Exam 3 SG(FAD2230)
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Ferraro in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
FAD2230 4/6/16 Ch. 12-The process of Divorce Is divorce a “new” thing? o NO WAY o Early America—fault based Connecticut had the most liberal divorce law o Women’s suffrage Not just the right to vote also the right to divorce o California Family Law Act of 1969 No-fault divorce Calculating divorce rates o Number of divorces per year 813,862 o Crude divorce rate Divorces per 1000 population 3.2 o Refined divorce rate Number of divorces per 1000 married women over 15 yrs of age16.9 or 1.69% per year Why do couples divorce? o Communication o Extramarital sex/affair o Incompatibility o Role conflicts o Lack of family investment o Growing apart o Alcohol/drug use o Finances o Stress/crisis o Abuse o Health o Attributions for the cause of divorce SDS 1974-75 Communication 31.8% Alcohol/Drugs 21.5% Jealousy/Untrustworthy 21.5% Extramarital sex 20.6% Incompatibility 16.8% Role conflicts 16.8% Lack of family investment 15% Financial/Work issues 15% SCAD 2015-16 Communication 28.5% Alcohol/drugs 16.2% Jealousy/Untrustworthy 23.5% Extramarital sex 53.6% Incompatibility 20.7% Role conflicts 10.6% Lack of family investment 13.4% Financial/Work issues 24.6% 4/8/16 Deciding to divorce—divorce is a process o Sometimes marriages just flat out aren’t working o Is divorce the key to happiness? One year after separation people were found to be less happy, but in one year after the divorce, people were happier than they had been while married (Gardner and Oswald 2006) A couple could report the lowest marital satisfaction, yet, if they do not divorce, 5 years later 2/3 of those unhappily married couples describes themselves as “very happy”. Those that divorce do not report themselves as very happy later (Waite 2001) o Experiencing divorce Pre-separation: is this relationship working? What are my alternatives? Comparison level+ Early separation: beginning to engage in things that will lead to separation (who will move out, dividing responsibilities) Mid-separation: challenges of the separation (Benefits?) Late Separation: reorganization of single adult life, deciding to divorce or not, embracing the situation Stations of divorce (Bohannon, 1971) o Emotional- loss of emotional connections, often replaced with negative feelings o Legal- paperwork, lawyer, finances, etc. o Economic- economic consequences, splitting of income, more/higher expenses per person, typically affects women more due to the high number of stay at home mothers, can affect men because of alimony and child support paid to ex-wife Fathers transition to single while mothers transition to single-parents o Community- loss of certain relationships/friendships o Psychic- establish self as a single adult o Co-parental divorce- life after divorce when children are involved “Although divorce terminates the legal bonds of matrimony, it does not terminate the parent-child relationship” Custody Physical (child’s residence); legal (parent has the ability to make major decisions about child) Shared/joint(most likely); sole(less likely to be physical) Best interest of the child Types of co-parenting relationships Perfect pals- engage in a lot of the same activities although not in romantic ways (smallest group- 12%) Cooperative colleagues- calmly tries to work out things, cooperative with one another (largest group- 38%) Angry associates- business-like relationship but emphasizes resentment 25% Fiery foes- mostly do not like interaction, interactions lead to hostile arguments 25% Dissolved duos- no interaction at all (theoretical when kids are involved- 0%) o The process doesn’t stop just because the marriage is over The divorce process The post divorce process Good divorce- 8% (smallest) Good enough divorce- 23% Bad divorce- 53% (largest) Bad to better-16% (denotes change) o Binuclear family 4/11/16 Divorce discussion Is there such a thing as a “good divorce”? o Cooperative colleagues(38%) vs. bad divorce(53% o It takes time for patterns to stabilize Does not mean every divorce will become a “good divorce” o Formation of a binuclear family Step- families as a product of divorce Two households represent one family Divorce and children o Half of divorces involve children o What “causes” the child to have problems after divorce? Life stress- moving, money Parental loss- 15%-30% haven’t seen bio dads for a year after divorce Parental adjustment- child will typically gravitate towards the parent doing better Economic hardship Interparental conflict Family instability Long term effects of divorce o Which is worse for children: Divorce or marital conflict? Who is divorcing? o