SCOM 121- Study guide for Exam 2!
SCOM 121- Study guide for Exam 2! SCOM 121 0003
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gab Calderon on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 254 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Britt Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 3, 6, and 15 will also be tested on the final and the study guide questions below are taken directly from the Final Study Guide.) Chapter 3: Culture and Gender 1. Define what culture is. • Cultural values impact our communication with others • Culture- learned set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are shared by an identifiable, large group of people with a common history. 2. Explain how culture influences communication. 3. Define ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, and multiculturalism. Ethnocentrism- The notion that ones own cultures is superior to any other. The way we do things is good and the different way others do things is not so good. (Greek meaning- our nation is the center of all things) Ethnocentrism is a learned belief. There are differences in teaching and learning. China- teachers read to students and student stay quiet unless called upon. Israeli- students wander around classroom and talk during lessons. America- is a range of the two. Core value differences can easily serve as a bed rock foundation for ethnocentrism Cultural relativism- views cultures as merely difference, not deficient. We must respect all cultures and their inherent right to engage in practices, rituals and communication behaviors that maybe appear strange. Multiculturalism- social intellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and as equals. Multiculturalism incorporates the 5 ethical standards: honesty, respect, fairness, choice and responsibility. 4. Explain the major differences between low-context and high-context communication styles. Direct-low context (don’t need much context to understand) INDIVIDUALIST Indirect- high context (need to know the context to interpret) COLLECTIVIST 5. Explain the major differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Individualist culture- has a “me” consciousness. People are motivated by their own preferences, needs and goals. SELF! Decision making is based on what is best for themselves. Emphasize on a rational assessment of the benefits and drawbacks of relationships. Collectivist culture- has a “we” consciousness. These people downplay personal goals in favor of advancing the goals of a valued group. 6. Explain the major differences between low-power distance and high power-distance cultures. High PD- Vertical- maintain status difference and can’t challenge authority, status controls the communication. Low PD- horizontal- equal power sharing, little attention to differences in status, authority can be challenged, communication occurs across perceived differences. 7. Explain the major differences between feminine and masculine cultures. Gender- social role behavior Gender roles Gender roles are rigid in male culture (girls do this men do this) Stereotypical gender traits Feminine cultures- ppl can take diff. roles Fluid feminine Rigid masculine 8. How does culture influence nonverbal communication? 1 Chapter 6: Listening to Others 9. Define listening by its basic elements (comprehending, retaining, and responding). Comprehending- Shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction. Understand speech sounds/phonemes. Speech segmentation (listeners must be able to discern breaks between recognizable words) Ex: I scream, Ice cream Hearing- physiological process of registering sound waves as they hit the eardrum. Particular sounds have no meaning until we construct meaning for them. Retaining- Memory is essential to listening. Information bulimia- cramming info into short-term memory and forgetting it before it moves into long-term memory. Forgetting curve- rate at which we no longer retain information in our memory. (Forget Spanish 3 years after taking it in high school and college.) Remembering everything isn’t a good thing either because it effects relationships You forget because you don’t pay enough attention, you don’t properly organize the information you hear, don’t attach information to any meaningful concept. Responding Without a response you don’t know if the listener is actually listening Nonverbal listeners- make eye contact and use facial expressions Verbal listeners- respond to questions. 10. Define the three types of listening (informational, critical and empathic). Informational Goal Comprehend ideas and info Helpful aid asking good questions Bad habits response shift and interrupting, glazing over, pseudo listening (not really listening just nodding), competitive listening (like to make it about us and us winning) Appropriate response focused response Critical Goal Evaluate ideas and info Assumption cant take info at face value (the an agenda or reason why they want me to understand them) Appropriate response Skepticism (ill believe if you prove it) Bad habits Empathic Goal Understand how someone feels and provide support. Listen to what is most important to speaker Assumption feelings are just as important as facts Appropriate response Support/Personcenteredness (focus on whole message) Bad habits responding to content only not the underlying emotion, interpreting from our fame, offering advice 11. Explain the problems that can interfere with competent informational listening (conversational narcissism, competitive interrupting, glazing over, pseudo-listening, and ambushing). Conversational Narcissism- tendency of listeners “to turn the topics of ordinary conversations to themselves without showing sustained interest in others’ topics” 2 Competitive interrupting- occurs when we dominate the conversation by seizing the floor from others who are speaking. Interrupting- occurs when one person stops speaking when another starts speaking. Glazing over- occurs when listener’s attention wanders and daydreaming occurs. Pseudo-listening- when