found from the Neolithic age  Had a defensive wall  Had ritual and secular space  People entered the house through the roof ▯ Writing  Writing was initially used for accounting and record keeping related to economic  activities  Earliest writing was pictographic  Cuneiform writing­ Early Mesopotamian scribes used a stylus to mark clay ▯ Classic Maya  Period 300­900 CE  Location: parts of Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Belize  Monumental architecture o Chichenitza  Mathematics  Heiroglyphics ▯ Metallurgy  Knowledge of the properties of metal  Copper initially hammered  Annealing­ heating to make malleable  Smelting­ high temperature process to produce an ore  After 5000 BP metallurgy evolved rapidly  Bronze Age­ when alloys of alloys became common and extended the use of metals  in production  Iron ore is more common than copper and there is no need to make an alloy, so it  spread rapidly ▯ Collapse!  Debate over the decline and collapse of ancient states  Factors: o Invasion and warfare o Disease o Famine o Weather and climate issues: drought, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes,  hurricanes o Environmental degradation ▯ ▯ ▯


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