Parental divorce Intergenerational transmission of divorce Pattern of divorce Modeling of relationship behavior Intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic o Attitudes o Age at marriage Marrying younger higher risk Especially true among teenagers o Parental status Childfree more likely to divorce Children add stability but not necessarily quality o Premarital child-bearing Less relationship stability o Sex of the child Sons less likely to divorce Father engagement with son o Heterogeny Fewer similarities more likely o Income Stress leads to marital problems o Education o Race/ethnicity Black couples more likely Hispanic/Asian less likely o Macro level factors Level of socioeconomic development Religion **Divorce laws(biggest)** Women’s status and employment Attitudes towards divorce 4/13/16 Should divorces be harder to get? o FAD2230 Divorce restoration act Restoration of fault for all divorces A waiting period of as long as five years A more extensive process for divorces involving children to prioritize the needs of children o Majority vote against this new act o Here are some facts Majority of those who divorce will remarry eventually (approx.. 75%) Approximately 50% of all marriages are remarriages Increase possibility of divorce Children in stepfamilies have more negative outcomes than those in in-tact families FAD2230 3/23/16 Ch. 13- Raising Children What do they need? o It depends on Developmental age Ability Feeling valued Developing autonomy (ability to explore but feel comfort) Developing skills valued by society Ability to accept love/give love Parenting style (Macoby/Martin) o Authoritative- democratic, choice within limits, warm intentional or planned parenting, mutual respect/compassion Best social skills, best academics, low depression o Authoritarian- firm, rigid, directive, punitive unquestioning authority(legitimate), hierarchy of respect Most rebellious, fearful o Permissive- encouraging, friend- like relationship, few rules, monitoring limits More rebellious o Neglectful- little involvement, few limits, avoids parenting High levels of depression, least social skills, worst academic performance Warmth- nurturing, care, accepting Discipline o Root word- disciplina= instruction o Instruction, training; NOT punishment o Happens every moment of every parent-child interaction o Whats the purpose? Increase appropriate behavior Teach how to control impulsiveness Parenting across cultures o Parents primary job- SOCIALIZATION Lifelong process by which we acquire cultural values and skills needed to function as human beings 3/25/16 Parents influence children… and children influence their parents o Bidirectional nature of parenting! o Systems theory o Some ways children impact their parents? Temperament of child Sex differences Medical conditions and disabilities Trends in parenting o In most societies around the world, a higher value is placed on boys than on girls o Those outside of “the family” are becoming increasingly involved in childrearing o Parents are becoming increasingly permissive; place less emphasis on obedience, control, and parental authority Parental identity o Mother and father o Represent both an identity and specific set of tasks o Expectations- socially constructed Mothering o Is it a more powerful identity than marital status or career? o Mothers report greater meaning in their life and greater distress o America- more intense and anxiety provoking (perhaps because it is mostly done in isolation) Many tasks go unseen/unnoticed o Employed mothers Amount of time spent mothering Stay at home- 32 hours Employed- 27 hours Feel guilt Meet critical judgment from others Fathering o “Dad life” o Industrial revolution transformed fathers role “Good provider” Model continued until 1970s-80s o Last 20 years Men are wrestling with their roles as fathers Expected to be a breadwinner and be there for their children Parent involvement o What does it mean to be involved? Going to their children’s events Knowing children’s friends o Three pronged approach to parental involvement Accessibility Engagement Responsibility o How does this relate to parental identity? More you identify with a parental role the more likely you will be involved 3/28/16 Single parents o Many types of single parent homes and many PATHS to single parenthood Single parent homes have increased More likely to be black children (40%) More likely to be impoverished and on food stamps Less likely to own a home Lower levels of education What else influences child outcomes? o Same sex parents= very similar to heterosexual parents o Little or no difference among children Psychological well-being Performance in school Substance abuse Delinquency