Review for Exam 3
Review for Exam 3 NTDT 10003
Popular in Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Dority in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
NTDT 10003 Contemporary Issues in Nutrition Exam 3 Review Spring 2016 Bring a pencil and a calculator. You will NOT be allowed to use your cell phone as a calculator. A scantron will be provided to you. Proteins (Vegetarian Diets Only) Vegetarian diets – pros and cons (Know the types of vegetarian diets Table 62 in your notes) Goals: obtain neither too few nor too many calories Obtain adequate quantities of complete protein Obtain the needed vitamins and minerals Pros: vegetarian protein foods are higher in fiber, richer in vitamins and minerals, and lower in fat compared to meals if done correctly, lower rates of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity more likely to be at desirable weight, lower cholesterol levels, and lower blood pressure Types Lactovegetarian Milk and milk products are included Meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs are excluded Lactoovovegetarian Milk and milk products and eggs included Meat, poultry, seafood excluded Ovovegetarian Eggs are included Milk, milk products, meat, seafood excluded Strict vegetarian/ vegan All animal foods excluded Macrobiotic diet Extremely restrictive diet based on metaphysical beliefs and consisting mostly of legumes, whole grains, and certain vegetables Semivegetarian Some but not all animal products Vitamins and Minerals What are vitamins? What is the difference between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins? Vitamin: potent, essential compound that performs carious bodily functions that promote growth and reproduction and maintenance of health Discovered 100 years ago Organic and contains carbon Do not provide calories (energy) Water – soluble B vitamins : thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin b6, folate, vitamin b12, biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin Found in watery components of food Fragile in foods – can be washed out or destroyed easily Body excretes excess if blood levels rise to high, low risk of toxicity Only short term storage supply available – deficiency symptoms appear quickly To minimize water soluble vitamin loss Refrigerate fruits and vegetables (degradation) store fruits and veggies that have been cut in airtight wrappers (oxidation) microwave or steam veg in small amounts of water and then use that water for soups or casseroles avoid high temps and long cooking time work as co enzymes and assist enzymes in doing their metabolic work Fat – soluble vitamins A, D, E, K Vitamins to know water soluble folate conenzyme for the synthesis of DNA and formation of red blood cells folate deficiency causes anemia (blood is unable to deliver oxygen to cells deficiency symptoms: fatigue, diarrhea, irritability, forgetfulness, headache, lack of appetite higher risk of deficiency during growth helps prevent neural tube defects during pregnancy spina bifida: incomplete closing of bony casing around the spinal cord which leads to partial paralysis anencephaly: major parts of the human brain are missing found in fresh, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and seeds easily lost when foods are overcooked, canned, or dehydrated adult DRI (RDA) is 400mcg FDA mandated that all grain products are enriched in folate Vitamin b12 Important in the protection of nerve fibers Works closely with folate to produce red blood cells Deficiency: folate unable to build red blood cells = anemia High levels of folate mask a b12 deficiency – nerve paralysis and damage Found in aminol foods: milk, meat, cheese, eggs At risk for deficiency: vegetarians ,people with intrinsic factor, elderly who are not able to produce stomach acid (atrophic gastritis) Vitamin C Required for protection of collage (protein foundation material for bones teeth skin and tendons) May fight chronic disease by functioning as an antioxidant (prevent damage to the body as a result of chemical reaction that involve the use of oxygen) Free radical: highly toxic compounds created as a result of chemical reactions that involve oxygen Can it cure the common cold? – placebo effect Found in oranges, citrus fruits, broccoli, cantaloupe, strawberries A single serving of any of these foods provides half the DRI for vitamin C Deficiencies are unlikely except in infants who are not given a source of vitamin C or in children or elderly who do not eat enough fruits and vegetables Fat soluble vitamins Found in fats and oils of foods Stable in foods Stored in liver and body fats Regular intake recommended Megadoses can build up to toxic levels: dose of the