someone pretends to listen Ambushing- when we listen for weaknesses 12. Explain problems that can interfere with competent critical listening (skepticism, true belief, cynicism). Skepticism- process of listening to claims, evaluating evidence and reasoning supporting those claims and drawing conclusions based on probabilities. (annoying nags, always asking for evidence) True belief- willingness to accept claims without solid reasoning or valid evidence and to hold these belief tenaciously even if a googol of contradictory evidence disputes them. (can’t change his mind or won’t change the subject) Cynicism- nay-saying, fault finding and ridiculing. (a feeling that things will pan out for the worst) 13. Describe the listening response styles associated with empathic listening and non- empathic listening. Evaluate response- makes a judgement about the persons conduct. (‘I wouldn’t respond that way”) Advising response- tells people how they should act. Initial reaction. Interpreting response- we express what we think is the underlying meaning of a situation presented to us. Explain the meaning of the situation to another person. (Like why he always embarrasses you in front of your family is because he is social awkward) Content-only response- comprehends the literal meaning of messages from others but doesn’t recognize the feelings that ride piggyback. (Bf doesn’t care about gf’s fears. He just makes her fear increase) Probing response- seeks more information from others b asking questions. Supporting response- expressions of care, concern, affection, and interest, especially during times of stress or upset. Types of s.r: reassurance, agreement, praise, assistance, validating feelings. Understanding response- requires a listener to check his or her perceptions for comprehension of the speakers message or to paraphrase the message to check accuracy. Confirming responses- they enhance the persons self-esteem and confidence. (Chapters 7-9 are not on the final but will be tested on Exam 2) Chapter 7: Power 1. What are the various resources of power? Power resources anything that enables individuals to achieve their goals, assists other to achieve their goals and interferes with the goal attainment of others. Information teachers have info that valuable to students to learn. Priests are the same way. Its power resource because it is restricted to students and laypersons by their limited background and experience. Expertise knows how to use the info wisely and skillfully. It’s a power resource because the person is perceived to have the requisite skills, abilities, knowledge and background to function as a real expert. Also because experts can be considered trustworthy. Legitimate authority someone who is perceived to have a right to direct others’ behavior because of his or her positon, title, role, experience or knowledge. Rewards and punishments bonuses, hiring’s, money, freedom and privacy. Coercive Personal qualities what ppl find attractive is called charism like good looks dynamism, persuasive skills and charm. 3 2. What is different about a communicative understanding of power? 3. What are the differences between dominance, prevention, and empowerment orientations to power? Dominance exercise of power over others. Its competitive, win lose transaction. You either win or lose. (I win, you lose) Prevention power used to thwart the influence of others. When someone tried to dominant you try to prevent the dominance. (you win, I lose) Work against another Empowerment power derived from enhancing the capabilities, choices and influence of individuals and groups. Cooperative & just accomplish task. (we all win) work together 4. What are some verbal and nonverbal indicators of power? What are indicators of less power? Verbal indications of power Speech patterns hedges (Im a little worried that this might not work out), hesitations (well, um, uh shouldn’t we), tag question (dinner is at 6, okay?), disclaimers (you may disagree but…), Excessive politeness (im extremely sorry to interrupt) Males tend to talk more and longer in groups and are verbally aggressive, direct and opinionated. This depends on the topic being talked about obviously. Cultures is an indicator of power Asian want harmony but in west they curse to demand power Nonverbal indications of power Silent treatment Clothing uniforms have power and authority. Touch Eye contact the more powerful person makes more eye contact. Space like bigger office space is high up person. 5. What is assertiveness? Assertiveness research Mutual research Reduces stress & anger Consistency look at leaders for Lack of selfawareness (NV’s play a role) Being assertive ask for what you want/need in a way that keeps in mind others needs and feelings Develop personal power resources Focus on addressing problems and issues, not on people 6. What are some tools we have to achieve power balance? Coalition individuals form temporary alliances to increase their power relative to others. (them verse us) Defiance unambiguous purposeful noncompliance. Refusal to give in to those with greater power. Resistance0 cover, ambiguous noncompliance. Assertiveness ability to communicate full range of your thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill. Mentors are knowledgeable individuals who have achieved some success in their profession or job and who assist people trying to get started in a line of works. Networking another form of empowerment which people with similar backgrounds, skills and goals come together on a fairly regular basis and share information. Chapter 8: Relational Communication 1) What are some things that draw us in to relationships? •Good looks •Similarity (values, beliefs, costumes, faith, education communication style verbal and nonverbal) •Reciprocity •Rewards- exchange 2) What types of behaviors are markers of different stages of relationships? Coming together: Initiating- starting (friendly, approachable) Experimenting- exploring (uncover things about each other) 4 Intensifying- strengthen (want ppl to validate this person good for us, send cute texts) Integrating- merging (beyond just friends and identify as a couple and mix social circles) Bonding- committing (rings and marriage or move in together) Coming apart: Differentiating- separating (claim some space, differences emerge) Circumscribing- limiting (head in the sand, ignore we are having difficulties) Stagnating- repeating (feel like cohabitants rather than couple) Avoiding- evading (avoid and distance) Terminating- ending (negotiating ongoing roles cause you’ll see them in classes after) 3) How are supportive and defensive communication climates different? Defensive communication climates like: Control Strategy/manipulation Neutrality/cold indifference Superiority/shuts out feedback Certainty/unyielding Supportive behaviors: Description Problem orientation spontaneity Empathy Equality Provisionalism- what if feel but not certain 4) What are common relational dialectics and what are strategies to manage these? •Conflict in necessary in relationships and we have to expect to manage difficulties •Openness, closedness - tensions between how much info do I share in this relationship •Connection, autonomy- how much do we want to be identified and connected in everything we do or have own friends and own activities •Predictability, novelty (stability, spontaneity)- how much do I want this relation to be stable and have patterns of regularity and how much do I want unexpected things Chapter 9: Managing Conflict 1. What is conflict? Expressed struggle of interconnected parties who perceive incompatible goals and see the other as being in the way of those goals. 2. What are the five conflict styles? 1. Avoiding (Low to own needs and low to others needs) 2. Accommodating (low in own needs and high in others needs) 3. Competing (High to own needs & low to others needs) EX: We moving closer to my job not yours 4. Collaborating (High to own needs and high to others needs) 5. Compromising (we both get what we want) 3. Why is conflict a valuable way to address conflict and what are key components of collaboration? Best conflict response 1. Avoiding like if someone following us down the street 2. Accommodating doesn’t matter what to eat tonight because there are so many other days to eat where you want 3. Competing it best during salary negotiating 4. Compromising can change over time 5. Collaborating 3 key components: Confrontation recognize and name the problem 5 Integration finding a way to meet all the needs Smoothing repair attempts (recognize what important to other person or when you don’t mean what you said) Chapter 15: Persuasive Speaking 1. Define persuasion. A communication process of converting, modifying or maintaining the attitudes and/or behavior of others. (Attitude- a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object… Example of attitude is the iPhone is better than the Droid) 2. What are the primary dimensions of credibility (competence trustworthiness, dynamism, and composure)? Credibility- judgement made by the perceiver concerning the believability pf a communicator. Competence- audiences’ perception of the speaker’s knowledge and experience on a topic. So basically does the speaker know what they are talking about? Trustworthiness- how truthful or honest we perceive the speaker to be. To increase your trustworthiness you argue against you self-interest like take positon that will cost you money. Dynamism- the enthusiasm, energy, and forcefulness exhibited by a speaker. Composure- speakers who are emotionally stable, confident and in control of themselves have a greater influence on their audience. 3. Identify and discuss how the three Aristotelian modes of proof (ethos, logos, and pathos) are used in persuasive speeches. Ethos- good sense, good moral character, and good will. Logos- logic and evidence… Proposition- the primary, overriding claim for a persuasive speech. Define and focus the argument, limit issues to what is relevant and set standard for what should be addressed. Proposition of fact- alleges a truth Proposition of value- calls for a judgement that assesses the worth or merit of an idea, object or practice. (Abortion is immoral) Proposition of policy- significant change from how problems are currently handled. (Smoking should be banned in public places) Always present as many strong arguments as you can Evidence must be a high credible source and must gain attention of audience. Pathos- emotional appeals Emotions that change behavior are pride, sadness, hope, guilt, envy, and shame. Fear appeals- Examples are don’t put that in your mouth and don’t run with scissors. Adults have these like photos of black lungs form smoking. These don’t always work… Audience must feel vulnerable, a clear specific recommendation for avoiding or lessening the fear is important, the recommendation must be perceived as effect, listeners must perceive that they can perform the actions recommended and fear appeals are more persuasive when combined with high-quality arguments. Anger appeals- the intensity of the anger. 6 Anger Activism Model: helps explain the relationship between anger and persuasion. Anger provoke desired behavior when the target audience initially agrees with your persuasive message, the anger produced by your message is intense and your audience members perceive that they can act effectively to address their anger. Emotional appeals arent necessarily unethical because they arent a logical appeal. 4. Identify and discuss how propositions of fact, value, and policy are used in persuasive speeches. Proposition of fact alleges a truth, something we can know to be true or false. (example School uniforms reduce violence in schools. Proposition of value judgement of worth or merit, right or wrong (example volunteering is a way for young people to enact citizenship) Proposition of policy Action should be taken or something needs to be changed (Driving tests should be mandatory every year) 7
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