Early sexual experiences Grandparents as parents o Strengths- minimize trauma by providing continuity and family support May be a result of incarceration, abuse, etc. o Challenges Physical exhaustion Physical/mental health problems Financial challenges “No choice” Fad2230 3/28/16 Ch 14- Families and the Work They do Work and family o Cultural shift in the 1980s o Married couple families by number and relationship Husband and wife- 57% Husbands only- 19% Wife only- 5% Other earners- 5% No earners- 14% Two career marriages o Careers differ from jobs in that they hold the promise of advancement and demand a high degree of commitment o Two career families often outsource domestic work and are likely to employ an in-home caregiver Another expense Parents will have less time for child Fathers are more likely to feel that they don’t spend enough time with children o Mothers are more negatively affected when they perceive that they send too little time with their children Mothers curtail employment when they experience high work-family overload o Moms tend to focus on what they believe they are doing wrong Child care o Mothering approach- the couple preferred the wife care for children o Parenting approach- family care was shared by parents, who structured their work to this end o Market approach- career oriented couples hired others to care for children Is childcare harmful? o Children who spent more time in childcare had More aggressive behavior Still within normal range Differences disappear by 3 grade Poorer work habits and social skills Differences were minimal and within normal range Higher language and other academic skills o Childcare centers are safer then family daycare Violence, sexual assault, shakings, etc. Centers are typically more structured and licensed o Quality of childcare most important factor! Low quality childcare produces poorer results in children High quality is pretty expensive!! Most states- kids in professional childcare cost more for a year than a year at a university Juggling work and family o Work-family conflict- a form of tension under which people feel that the pressures from paid work and family roles are incompatible in some way FAD2230 3/30/16 Ch. 15- Family stress and crisis The nature of stress and crisis o Crisis- critical change/event that disrupts the functioning of one or more family members Can be negative or positive Can be abrupt or slowly evolving Unintentional injury/death for 1-4 yrs: 1216 Stressors can be.. o Individual, family or community o Situational, transitional or cultural o Isolated or cumulative o Acute or chronic(persists over time) o Volitional or nonvolitional Actively seeking out or not o Normative or non-normative Common family stressors o What are the 10 most common family stressors? Finances and budgeting Children’s behavior Insufficient time as a “couple” Lack of shared responsibility on family Communication with children Insufficient time for “me” Guilt for not accomplishing more Relationship with spouse Insufficient family “play time” Over scheduled family calendar Responses to stressors o Bodies have a typical and predictable coping pattern o Three phases Alarm reaction Resistance Exhaustion Patterns of family crisis o Predictable pattern of family crisis Phase 1- the event Phase 2- disorganization Phase 3- reorganization Coping or not: the ABC-X model The double ABC-X Model of family stress 4/1/16 Steps in domestic violence o Idolize the victim o Isolate the victim o Threaten violence o Violence o Death/stalking/threats even after victim moves on Intimate partner violence (IPV) o IPV- violence between those who are physically and sexually intimate Physical, economical, sexual or psychological abuse o 2 million injuries and 1,500 deaths annually 70% are victims before age 25 o Types of IPV Relationship violence takes on many forms Your book- 4 types(Johnson and Ferraro, 2000) no Three types(Johnson, 2008) Situational couple violence Intimate terrorism Violence resistance- self defense (mostly used by women) Stalking/cyber stalking Cyber stalking is becoming more prevalent but the most prevalent is unwanted phone calls and messages Highest percentage is intimate/former partners Sexual assault and rape Mostly perpetrated by current/former partners and acquaintance 1 in 4 women/1 in 9 men have been sexually victimized o 80% before age 25 o Consequences Psychological and physical effects Depression, anxiety, poor sleep, low-self esteem, poor physical health Victims of IPV are more likely to participate in risky behaviors Unprotected sex, drugs, alcohol use May be because victims don’t value themselves as much o Coping with violence Women stay in abusive relationships because