or more times the amount normally recommended Deficiency symptoms develop slowly Vitamin A Helps maintain epithelial tissue: cells that form the outer surface of the body and line the body cavities and principal passageways Also involved in production of sperm, normal development of fetuses, immune response, hearing, taste and growth Deficiency leads to night blindness 1 years worth of vitamin A can be stored in the body (90% in the liver) Deficiency will not develop until stores are depleted Rarely seen in developed countries; serious problem in developing countries Toxicity – joint pain, dryness of skin, hair loss, irritability, fatigue, headaches, weakness, nausea, liver damage Hazard in vitamin A supplements: little risk of hazard in beta carotene supplements Beta carotene = orange colored pigment found in plants and converts to vitamin A Converts slowly to vitamin A so that excess amounts are not stored as vitamin A but stored in fat deposits instead Member of carotenoid family Carotenoids: pigment found in foods that have antioxidant properties Bright green, yellow, orange, and red fruits and vegies Milk, cheese, butter, eggs, liver Vitamin D Major role in bone making / assistance Assists in absorption of dietary calcium Makes calcium and phosphorus available in the blood to be deposited as the bones harden Body can synthesize it with the help of sunlight, regardless of dietary intake Liver uses cholesterol to make vitamin D precursor – converted to vitamin D by sun = altered by liver and kidneys to active form of vitamin D Disease that affect the liver or kidneys may lead to one deterioration Can get vitamin D from sunlight or diet ( fish, eggs, liver, milk) Sun exposure for 515 minutes on face, hands, and arms several times a week is usually enough Vitamin D deficiency: osteomalacia occurs in adults, bones become soft, porous, weak, bowed legs and curved spine Rickets: bone softening in children Know the vitamins discussed in class, including functions, food sources, deficiency diseases/symptoms (if any), toxicity symptoms (if any). Described above Explain the link between B vitamins and heart disease. Low intake of folate, b12, and b6 are linked to risk of heart disease because of the increase of homocysteine Chemical that is toxic to the blood vessels of the hart Increase in blood clot formation and increase in damage to arterial walls May be toxic for brain tissue and brain cognitive ability What are minerals? Inorganic compounds found naturally in the earth’s crust Amount of mineral in a food depends on what region that food was grown in We still have to consume the minerals to make things in our boy Minerals are a part of structural components in our body Know the minerals discussed in class, including functions, food sources, deficiency diseases/symptoms (if any), toxicity symptoms (if any). Major vs trace Major minerals: an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts greater than 5 grams – needed in large amounts in diet Trace minerals: an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts less than 5 grams – needed in smaller amounts in diet Calcium Most abundant mineral in the body 99% of body calcium’s is in bones Remaining 1% responsible for transmission of nerve impulses essential for muscle contractions, maintenance of blood pressure, blood clotting, and works as cofactor for many enzymes Calcium deficit during growing years and adulthood contributes to gradual bone loss or osteoporosis Increase in protein = increase in calcium excretion Found in milk and milk products, green vegetables, few fish, and shellfish Phosphorous Second most abundant in body 85% bound with calcium in bone and teeth Part of DNA and RNA Many enzymes and the B vitamins become active only when a phosphate group is attached Activator to allow things to happen in body We can get it from pretty much any good Pb and chocolate are high in phosphorous Extra phosphorous in body = body tries to find calcium to balance it out Calcium is found in bones – bones become weak and soft Calcium and phosphorous harden and form little crystal like structures under the skin – itches Iron Body oxygen carrier when bound to hemoglobin (protein in RBC) Deficiency = iron deficiency anemia – weakness, tiredness, headaches, increased sensitivity to cold, caused by malnutrition or blood loss Iron overload Toxic to tissue (liver) Most common causes: hemochromatosis Meats, poultry, fish Processed grains are enriched with iron Iron can be obtained from using iron cookware Heme iron vs nonheme iron – heme is more readily absorbed Vitamin c promotes iron absorption Tannins (tea, coffee) can interfere with absorption Iodine Part of thyroid hormones – regulate body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction and growth Amount of iodine in foods reflects the amounts present in the soil Iodized salt introduced to prevent deficiencies – still where we get most of our iodine Cretinism = sever mental and physical retardation of an infant caused by iodine deficiency during pregnancy Goiter = enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency What are phytochemicals? What do they do in the body? In what form should phytochemicals be ingested and why? Phytochemicals = nonnutritive substances found in plants that possess health protective benefits Act as antioxidants, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, prevent cataracts, slowing or reversing certain cancers, lower risk of osteoporosis What are the two phytochemicals discussed in class? What benefit(s) do they provide? What foods are they found in? Lycopene Found in tomato products May help reduce risk of prostate and other cancers Tannins Found in grapes, red and white wine, tea, and coffee Act as antioxidants May inhibit enzymes that activate cataracts Phytochemicals in supplements are less effective than in whole foods Absorption, metabolism, distribution and function of phytochemicals depends on the combo of 1 phytochemical with others Best to follow mypyramid guidelines for fruit and veggie intake, plus whole grains How much do we need? Us standard: DRIs RDA: avg amount of nutrient that is sufficient to meet needs of nearly all (97%98%) healthy individuals of a specific age or gender AI: adequate intake for individuals where there is note sufficient research to calculate RDA UL: max amount that is unlikely to pose risk of adverse health effects in healthy people when consumed on a daily basis What are the key vitamins and minerals fortified in foods in the US? Enriched grains have a lot of b vitamins and iron added in What are the best foods to consume to meet the DRI for vitamins and minerals? Do not memorize the specific nutrients found in each food category of MyPlate, but know the general concepts discussed in class. Grains, cereals, margarine, milk and dairy Veggies, fruits, grains, milk, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, nuts, etc Vitamin d is commonly added to food Iron, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, folic acid, calcium, vitamin a and d What are functional foods? Do not memorize the specific functional foods discussed in class. Dietary supplements used by more than 50% of adult population Deficiency diseases are rare Functional foods: foods that provide additional physiological and psychological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs OJ – contains 35% of DV for calcium and 25% of DV for vitamin D per serving Diet coke plus – provides 15% DV for niacin, b6 and b12, and 10% DV zinc and magnesium per 8oz serving Alcohol How many calories does alcohol provide per gram? (Do not memorize the calorie content of specific alcoholic beverages.) 7cal / g but not a nutrient Proof = two times the percentage of alcohol Where is alcohol absorbed and metabolized in the body? How does alcohol break down in the body? What happens to the alcohol as it is waiting to be broken down? Not stored in body; stored as fat No alcohol is absorbed in the mouth and esophagus Some alcohol is absorbed in the mouth and esophagus Some alcohol absorption takes place in stomach (about 20%) Upper small intestine is the primary site of absorption (80%) Alcohol is absorbed intact and then broken down Alcohol dehydrogenase: enzyme in liver is responsible for breaking down alcohol Alcohol – liver – dehydrogenase – acetylaldehyde +h20 – acetone – CO2 and H2O Until all alcohol has been metabolized in liver, floats in body, affecting rain and other tissues Almost all EtOH is metabolized by liver (some leaves via lungs or via kidneys then urine also feces, breast milk, and saliva Avg person can eliminate .5oz EtOH per hour What is difference between how men and women metabolize alcohol? Dehydrogenase factor – varying amounts If someone has more of this enzyme, BAS is lower Women have higher BAC after consuming same amount as men Women absorb 30% more alcohol intact Smaller amounts of water in womens bodes = increase BAC Dehydrogenase is 40% less active in stomach of women Men tend to expire in lungs and sweats more than women How does alcohol affect the body? What parts of the brain are affected and how? First voluntary muscles are affected then involuntary (heart respiration) Next most sensitive: voluntary muscle control and emotiongoverning centers (sensory area) Last to be affected: respiration and heart control What is the difference between functional