Very Descriptive Study Guide for the THIRD EXAM for Geog 104!!
Very Descriptive Study Guide for the THIRD EXAM for Geog 104!! 104
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GEOG 103 001
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 104 at University of South Carolina taught by Roman-River in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Lectures 7: Geology: ● Uniformitarianism states that current geologic processes, occurring at the same rates observed today, in the same manner, account for all of Earth's geological features. It was proposed by James Hutton and Charles Lyell. ● Geologic Time is the full scope of earth’s history. It is divided into Eons, Era, Period, and Epoch. Eons has Precambrian and Phanerozoic (current). Era has Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic (current). Period has Tertiary and Quaternary (current). Epoch has Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene (current). ● Earth internal structure consists of the core, mantle, and crust. The core has the inner core and the outer core the inner core has solid iron/nickel or iron/silicate and has extreme pressure. The outer core has molten metallic iron with lighter density than inner core. The flow generates our magnetic field. The layered mantle hypothesis consists of convection cells that are separated by the transition zone into upper and lower mantle. Subducted slabs don’t pass through the 660 phase transition. The whole mantle hypothesis consists of convection cells circulate through the upper and lower mantle. Subducted slabs may plunge down to the D layer above the core mantle boundary. The crust of the earth is divided into continental (40 km thick) and oceanic (6 km thick). Mostly made of oxygen and silicon. Continental crust is 5060 km, low density, composed mainly of granite. Oceanic crust is 5hm, denser, and composed of basalt. what happens when they interact? ● Three main rock groups and general formation mechanism for each group. The three main rock groups are Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic. Igneous comes from cooling magma or lava. Intrusive igneous rocks are when it cools and hardens below the surface has bigger and coarser crystals. Extrusive igneous rocks are when it cools and hardens close or at the surface. They are less coarse and have smaller crystals. Sedimentary comes from sediments worn from other rocks. Clastic is weathering, erosion, deposition and lithification play a role in the formation of new rocks. Compaction consists of pre existing rock fragments together because of wait→ Clastic Sedimentary Rocks. Cementation: pore spaces filled by a cementing agent calcium carbonate→ Chemical and Organic Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic rocks come from changing chemistry. ● Continental Drift was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912. Supercontinent called Pangaea “all earth” broke apart over 200 million years ago (Mesozoic Era, Triassic –Jurassic Period). The Plate Tectonic Theory defines the way Earth’s surface evolves. It describes tectonic processes (upwelling magma from asthenosphere and upper mantle), sea floor spreading (builds mid ocean ridges and drives continental movement), subduction of the lithosphere (where oceanic and continental crusts collide a subduction zone occurs due to gravitational pull), earthquakes, volcanic activity, and lithospheric deformation (warping, folding, and faulting). ● Mechanisms that build and recycle crust, types of boundaries (slide 40) ● ● Relationship between plate tectonics and location of volcanoes and earthquake: In Convergent plate boundaries, plates converge, producing a subduction zone. Coastal area features mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Divergent Boundaries diverge in areas of seafloor spreading at mid ocean ridges. Transform boundary plates slide past each other, forming a fracture zone in a transform fault in which plates move past each other in opposite directions, along the fracture zone outside of the active fault, plates move in the same direction. Earthquakes and Volcanism ● Crustal Formation Endogenic processes cause gradual crustal uplift and new landforms with major mountain building occurring along plate boundaries. Tectonic mountains and landforms produced by active folding, faulting, and crustal movements.Volcanic features formed by the surface accumulation of molten rock from eruptions of subsurface materials ● Deformation occurs from Tectonic Stress forces of gravity and weight of overlying rocks that are exerted on Earth’s crust. Types of stress: tension (stretching), compression (shortening), and shear (twisting or tearing). Strain how rocks respond to stress. Types of strain: folding (bending) or faulting (breaking). ● InCrustal Deformation, folding occurs when rocks are deformed as a result of compressional stress and shortening. Anticline: an arch shaped upward fold. Synclines: a trough shaped downward fold. ● Faults are when rock strata are stressed beyond their ability to remain intact. Earthquakes occur at the moment intact. Earthquakes occur at the moment of fracture. Fault plane is the fracture surface along which the two sides of a fault move. The three basic types of faults are Normal (rocks pulled apart by tension stress), Thrust (rocks forced together by compressional stress), and Strikeslip (rocks are torn by lateral shearing). ● Orogenesis is the mountain building developed through thickening of earth;s crust over millions of years. 