of learned helplessness A psychological condition of having low-self esteem, feeling helpless, and having no control Caused by repeated abuse Studies indicate that women do eventually leave It’s a process o Resources FSU Victim Advocate Program 644-7161 After hours- 644-1234 National domestic violence hotline 1-800-799-7233 Child abuse and neglect o Child abuse- an attack on a child that results in injury and violates social norms Most prevalent- neglect 71% o Types of child abuse Neglect (80% caused by mom and dad) Failure to provide basic needs Includes psychological/emotional needs Physical abuse Sexual abuse Inappropriate sexual behavior with a child for sexual gratification Psychological or emotional maltreatment Verbal, mental, or psychological abuse that destroys a child’s self-esteem o Consequences of child abuse Psychological Impacts attachment Mental and emotional health Social difficulties (communication/social skills) Behavioral Delinquency and criminality Alcohol/drug abuse higher in victims Physical health Impaired brain development (failure to thrive) Poor physical health Suicide ideation Second leading cause of death in adolescents Explanations for violence among intimates o Micro-level explanations The intergenerational transmission of violence Those who witness/undergo violence in the home are more likely to become abusers Stress explanation o Macro-level explanations Patriarchy Some cultures encourage superiority of men Cultural norms supporting violence Norms of family privacy Idea of isolation within a family FAD2230 4/13/16 Ch. 17- Family life, partnering, and remarriage after divorce Consequences for the kids o Compared to children in in-tact two parent families, children that grow up in stepfamilies.. Have lower academic achievement Have lower self esteem Have higher depression and anxiety Have higher rates of drug and alcohol abuse Are more likely to get in trouble at school, get arrested, and experience a teen pregnancy o Why is this? Stress, transitions, and instability Social capital depravation- social networks after a divorce often shrink for children Parenting quality Defining stepfamilies.. Or wait do we mean blended families? o First off, what’s the difference between Blended families Reconstituted families Stepfamilies o Honestly many people who are in “stepfamilies” do not identify as being a stepfamily Often a disagreement between members of the family The greater the complexity the greater the chance for disagreement (brown and Manning 2007) o Not all stepfamilies look the same Possible members Siblings- share both bio parents Half- siblings- share one bio parent Step siblings- not bio related, parents are married to each other o Residential v. non-residential- whether or not siblings live in the same house Mutual children- born to the remarried couples They look very different than in the past There are many paths to stepfamily life and many do not involve a “remarriage” Remarriage o After divorce o After death of spouse Partnering o After nonmarital birth Stepfamily subsystems o Remarried couple subsystem o Former spouse subsystem o Sibling subsystem Parental status evolves o Supportive stepparent begins as permissive and gradually shifts to authoritative over a long period of time Stages of stepfamily integration o Fantasy- parents typically think the new partnership will solve all issues; child still believe parents will get back together o Immersion- face new reality of family dynamics; hard stage for new stepparent; often see stepparents blame themselves for any issues that emerge o Awareness- see normal family interactions; get to know others as family members o Mobilization- stepfamily members hold their ground; higher comfort level; stepparent can begin moving past permissive o Action- boundary formation; establish what is appropriate o Contact- marital relationship will be a big source of support for children o Resolution- acceptance of stepfamily dynamics and roles 4/15/16 Stepfamilies face unique issues o Come about from loss o Establishing roles o Navigating “undeveloped institution” Legal rights o Dealing with ex-partner(s) o Developing stepparent-child relationships (4-12 years) Child hostility Loyalty conflicts o Financial obligations What matters more for healthy child development? o Family structure Living with a stepparent Visiting biological parent o Family environment Quality of family communication Quality of family relationships Extent to which children are monitored HINTS FOR CHAPTER 18 QUESTIONS ON EXAM Sexuality on older adults Grandparent relationships with grandkids/nature/activities Relationships with adult children
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