and metabolic tolerance? What are the results of developing these tolerances? Tolerance: the decrease of effectiveness of a drug after a period of prolonged or heavy use Metabolic tolerance: with continued exposure, alcohol is metabolized at a higher rate Long term exposure to alcohol – increase to counteract the inhibitory effects of alcohol exposure Increased nerve activity helps chronic alcohol users function normally when they have a higher BAC Functional tolerance: actual change in sensitivity of drug Normal and chemical and electrical functions of the nerve cells increase to counteract the inhibitory effects of alcohol exposure Increased nerve activity helps chronic alcohol users function normally when they have a higher BAC What are the health benefits and health risks of drinking alcohol (as discussed in class)? Light alcohol use – has little impact on nutritional status of someone in good health except possible weight gain Heavy alcohol use: decease protein synthesis in cells, inflammation of stomach cells, intestines will decrease in absorption of thiamin, folate, b12, liver will decrease in activation of vitamin D and decrease in bile production, kidneys will excrete vitamins Benefits: research shows death rates lowest among those who report consuming one drink a day, moderate intake may decrease chance of heart disease, increase in HDL inhibits blood clotting, gallstones and type 2 diabetes are less likely to occur in moderate drinkers Health Risks Risks outweigh any benefits that may come later in life Accidents: poor judgement, slow reflexes, violence Drug interactions: alcohol and other meds may compete with each other for metabolism in liver Night blindness: alcohol blocks formation of retinal (night vision) Breast cancer: increased risk for women Other cancers: throat, esophageal, colon cancer Can erode and cause cell damage Liver damage – hepatitis and cirrhosis High blood pressure and stroke Pancreatitis GI symptoms: stomach lining irritation, impaired intestinal enzymes/ transport symptoms Brain damage/ decrease in cells Decreased sex hormone production Anemia: poor nutrition as a result of excessive alcohol, decreases iron and vitamin B Emotional / social problems – anxiety, depression, domestic violence Weight Management (May revise this section after class April 18) Know the difference between overweight, underweight, and obesity. What are the problems associated with all three? Overweight : weight between 10% to 20% above the desirable weight for height, or a BMI of 25 to 29.9 Obesity: weight 20% or more above the desirable weight for height, BMI greater than 30 Underweight : 10% or more below desirable weight for height, BMI less than 18.5 Healthy : BMI 18.524.9 Extreme Obese : BMI >40 Be able to calculate Body Mass Index and know the clinical guidelines for BMI. Divide weight by square of height Weight (kg) / height (m2) (Weight (lbs) / height (in2)) x 703 2.2lb = 1kg 1inch = 2.54cm, 1cm = .01m How does body fat distribution play a role in risk for disease? Know how to calculate waistto hip ratio. Central fat is at more risk for disease What are the different ways to measure body fat and how do they work? Hydrostatic (underwater weighing) Less a person weighs underwater compared to the persons out of water weight, the greater proportion og body fat Skinfold test – thickness of a fold of skin is measured using a caliper Bioelectrical impedance – measures how quickly electrical current is conducted through the body How do you use waist circumference, waisttohip ratios, and total body fat percentage to determine disease risk? Men >40inches Women >35 inches Waist to hip ratio: men>1, women>.8 How many calories make up 1 lb of fat? 3500 calories Name and describe the 3 components of energy expenditure. Basal (resting) metabolic rate (60%65) rate body expends energy to support vital functions at rest, heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure Diet induced thermogenesis (5%10%) Physical activity (25%35%) What factors affect BMR (increase and decrease)? Increase: caffeine, fever, growth, height, high thyroid hormone, male gender, muscle, smoking, stress Decrease: age, low thyroid hormone, reduced energy intake Describe the 2 causes of obesity related to genetics (as discussed in class). Fat cell theory Environment / bad eating behavior What happens in our body when we overeat and fast? Overeat Carbs turn to glucose turn to liver and muscle glycogen stores Fat turns to fatty acis turns to body fat stores Protein turns to amino acids turns to fat after losing nitrogen in urine Fasting Liver and muscle glycogen stores – glucose – energy
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