3 types of orgenesis are Oceaniccontinental plate collision folding of sedimentary rock, magma intrusions, inland volcanic activity (flood basalts and composite volcanoes) Oceanicoceanic plate collision produces volcanic island arcs. Ex: Indonesia and Japan Continentalcontinental plate collision intense folding, over thrusting, faulting, and uplift. Ex: collision of India with the Eurasian landmass made the Himalayas. ● An Earthquake results from the friction of two tectonic plates sliding past one another. Seismic energy the vibrations that radiate through the planet. ● Volcanoes are mountains that form at the end of a vent that rises from the asthenosphere and upper mantle and through the Earth’s crust. Magma rises and collects in a chamber deep below the surface until conditions are right for eruption. Lava (molten rock), gases, and pyroclastics (pulverized rock) pass through the vent to form the volcanic landform. Types of lava flows: Aa (rough and jagged), Pahoehoe (shiny and smooth that resembles a twisted rope), Pillow lava. ● Volcano Location is a function of plate tectonics and hotspot activity. Subduction boundaries, seafloor spreading centers, rifting areas on continental at hot spots where plumes of magma rise to the crust. ● Types of Volcanoes Shield Volcanoes are broad, gently sloping mountain, much broader than high, size varies greatly. It is made from layers of solidified lava flows. Magma usually basaltic, characterized by quiet eruptions of fluid lava. Ex: Hawaiian islands, Tahiti. Composite Volcanoes are steepsided symmetrical cone, heights to over 3700m. Layers of lava flows, pyroclastics, and hardened mudflow deposits. Magma usually intermediate in chemistry, often sadistic, long life span, characterized by both explosive eruptions of pyroclastics and quiet eruptions of lava. Examples are Mt. Fuji, Japan, Mt. Rainer, Washington, Mt. Shasta, Cali, Mt. Vesuvius, Italy, Mt. St. Helens, Washington. Lava Dome Volcanoes are usually small, typically less than 600 m high, and sometimes irregular shape. Magma usually high in silica, often rhyolitic dome grows by expansion of viscous lava from within, explosive eruptions common. Examples are Lassen peak, California, Mono Craters, California. Cinder Cone Volcanoes are small sided cone, and maximum height is 500m. Loose pyroclastic material, may be composed of ash or cindersize pieces, Chemistry of magma varies, often basaltic, short life span, pyroclastics ejected from central vent, occasionally produce lava flows. Examples are Paricutin, Mexico and Sunset Crater, Arizona. They are the the smallest. ● Types of Volcanic Activity: Effusive eruptions – gentle eruptions that produce large volumes of lava on the seafloor and in areas such as Hawaii and Iceland Effusive eruptions may come from single vents or from the flank of a volcano through a sidevent Shield volcano – typical mountain landform with a gentle slope that rises to a summit crater built by effusive eruptions Composite volcanos – potentially explosive volcanos that have steep sides. Explosive eruptions – where thick magma produced by a subducted oceanic plate tends to block a vent. Blockage traps and compresses gasses and causes pressure to build These eruptions produce less lava and larger amounts of pyroclastics. ● VEI is a Relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ● Hazards Related to Volcanoes Volcanic gases: Water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and fluorine Lava flows Eruption column and ash fall Pyroclastic flows Nuée ardente Volcanic mudflows (lahars) Lecture 8: Weathering : ● Denudation: any process that wears away or rearranges landforms. It comprises weathering, mass movement, erosion, deposition. ● Physical Weathering is also known as mechanical weathering. Disintegration of rock without any chemical alteration Types: Frost Wedging, SaltCrystal Growth, Exfoliation. ● Frost wedging – Freezethaw cycle. is the most dominant of the mechanical weathering types ● Salt wedging Chemical weathering is a chemical breakdown, always in the presence of water, of constituent materials of rocks. Spheroidal weathering softens and rounds the sharp edges and corners of joint rocks. Types are hydration and hydrolysis, oxidation, and dissolution of carbonates. especially the relationship to climate. Karst from Carbonation Mass Wasting ● Mass wasting is the downslope movement of a body of material made up by soil, sediment or rocks propelled by the force of gravity. Angle of response: balance between driving and resisting forces. Driving forces: gravity, Resting forces: friction. ● Slope dynamics : the relative magnitude of shear force and normal force will determine if the material will move down slope (know which one needs to be bigger for the material to move). **If presented with a diagram similar to those shown in class, make sure you can identify shear and normal forces. Know what factors aide and resist movement. River Systems ● Drainage basin concept is also known as watersheds. It is made up of many smaller drainage basins, each of which gathers and delivers runoff and sediment into a larger basin and eventually concentrating the volume on a main channel. Drainage divide define catchment areas. ● general characteristics of the selected drainage patterns (slide 22). ● SingleThread Channels: where channel slope is gradual, streams develop a snakelike form weaving back and forth in a meandering stream. ● MultipleThread Channels: excess of sediment produces a maze of interconnect channels called braided stream. ● Meandering Streams *Straight, meandering, and braided refer to stream channel patterns; for each of these patterns – know their main characteristics; pay special attention to the concepts we learned about meandering channels (point bar, cut bank and oxbow lake formation on slide 35); ● Stream discharge is a stream’s volume of flow per unit time. Know complete equation (Q=wdv); Q=discharge, w=channel with, d=channel depth, v=stream velocity. ● also know about the impact of dams; ● Sediment Transport: Sediment Load: material carried by the stream