ANT2000 Test 4 Study Guide
ANT2000 Test 4 Study Guide ANT2000
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Scheffing on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT2000 at University of Florida taught by Andrews,Deborah J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
ANT2000 T est 4 11/17/2015 ▯ Presentation Excavations began at Herculaneum in 1738 by Spanish engineer Napoleon in Egypt 17981801 The Enlightenment th Bishop of Ulster 17 Century Charles Darwin: On the Origin of Species Louis Henry Morgan 18181881 o SavageryBarbarismCivilization Frank Hamilton Cushing o Did work in New Mexico and Florida o Thought the way to learn about other people was to live with them, eat their food, etc. Emic perspective seeing out of another person’s eyes, how they see the world o First person to make archaeological maps of the Pineland site Cushing and the Marco discoveries 1896 Key Marco Excavations 1896 o The Court of the Pile Dwellers Paleobotany the study of plant material o Preserved plant remains This guy found fingers and teeth when he was looking for artifacts o NAGPRA and respect for human remains o Illegal to dig up human remains because people used to think they were cool and keep them Results o Radiocarbon dates mound went back from 440 AD to 660 AD o Pottery analysis Seriation pots are made piece by piece Sherds little pieces of pots or pottery What else can we learn from middens? o A classic midden profile, Pineland, Operation A o Would have habitation then fill it over and use it again o Profile: cut the mound away and see the levels of strata Zooarchaeology o Almost always fish in this case o BCM5 bound complex mound 5 o Provenience: telling us exactly where an artifact came fromfirst person to use this? Tiny snails o 1/16” screen produced the sample from Operation M3, Level 96 o 17 new species to the site o 3 are introduced to Florida o Environmental context: some snails worlds are 1 foot by 1 foot The last village of South Florida native people left the peninsula in 1760 after devastating raid by heavily armed Creek slaves17,000 people o This event effectively ended the 12,000 year history of Florida’s indigenous people ▯ Archaeology Archaeology reconstructs human behavior, social patterns, and cultural features through the analysis of material remains and other sources Propose and test hypotheses ▯ Paleontology and Palynology Paleontology the study of ancient life through the fossil record Palynology the study of ancient plants through pollen samples, used to determine a site’s environment at the time of occupation ▯ Kinds of archaeology Experimental archaeologists replicating ancient techniques and processes under controlled conditions Historical archaeologists use of written records to supplement archaeological research Colonial archaeologists historical archaeologists focused on colonized sites Classical archaeologists focus on classical civilizations of the Old World, such as Greece, Rome, and Egypt Underwater archaeologists archaeology under water Zooarchaeologists focus on the analysis of faunal remains in archaeological sites to understand human cultural behavior and the landscape Paleontologists look at plant and animal remains ▯ What do archaeologists analyze? Archaeologists analyze human remains, animal remains, plant remains, artifacts such as ceramics, lithic, charcoal, casts, metals, and visible remains such as structures Archaeologists also examine microscopic remains ▯ Phytoliths Phytolith “plant stone” is a microscopic crystal found in many plants, including wheat, maize, rice, beans, squash, and manioc Since they are inorganic, they do not decay, and can reveal what plants were once at the site Phytoliths can be recovered from teeth, tools, containers, ritual objects, and gardens ▯ Starch grain analysis Starch grain analysis is another technique to recover microfossils of plants from the stone tools used to process them Starch grains preserve well in humid environments, and have been recovered from stone tools, pottery, baskets, and human coprolites ▯ Example of starch grain analysis question Williamson’s analysis of starch grains from a cave site in South Africa Findings: over 50% of the residues were from plant starch grains The results refuted the hypothesis that the tools were primarily used to kill and butcher animals ▯ How are archaeological sites found? Formal surveys o Ground surveys o Remote sensing Historic records By hypothesis By accident Remote sensing Remote sensing found in ancient footpaths around Arenal volcano in Costa Rica Excavating around these footpaths found stone tools, pottery, floors of houses, a cemetery, quarries, stone coffins, cooking stones ▯ What happens when a site is located? It depends The location on private or public lands can determine results The presence of human remains can determine the results The necessity of obtaining state or federal permits for construction or development can trigger laws and regulations The remains of King Richard III, who died in 1485, found under a parking lot in Leicester, England ▯ Cultural resource management Cultural resource management focuses on sites slated for development often in a quick, salvage mode ▯ Human presence If a site is found to be a hominin site, concentrated work begins The area is mapped Surveys are conducted Artifacts and samples are collected Analysis is done in labs ▯ Systematic survey Systematic survey provides a regional perspective by gathering information on settlement patterns over a large area Principle of superimposition In an undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest layer is on the bottom The layer the artifact is located in is after the time of manufacture of the artifact Deposition units are then identified by cultural context Archaeological deposits tend to be horizontal layers ▯ Surveying and mapping Before excavation, the surface area is surveyed and mapped. A grid is drawn to subdivide the site, to mark the exact location of each feature and artifact in relation to each other ▯ Excavation techniques Shovel tests Test pits can be dug to provide an analysis of the site Careful digging through each layer, which is a labor intensive strategy ▯ Excavation Excavation digging through the layers of deposits ▯ Screening Screens are used to recover small remains as the soil passes through the screen ▯ Flotation technique Soil samples are sorted using water and a series of very fine meshes. When the water dissolves the soil, the carbonized plant remains float to the top and heavier remains such as fish bones sink to the bottom ▯ Relative dating Sequence dating establishing the relative chronological position Chronology is established by assigning dates to geographic strata and the remains located within them Stratigraphy the science that examines the ways in which earth sediments accumulate strata, or layers Cross dating when sequences are already established, then the effort is to determine the position of the component at hand ▯ Fluorine absorption analysis Based on bones fossilizing in the ground for the same length of time absorb the same proportion of fluorine from the local groundwater ▯ Radiocarbon dating Technique used to date organic remains It is a radiometric technique since it measures radioactive decay The absorption of C14 stops upon death C14 breaks down into nitrogen since it is unstable Its half life is 5,730 years By measuring the proportion of C14 in the organic material, the date of death can be determined The date is then correlated to calendar years Note: since the half life is relatively short, it is only used on items less than 40,000 years old PotassiumArgon technique Another radiometric technique K40 is a radioactive isotope of potassium that breaks down into argon40 gas The half life of K40 is 1.3 billion years, so it can be used on very old fossils It can be used only for inorganic substances suck as rocks and minerals ▯ Other techniques Uranium series dating measures fissiontracks produced during the decay of radioactive uranium into lead Thermoluminescence Electron Sprin Resonance measures electrons that are constantly trapped in rocks ▯ Dendrochronology Tree ring dating based on the study and comparison of patterns of tree ring growth. Trees grow a ring every year, and the thickness depends on the climate patter that year. Wide rings during wet years, narrow rings during dry years. Rings are assigned to specific calendar years Limited to certain tree species including oak, pine, juniper, fir, boxwood, yew, and spruce Cannot be used on olive, willow, poplar, fruit trees, and cypress The comparative trees have to come from the same region since they need to have grown under the same climate patterns ▯ Video Silver Glen Springs Living tree grew on top of the mound The mound is gone but the tree is still standing there The springs were used for 10,000 years All that’s left of their material culture are stone knives, scrapers, etc. Identified 2 prehistoric villages Used different techniques including testing across large areas, small diameter augers, stratigraphic testing for radiocarbon samples o Finding about what people are eating and depositing on the land form Understanding how people utilized and understood the land Used shell mounds as a place for refuge Finding human remains Depends on the age of the remains NAGPRA gives ownership of Native American human remains and artifacts to Native American tribe with the cultural affiliation ▯ Kennewick man In 1996 an almost complete skeleton that was about 9,000 years old was discovered in a reservoir Scientists wanted to study the remains but a local tribe sought ownership In court, the scientists argued that the skeleton resembled people of the South Pacific, not the local tribes, although it had originally been identified as Caucasoid Based on this scientific opinion, the federal court held that there was no cultural affiliation and allowed the scientists to keep and study the remains However, after scientific study was conducted, the scientific conclusions were that these remains were an ancestor of the local people! DNA confirmed the oral history of the local tribes ▯ Presentation Middle east: wheat, barley, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs Andean region: squash, potatoes, quinoa Southern China Mesoamerica: maize, beans, squash, dog, turkeys Northern China: dog, pigs, chicken SubSaharan Africa: African rice, pearl millet Eastern US: goosefoor, sunflower, squash Domestication of dogs o Domesticated before plants o Darwin proposed that dogs originated from a wold and jackal mating together or just evolved from one species o Came from the Gray wolf Human and dog interaction o Domestication through human and animal trust o Humans domesticated these animals to hunt with them o Dogs are social animals and thrive in packs Zooarchaeology o Study of animal remains excavated from archaeological sites o Goal= understand relationship between humans and animals o Zooarchaeologists are so diverse and many different anthropologists study zooarchaeology Faunal remains o The items left behind when an animal dies (bones, teeth, shells, hair, hide, scales, DNA, blood) Terms o Specimen o Element o Samples o Collection 7 wonders of the world o Great Pyramids of Giza Only one with remains in present day o Hanging Gardens of Babylon o Statue of Zeus at Olympia o Temple of Artenis o Mausoleum at Halicarnassus o Colossus of Rhodes ▯ Broad Spectrum Revolution Around 15,000 BO in Middle East and 12,000 in Europe Broader range of plants and animals were utilized This led to food productionhuman control over the reproduction of plants and animals ▯ The Holocene By 10,000 BP the glaciers had retreated such that the range of hunting, gathering, and fishing was extended Example: to the British Isles and Scandinavia Microliths were used as fishhooks and in harpoons ▯ Innovation Process of preserving meat and fish with smoke and salt became important Such preservation wasn’t as important during the Ice Age due to freezing ▯ The Neolithic Revolution Neolithic is the term for the new technique of grinding and polishing stone tools Primary significance of the Neolithic was the new economy ▯ Transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic Dependence on domesticated foods (more than 50%) The archaeological signature of Neolithic cultures includes dependence on cultivation, sedentary lifestyle, and the use of ceramic vessels ▯ Plant domestication Humans intentionally cultivated plants Assist plants in growing o Pruning, weeding, prevent animals from consuming ▯ Human selection Human selection of seeds from plants with favorable characteristics Seeds were taken to new environments and different pressures influenced the characteristics that favored survival ▯ Genetic changes associated with domestication Larger seeds Larger plants Higher yields Loss of seed dispersal mechanism Less brittle axis in wheat and barley as an example Brittle husks (easier to remove during processing) ▯ African Neolithic Nabta Playa site 12,000 BP Domesticated cattle They collected sorghum, millet, legumes, tubers, and fruits as wild plants 8000 BP pottery started ▯ African Cattle Complex Cattle used primarily for milk and blood, rather than meat, which was for ritual ceremonies Modern African herders still do not kill cattle often for meat Cow blood as super food China China was one of the first areas to develop farming based on millet and rice Millet Northern China Rice Southern China Yangtze River These appear to be independent inventions Independent Centers of Domestication Maize Teosinte is the wild ancestor of maize Starch grain analysis from Panama shows maize grown there by 78007000 BP By 4000 BP maize was present and became more important than other foods, and mesquite trees were converted to corn fields Millet Millet domesticated twice in two different places, China and Africa ▯ ▯ Old World and New World domestication occurred around the same time based on the date of squash seeds found in Peru ▯ ▯ A dozen plants out of 200,000 account for 80% of the world’s farm production ▯ ▯ Geography and the spread of food production The broad eastwest spread of domestication in Europe and Asia was much easier due to the similarity of climates by latitude For the New World and Africa, the northsouth narrowness impaired the transmission due to the variety of climates along longitudes 238 Kottak says that the dry climate of Texas and the plains impaired the spread of maize ▯ Costs and benefits of food production Foragers have more leisure time Yields are more reliable with food production Foragers diets are more varied and healthy since they are higher in protein and lower in fats and carbs Dental caries increases with food production Communicable diseases and exposure to pathogens increases with food production Environmental degradation increases with food production ▯ Egalitarian Societies A society that lacks social status distinctions Distinctions are based on: o Age o Gender o Individual qualities, talents, and achievements ▯ State A state is a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a decision of society into classes Marked contrasts in status, power, wealth, and privilege distinguish cities and states from the societies that came before them ▯ Hydraulic Systems Suggested cause of state formation o Drainage o Irrigation o Flood control o Water control ▯ Childe’s Key Attributes of Early States Larger, more populous cities Functional differences between cities and villages Taxation Monumental architecture Ruling class Writing or other record keeping Science Sophisticated art Long distance foreign trade Territorial social divisions ▯ Attributes of States Control of a regional territory Farming economies supporting dense populations Taxation and tribute Stratified social classes Monumental architecture Recordkeeping system ▯ Jericho Earliest known town Located in Israel Settled by Natufian foragers Around 11,000 years ago 3,000 years before pottery Buried dead under their floors Had long distance trade ▯ Chiefdoms and Early States Recognized archaeologically by: o Monumental architecture o Central storehouses o Irrigation systems o Record keeping o Prestige goods ▯ Catalhoyuk Located in Turkey 9,000 years old Largest settlement found from the Neolithic age Had a defensive wall Had ritual and secular space People entered the house through the roof ▯ Writing Writing was initially used for accounting and record keeping related to economic activities Earliest writing was pictographic Cuneiform writing Early Mesopotamian scribes used a stylus to mark clay ▯ Classic Maya Period 300900 CE Location: parts of Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Belize Monumental architecture o Chichenitza Mathematics Heiroglyphics ▯ Metallurgy Knowledge of the properties of metal Copper initially hammered Annealing heating to make malleable Smelting high temperature process to produce an ore After 5000 BP metallurgy evolved rapidly Bronze Age when alloys of alloys became common and extended the use of metals in production Iron ore is more common than copper and there is no need to make an alloy, so it spread rapidly ▯ Collapse! Debate over the decline and collapse of ancient states Factors: o Invasion and warfare o Disease o Famine o Weather and climate issues: drought, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes o Environmental degradation ▯ ▯ ▯
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