POL 202 study guide for final
POL 202 study guide for final POL 202
Popular in Introduction To Comparative Politics
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Souaid on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POL 202 at University of Miami taught by Elton Skendaj in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
POL 202 STUDY GUIDE Proportional representation: Political representation in which seats are allocated to parties within multimember constituencies, roughly in proportion to the votes each party receives; encourages the election to parliament of more political parties than singlememberdistrict winnertakeall systems Single member plurality: electors cast a vote for one candidate. The candidate receiving the most votes wins most commonly used in the US Patrimonial state: the system of government in which the ruler treats the state as his personal property Clientalism: the practice by which a particular group receives disproportionate policy benefits or political favors from a political patron, usually at the expense of the large society or patron offers resources in return for services Totalitarianism: state attempts to exercise total control over all aspects of public and private life, including the economy, culture, education, and social organizations, through an integrated system of ideological, economic, and political control Collectivization: removal of agricultural land from private ownership and organized into large state and collective farms Import substituting industrialization (ISI): strategy for industrialization based on domestic manufacture of previously imported goods to satisfy domestic market demands o Economic nationalism: rely on the domestic market rather than external markets as the engine of growth o Strong emphasis on the role of the state in “nurturing” infant industries through subsidies, public ownership, tariffs, and other forms of protection o Problems Rapid short term growth but long term distortion Heavy state spending to subsidize inefficient manufacturing sector Overvalue exchange rates to keep imported capital goods cheap Weaken export growth Foreign exchange bottleneck Export led industrialization: a trade and economic policy aiming to speed up the industrialization process of a country by exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage o Continued ISI in the domestic market but stateled push to export manufactured goods to the west Agroexport model o Export primary goods o Import manufactured goods o Emphasis on economic liberalism: free trade, limited government, reliance on the market and the private sector as the engines for economic growth o Problems Highly dependent on external market forces Declining terms of trade relative to manufactured goods Limited gains for technological innovation Coup d’etat: forceful, extraconstitutional action resulting in removal of an existing government NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement 1994, treaty among the US, Mexico, and Canada that largely eliminated trade barriers among the three nations and established procedures to resolve trade disputes Command economy: government controlled production and distribution of goods and services RUSSIA/ SOVIET UNION Tsarist patrimonial state: autocratic system headed by the tsar until 1917 which ruled country and land Bolshevik revolution o Bolsheviks were Marxists o Believed revolution reflected political interests of the working class (proletariat), although most leaders were intelligentsia o “Land, peace, bread” o Introduced communism o Started international isolation o Strategy based on democratic centralism and the vanguard party Democratic centralism: hierarchical party structure with leaders elected from below and strict implementation of party policy Vanguard party: political party that claims to operate in the “true” interests of the group or class that it purports to represent, even if this understanding doesn’t correspond to the expressed interests of the group itself Stalin’s terror: brought changes to every aspect of soviet life, collectivization, party subject to personal whims of Stalin and the secret police, citizen and economy were isolated from the outside world, joined the Allied powers in the Great Patriotic War, and destroyed initiative and participation Collectivization: brought into effect by Stalin, collectivization of farms to prevent emergence of capitalist class, private ownership transformed into large state and collective farms, resulted in famine and death, people were uprooted from countryside to urban industrial life Industrialization: rapid industrialization with the soviet model of market reform Gorbachev (1985): reform program focused on economic growth and political renewal without undermining the communist party o Perestroika (economic restructuring): decentralization and rationalization of economic structures o Glasnost (openness): easing of controls on public debate o Limited democratization and “new thinking” o Temporarily removed form power in 1991coup d’état Collapse of the USSR o Boris Yeltsin elected by direct popular vote in 1991 o Russian federation became independent and Yeltsin proclaimed commitment to western style democracy and market reform o Yeltsin disbanded the parliament o Chechnya independence and financial crisis of 1998 caused Yeltsin to nominate Putin as prime minister Market reform under Yeltsin o Radical market reforms under Yeltsin Market reform: a strategy of economic transformation that reduces the role of state in managing the economy and increases role of market forces o Four pillars to program: Lifting price controls Encouraging small private businesses and entrepreneurs Privatizing most stateowned businesses Opening the economy to international influences o Privatizing state industries, known as insider privatization. Insider privatization—transformation of formerly stateowned enterprises into jointstock companies or private enterprises in which majority control is in the hands of employees and/or managers. o First stage of privatization created jointstock companies. Jointstock companies—a business firm whose capital is divided into shares that can be led by individuals, groups of individuals, of governmental units. o Citizens were issued a privatization voucher. Privatization voucher—certificate to be used to purchase shares in state enterprises undergoing privatization Soft authoritarianism