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Test #2 study guide

by: Kayla Tyson

Test #2 study guide HSS 389

Kayla Tyson
U of L

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Prevent and Care Athletic Injury 1
Daryl Nelson
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Tyson on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSS 389 at University of Louisville taught by Daryl Nelson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Prevent and Care Athletic Injury 1 in Physical Education at University of Louisville.

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Date Created: 04/14/16
HSS 389 Study Notes Acute vs chronic injury  Acute- new injury, specific traumatic incident, new injury Ex: muscle cramps, muscle soreness (DOMS, AOMS)  Chronic- result of overuse or repetitive stress, can come from an old acute injury, old injuries Ex: tendinitis- tendon inflammation Tenosynovitis- inflammation of sheath myositis Ossificans- repeated blows and blood collection in the muscle bursitis- friction at lubricating sac osteoarthritis- degeneration of articular/hyaline cartilage Forces of injury  Blunt- direct contact force  Torsion- twisting force  Tension- pulling force  Shearing- a fore applied to a parallel plane in opposite directions  Bending- flexing force Types of Tissue  Bone- skeletal structure  Muscle- skeletal mover  Tendon- muscle to bone (pulley system)  Ligament- bone to bone Fractures A broken bone caused by the forces of an injury. 2 types: closed and open  Closed- does not penetrate superficial tissue  Open/compound- overlying skin is lacerated by bone Types of Fractures  Greenstick- incomplete found in kids mostly  Comminuted (multiple fractures)- requires surgery  Transverse-right angle to shaft; caused by direct blow  Linear- vertical split, usually caused from landing from height  Spiral- “S” shaped from twisting force  Oblique- axial compress, bend, torsion  Avulsion- small piece has been pulled of Dislocation vs. subluxation  Dislocation- bone/joint is forced out of proper alignment; requires manual reduction  Subluxation- moves out of normal alignment, but reduces back to normal position; moves back to the normal position Sprains Stretching or tearing of a ligament Caused by tension, torsion, or shearing 3 categories  Grade I- very minimal tearing or stretching  Grade II- slightly torn with moderate instability  Grade III- complete rupture of ligament, not ligamentous support Stress test are used to determine the severity of the sprain. This test tells you the dexterity of the ligament Strains Hyper stretching, pulling or tearing of a muscle of tendon, typically due to a tension force 3 categories  Grade I- slight or minimal muscle tearing  Grade II- moderate tearing, palpable deformity  Grade III- severe tearing, complete rupture possible Manual muscle tests are used to test muscle and tendon strains Functional Moving Screening (FMS testing)  Identifies limitations or asymmetries  Seven fundamental movement patterns  No pain or complaints  Objective tests of basic loco motor, manipulative and stabilizing movements Stages of Healing 3 stages  Stage I- inflammatory response phase Begins immediately after injury Usually last 48-72 hours 5 signs of inflammation 1. Redness 2. Swelling 3. Tenderness/pain 4. Increase temperature 5. Loss of function  Stage II- fibroblastic/proliferation repair phase The sub-acute regenerative activity leading to scar formation Fibroplasia-period of scar formation Begins within the first few hours may last 4-6 weeks May continue to have sensitivity, pain or tenderness  Stage III- maturation/remodeling phase Final and longest stage of the healing process Usually in 3 weeks, a firm, strong, contracted scar have formed May take several years for this to complete Wolf’s law- bone and soft tissue will respond to physical demands placed upon it Healing intention  Primary intention- the sides for the cut or incision are drawn back together and the would is allowed to heal all at once Ex: stitches  Secondary intention- the wound or injury is left open and heals from the bottom up Often seen when treating infected wounds Evaluation Process H.O.P.S approach  History- any past injury or conditions Interview the athlete and/or observes about the injury  Observation- what the patient presents with Look at injury for five cardinal signs of inflammation 5 cardinal signs of inflammation  Palpation- gross deformities or noticeable defects Feeling of the sight for abnormalities Cardinal signs (swelling, heat, deformity)  Special tests- test specific ligaments or joints For each joint and tissue type there are diferent tests They will test Strength, Stability/laxity, and crepitus “crunching”  Special tests for fractures Compress/squeeze test- squeeze area of bone above the injury Bump/tap test- tap on bone below the injury Tuning fork- apply vibrating tuning fork to bone above or below the injury S.O.A.P approach  Subjective-history  Objective-observation (what did you see)  Assessment-suspicion/ can NOT diagnose  Plan-plan of action Therapeutic Modalities  Therapeutic modality- tools or machines which aid in the “ideal environment”  Indication- when a therapeutic modality should be utilized  Contraindication- when a therapeutic modality should not be utilized  Vasoconstriction- making the blood vessels smaller. This in result decreases blood flow  Vasodilation- increasing the blood flow to an area  Analgesia- pain control Types of modalities  Cryotherapy- cold treatment Provides analgesia Provides vasoconstriction. The reduced blood flow helps with edema (swelling) Sensations of cold treatment: cold, burn, ache, numb ) go until numb Types: ice bags, cold whirl pool (40-60) , ice massage  Thermotherapy- heat treatment Used post-acutely after swelling cycle has stopped Provides vasodilation ( increases blood flow) Sensations: warmth, initial pain relief Types: heat packs, warm whirlpool (90-108) Indications: injury with decreased ROM Contraindications: decreased circulation due to disease ( diabetes)  Ultrasound- various applications Therapeutic deep heat Utilizes high frequency sound waves to heat tissue Sound waves cause molecules in tissue to vibrate Heat will increase blood flow, increase tissue elasticity and decrease pain 1MHz for deep penetration 3MHz for superficial penetration 3 physiological efects 1. Thermal – increase collagen tissue elasticity, increase blood flow 2. Mechanical- micro massage through vibration of collagen tissue 3. Chemical- increases enzymatic activity, increases capillary permeability, increases ATP activity in skeletal muscle thus aiding healing process  Electrotherapy-various applications Use of electrical currents to achieve diferent things 1 used by the greeks ( they used electric eels to decrease pain) used for 4 main reasons clinically 1. Pain control- based on 3 theories ( gate control, central biasing, endogenous opiate release) Gate control- applying electrical stimulation to nerves with the sensory info they received they become overloaded and they close the “gate” on the pain sensation Central biasing- pain modulation can be achieved by applying electrical stimulation to acupressure points Endogenous opiates- after extended use of electrical stimulation the body will release endorphins and enkephalins to relieve pain 2. Muscle contraction- helps with ROM if there is a decrease 3. Edema control- works by contacting and relaxing muscles thus using muscles as a pump to decrease swelling 4. Muscle reeducation- used to increase strength and help reeducate muscles if there is atrophy  Mechanical – various applications Intermittent compression units Cpm Cervical traction Massage Pharmacology- study of drugs Drug- a chemical agent used in the prevention, treatment, or diagnosis of disease Drug vehicle- a substance in which a drug is transported Pharmacokinetics- the study of how the body handle drugs Components: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination Absorption- a route in which a substance can enter through the skin Distribution- transfer of drug within the body Metabolism- how the drug is broken down and used in the body Elimination- clearance of a drug from the body


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