Dissolved Load: material that travels in solution Suspended Load: fine grained particles that are held aloft Bedload: coarser materials that are moved by traction or saltation Traction is the action of pulling a thing over a surface Saltation is when particles are transported by fluids such as wind or water. ● Discharge: a stream’s volume of flow per unit of time. Increased discharge, increased sediment transport. ● Graded streams are formed over a period of years, the slope is delicately adjusted to provide just the velocity required for transportation. Stream Terraces or Alluvial terraces are formed as a stream cuts into a valley. Lecture 9 Coastal processes: ● Sea Level Mean Sea Level is the average of the hourly water level. Relative Sea Level is the sea level related to the level of the continental crust. It is a balance of land elevation (tectonic, subsidence, and glacial isostasy) and water volumes (glacier volume and thermal expansion of water). Tectonic rapid uplift or subsidence of coast Subsidence lowering of surface Glacial Isostasy weight of ice deforms the mantle The mean sea level trend for Charleston is 3.15 millimeters/year. Results in a 1.03 change feet in 100 years ● Tides earth, sun, and moon. Temporal Scales: Daily 24 hours 50 minutes, monthly 27.3 days Flood Tidal Currents water raising Ebb Tidal Currents water falling Daily Scales: Semidiurnal tides surround the east coast of USA, Diurnal tides surround the gulf coast of USA, mixed semidiurnal tides surround the west coast of USA. Monthly Scales consist of spring tides and neap tides. Spring tides are high tides when moon, earth, and sun are aligned. New and full moons. Neap tides are high tides when moon, earth, and sun form a right angle. 1st and 3rd quarter moons. Neap tide extremes<spring tide extremes. ● Waves four main variables control wave size (wind velocity, wind duration, fetch, wave interference). Fetch= distance over which the wind operates. Wave Interference interactions between wave trains. Strengthened if waves arrive in phase, weakened if out of phase. Usually mixed. Waves get higher as they move onshore. A wave crest is the highest point of a wave, trough is the lowest point. Most all waves are formed by wind Difference between Us west and east coast wave height are that the continental shift and slope are in different places due to wind. So, West Coast: narrow shelf, steep slope, inward prevailing winds. East Coast: broader shelf, gradual slope, outward prevailing winds. ● Tsunami Tsunamis are Tidal Waves. Caused by earthquakes (80%), submarine landslides, eruptions of undersea volcanoes, and meteorite impacts. The first wave is often the largest, but is always accompanied by multiple waves. Wavelength: 60 miles, Height: 3 feet, Velocity: 375500 mph ● Breaking waves break when they reach a critical threshold. Relationship between wave height and water depth Spilling Breakers Plunging Breaker Surging Breaker *Breaker type largely depends on beach slope ● Longshore currents : parallel to coast, moves a lot of water and sediment. As the wave angle of approach increases, the velocity of the current also increases. They are produced as waves approach the surf zone and shallower water. Beach drift results as substantial volumes of material are moved along the shore. Results in beech growing on updrift side and erodes on downdrift side. ● Coastal erosional and depositional landforms Estuaries are partly enclosed coastal bodies of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. As you move further from the ocean the salinity decreases and the river influence increases o Classification methods o Salinity/Salt Balance Classification Stratified – know if tidal or river influence is stronger; characteristics; dominant feature (salt wedge); reason why stratification occurs Partially mixed know if tidal or river influence is stronger; characteristics; explanation why the mixing occurs ● Wetlands are a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem. They are important because they have high biological productivity Salt Marshes have efficient sediment trapping, dissipate storm energy, threatened by sea level rise. Common in SC. Spartina alterniflora (low grasses), juncus (high grasses) ● Mangroves – formed from tides, cannot tolerate freezing temps. Dissipate storm energy and have high productivity. Red Mangroves are near coast. Black mangroves are in forests next to the coast. White mangroves are kinda further from the coast. Red mangroves are easily identified by their remarkable aboveground prop roots which transport air to their waterlogged belowground roots. Size: In the tropics, red mangroves grow to more than 80 feet in height. ● Coral Reefs are accumulations of dead coral with live coral growing on surface. Distributed in warmer waters between 30 N and 30 S. 30180 feet deep. Warm water. ● Coral Bleaching is the loss of intracellular endosymbionts (Symbiodinium, also known as zooxanthellae) through either expulsion or loss of algal pigmentation. Occurs when water is too warm and when sea level changes. ● Aeolian Processes : Aeolian transportation, deposition and erosion by the wind. Arid lands: infrequent precipitation, high potential evaporation, sharp landscape, mechanical weathering, little vegetation, exotic streams, thin soil profile. As wind speed increases, the potential for sand movement (transportation) increases logarithmically. Major aeolian processes, the order of events (transportation – deposition erosion), and details about each of these processes. Single dominant wind direction is perpendicular to dune crest. Deflation is the removal of small grained particles Abrasion is rockrock interaction. Occurs close to ground and uses shape to predict wind direction.
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