under Putin o A system of political control in which a combination of formal and informal mechanisms assure the dominance of a ruling group or dominant party, despite the existence of some forms of political competition and expression of political opposition Sovereign democracy: adaptation of democracy to Russian traditions and not western traditions, stressed by Putin State capture: the ability of firms to systematically turn state regulations to their advantage through payoffs or other benefits offered to state officials Restrictions on the role of interest groups in Russia: The rise of special interest organizations gave people the means to mobilize and play a role in the democratic process. While groups such as trade unions formed to represent the needs of the working classes, professional organizations were also prominent Elections in the Russian Duma: o Lower house chosen through proportional representation o Elections at least every four years o Factions unite deputies, same or allied parties o Council (10 members) and committees (32) o Elects own speaker (or chair) o Demographic of population not fully reflected MEXICO Constitution: o Established a formal set of political instiutions and guaranteed citizens a range of progressive social and economic rights o Agrarian reform, social security, right to organize in unions, minimum wage, an eight hour work day, profit sharing for workers, universal secular education, and adult male suffrage (didn’t provide women’s suffrage) o Only Mexican citizens or the government could own land or rights to water and other natural resources o Limited power of the Roman Catholic Church o Three branches with checks and balances President’s formal powers: o Initiate legislation o Lead foreign policy o Create agencies Sexenio: six year administration of Mexican president, governors, and senators PRI: Institutional Revolutionary Party founded by coalition of political elites who preferred compromise to violence o Party organization based on corporate representation pf class until the 1990s o Functioned through extended networks that distributes public resources to activists, who controlled local votes Ambitious developed networks of patrons to whom they delivered votes from clients, who received public resources Power was centralized and sectors responded to elites rather than members o The only party that has a presence in every region of the country but less prevalent since 1988 Clientalism: patron offers resources in return for support and services o Leaders developed patronage machine and used organizations in return for political favors CHINA Mao Zedong (19491976) o Communist party seen as social reformers, patriotic fighters o Mao and party redistributed the land, increased agricultural production, drove to eliminate opium addiction and prostitution, and created national laws to enhance the status of women o Created a centrally planned economy: An economic system in which the state directs the economy through a series of bureaucratic plans for the production and distribution of goods and services. The government, rather than the market, is the major influence on the economy. Also called a command economy. o Collectivized the economy o Great Leap Forward: Mao’s discontent with the People’s Republic of China Utopian effort to accelerate economic development and move towards true communism Irrational policies, wasted resources, lack of incentives for hard work, and bad weather led to famine o Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: ideological crusade to restore Mao’s vision of socialism and communism Political purification through class struggle Created red guards to support him and attack anyone betraying Mao Zedong Thought Cultural Revolution under Mao o Cultural Revolution first phase (1966–1969) Red Guard rampage Destroyed cultural artifacts as symbols of China’s imperial past. Harassed, tortured, killed those accused of being class enemies o Cultural Revolution second phase (1969–1971) People’s Liberation Army to restore political order Red Guards sent to countryside. o Cultural Revolution final phase (1972–1976) Factional conflict over Mao’s successor o 1976: Mao dies. Moderate leaders staged coup d'état, and arrested Gang of Four, marking end of Cultural Revolution. Iron Rice Bowl: Maoist economy which provided guarantees of lifetime employment, income, and basic cradletograve benefits to most urban and rural workers o Reformers believed that such guarantees were costly and poor motivators and so income and employment are no longer guaranteed Collectivization o Occurred under Mao o Agricultural land removed from private ownership and organized into state and collective farms o Achieved economic success o Increased bureaucracy and inequalities persisted Chinese Communist Party Rule: o Communist part states: A type of nationstate in which the Communist Party attempts to exercise a complete monopoly on political power and controls all important state institutions o Characterized by Communist Party domination of all government and social institutions, official MarxistLeninist ideology, state control of economy o Still asserts it is building socialism with goal of egalitarian and classless society o Defines China as “a socialist state under the people’s democratic dictatorship.” o Implies democratic rights and privileges, but gives Communist Party authority to repress opposition to socialism or party Central Committee o Meets annually for a week o Members elected for five year term by National Party Congress Secret ballot but limited choice Composition controlled by top leaders o Significant gathering of party elite Arena for political maneuvering and decision making Transition to market economy: o Command economy Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution Capitalist freestyle market under Deng private businesses (red capitalists) and state owned enterprises) socialist market economy (not fully free market) Socialist Market Economy: Refers to country’s current economic system. It is meant to convey the mix of state control (socialism) and market forces (capitalism) that China is now following in its quest for economic development. The implication is that socialism will promote equality, while the market (especially the profit motive) will encourage people to work hard and foreign companies to invest Socialist democracy: providing democracy for the overwhelming majority of people and suppressing (or exercising dictatorship over) only the enemies of the people. o Chinese Communist Party believes this is better than democracy dominated by wealth. o Based on role of Chinese Communist Party as only ruling party o Not to be confused with social democracy o Representation and participation play important, but limited role Cadre: A person who occupies a position of authority in a communist partystate; cadres may or may not be Communist Party members Mass organizations: Organizations in a communist partystate that represent the interests of a particular social group, such as workers or women but which are controlled by the communist party o AllChina Women’s Federation—women’s advocate from domestic violence to economic rights o AllChina Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU)—individual workers with grievances against management; although first loyalty is to Communist Party Guanxi (connections): play an important role in the policy process. Elections at the subnational level o Elections are used to give legitimacy to th partystate, so people are allowed to participate in the political process under controlled circumstances. Most elections are indirect, and citizens don’t have control over real power, only for lower bodies of government. Direct elections are most common at the village level, and some exist at a township level. MarketLeninism system: a political ideology combining Marxism (the scientific socialist concepts theorized by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels) and Leninism (Vladimir Lenin's theoretical expansions of Marxism which include anti imperialism, democratic centralism, and Vanguardist partybuilding principles) o Adopted by Mao in China to emphasize the roles of peasants in revolution Religion in China: cultural and ethnic homogeneity have prevented widespread communal violence NIGERIA o British colonial rule: Lasted from 18601945, and British colonization for trade deepened the extraction of natural resources and exploitation of Nigerian labor. Political and economic systems were formed by colonialism. o Indirect rule: Describes the British style of colonialism in Nigeria in which local traditional rulers and political structures were used to hel support the colonial governing structure. Allowed traditional structures to remain, and was used to govern centralized monarchies. o Haphazard boundaries: British divided Nigeria into a federation of three regions with their own elected governments in 1954, with one major ethnic group dominating each region. o Contribution to ethnic politics: Strengthened collective identity by fostering political contribution. Also played off ethnic and social division to prevent resistance through repressive tactics. Ethnicity was used to mobilize support and pursue competition, and promoted a political agenda by the elites. o Clientelism in Nigeria: Clientelism occurs when a powerful patron offers resources in return for support and services, and has been a source of conflict between the north and south, as well as ethnic groups. These divisions are made clearer through clientelism, corruption, and unstable authoritarian governments. o Ethnicity: primary form of political identity, and ethnicity provides both personal and business connections o Prebendalism: Disbursing of public offices and state rents to one’s ethnic clients. Because of this, a stable democracy is nearly impossible, and this pattern justifies the pursuit and use of public office for personal benefit of the officeholder and his clients. o Oil curse in Nigerian economy: 1970s oil boom allowed Nigeria to increase education, defense, and infrastructure expenditures, and the import of capital and goods increased sevenfold. But, this oil wealth increased corruption. While it generated large amounts of income, it also became a source of external dependence. o Weak political and economic institutions: Military rule left an underdeveloped executive branch, and a weak legislature and judiciary. These deteriorating political institutions made the country a center for international drug trafficking and commercial fraud. The economy is dependent on imports, oil revenues, sparse external loans, and aid. o Military rule: Military rule in Nigeria lasted from 1966 to 1979 as a consequence of ethnic violence and a civil war occurred under the militaryled government who defeated Biafra. After the war, there was a policy of national reconciliation, but military elite were unwilling to relinquish their power, and ultimately were overthrown in 1975 and the Second Republic emerged. o rotation of political offices: Demands for ethnic rotation of president built on “federal character” o Federal character: Federal structure, with states able to enact their own laws. Each state is dependent on the federal government. Military rule left an authoritarian political culture, with centralized economic and political control due to oil wealth. o National question in the multiethnic society: how is the country ti be governed given its great diversity? o Executive dominance of the legislature: Nigerian legislatures have commonly but sidelined or subservient to the executive branch. Fraud, manipulation, and military interference have marked party and electoral systems. Only control legislature has over funds is the right to pass budget. o Nigerian participation in peacekeeping exercises: Potential political and economic giant. Participates in peacekeeping efforts through both the UN and the African Union. o Rents: revenues channeled through the government, which are abovemarket returns to a factor of production. The purist of economic rents is profit seeking that takes the form of nonproductive economic activity. o Political parties: They are elite centered, have no ideological basis & clientelist. Parties are associated with ethnic groups, with one party per dominant ethnic group. Parties are more attentive to their ethnic groups than the development of Nigeria. Currently in the Fourth Republic, parties are primarily alliances based on convenience with the sole purpose of gaining power. They are now more multiethnic, and foster a climate of compromise. IN CLASS REVIEW o Agroexport: o Used in Latin American countries o Price of your product goes down so you get less growth o Usually begin using ISI to encourage growth o China: export led model
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