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Sociology 322 Midterm Study Guide.

by: Lorena Notetaker

Sociology 322 Midterm Study Guide. Soc 322

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Lorena Notetaker

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These are the answers to the study guide given for the midterm exam.
Rick Fraser
Study Guide
sociology, child development
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lorena Notetaker on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 322 at California State University Los Angeles taught by Rick Fraser in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see SOCIALIZATION:CHILDHOOD & ADOL in Sociology at California State University Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 04/14/16
Soc 322 Midterm Exam 1. Children born to malnourished mothers are more likely to low birth weight, poor immune system, infant mortality, growth retardation, 2. Erikson and Bowlby are similar in that both stress that both stress that infants and their pri mary caregivers are biologically predisposed from attachment 3. The embryonic stage is the stage of greatest vulnerability to environmental changes because it is beginning to form through a process called “organogenesis. Organogenesis: the process of organ formation during the first two months of prenatal development. 4. Based on the research about alcohol and pregnancy, the U.S. Surgeon General recommends that women should not drink during pregnancy. 5. Interactions with other people are part of which pr ocess of development? Reciprocal socialization (pag223) 6. When children incorporate new information into their existing schemes, it is called assimilation. However, when children adjust their schemes to fit new information, it is called accommodation. 7. The development of object permanence is important because it means that infants are able to distinguish between yourself and the world. -­‐ Object performance is the understanding that objects continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard , or touched. 8. The typical postpartum period lasts approximately 6 weeks. -­‐ The period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbearing. -­‐ This period lasts for about six weeks, or until her body have completed its adjustment and has returned to a near -prep regnant state. 9. Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby stress that when a child cries in the first year of life, the caregiver shouldn’t respond too much to infant crying in the first year of life. -­‐ They argue that a quick, comforting response to the infant’s cries is an important ingredient in the development of a strong bond between the infant and caregiver. 10. In addition to medical care, prenatal programs usually include comprehensive education, social, and nutritional service . 11. Methamphetamine has been linked with infant mortality, developmental and behavioral problems and low birth weight. 12. Which of the following is TRUE regarding myelination? 13. Approximately 70 of new mothers have "baby blues." 14. A low-birth weight infant weighs less than 5 ½ pounds at birth. 15. Recent research suggests that children born to cocaine -using mothers are likely to have neurological and cognitive deficits. (Page100) 16. The sensorimotor stage las ts from birth to about 2 years of age. (Page 24) 17. Any agent that can cause a birth defect is a (n) teratogen. (97-98) -­‐ Teratogen: is any agent that potentially causes a physical birth defect. -­‐ Teratogens include drugs, incompatible blood types, environnemental polluants, infectious diseases, nutritional defi ciencies, maternal stress, advanced maternal and paternal age, and environmental pollutant. 18. Infants who read emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a given situation are demonstrat ing social refereeing (page 216) 19. At birth, the average American baby weighs 7 ½ pounds and is about 20 inches long. (Page137) 20. Rapid cell division by the zygote begins during the blastocyst. 21. Which theory emphasizes the role of evolution, biolog y and critical or sensitive periods of development? -­‐ Ethology theory stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and it’s characterized by critical sensitive periods. (page 44) 22. Which of the following steps would help to decrease Annie's chance of dying from SIDS? - Infants should sleep in their back to reduce the risk of SIDS. ( Page 143) -­‐ Quit smoking while being pregnant, engage in extensive and eat healthier such vitamin D , (pg108) 23. Psychoanalytic theories emphasize the importance of unconscious thought, but Cognitive emphasize the importance of conscious thought. 24. Proximodistal pattern of growth refers to growth that moves from the center of the center of the body and moves towards the extremities. (Page 137) 25. One's genetic material makes up his or her genotype-a person's genetic heritage; the actual genetic material present in each cell . 26. At 2 years of age, the average North American child is nearly half of his or her adult height. 27. How much maternal weight gain is associated with the best reproductive outcomes? 25 to 35 pounds (page 90) 28. Culture encompasses all learned and shared, explicit or tacit, assumptions, beliefs, knowledge, norms, and values, as well as attitudes, behavior, dress, and language. 29. Carlotta has just been told that her baby is in a breech position. Her doctor will tell her that this is -­‐ The position of the baby within the uterus that causes the buttocks to be first part to emerge from the vagina -­‐ Cesarean delivery needs to be done. -­‐ Cesarean delivery: delivery in which the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision made in abdomen. This is also sometimes referred to a cesarean section 30. Cephalocaudal growth refers to growth that moves f rom the development starting at the top of the body and working its way down, i.e., from the head to the feet. -­‐ Cephalocaudal pattern: The sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top —the head—with physical growth and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom. 31. Marasmus and kwashiorkor are life -threatening conditions that can result from malnutrition. 32. The Zygote later develops into the embryo. 33. Early exposure to violence negatively affects children's development. 34. Language is composed of basic sounds called morphemes. 35. A (n) neuron is a nerve cell that handles information processing. 36. Which of the following occurs when an interpretation of what is sensed has happened? -­‐ Perception: Interpretation of what is sensed . (Chapter 1) 37. Securely attached babies have caregivers who tend to be -­‐ Securely attached babies have caregivers who are sensitive to their signals and are contently available to respond to there infant need 38. The endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm form during the embryonic period. (Page 85) 39. Ethnicity is rooted in -­‐ Ethnicity: A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language -­‐ Children’s health -­‐ Usual health sources, health professionals, doctor visits, and dental visits. -­‐ English proficiency and health status 40. If a mother is infected with HIV but her infant does not show signs of HIV at birth, then the infant is infected but asymptomatic (not show symptoms) (page 103 41. The developmental period during which a single cell grows into an organism is the prenatal period. 42. Threadlike structures that contain DNA are known as Chromosomes. - Threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA 43. Exposure to teratogens during the fetal period will most likely to stunt growth or to create problems in the way organs function . (Page 98) 44. The birth process occurs in 3 stage(s). 45. The person who is most often connected with the introduction of the theory of by natural selection was Charles Darwin (chapter 2) 46. Which of the following is associated with breastfeeding? (Lecture power point) -­‐ Fewer gastrointestinal infections -­‐ Lower respiratory tract infections -­‐ Reduces effects of asthma in first 3 months -­‐ Reduce risk of skin inflammation -­‐ May lessen likelihood of obesity -­‐ Lowers risk of childhood and adult diabetes -­‐ Less risk of experiencing SI DS -­‐ Claims of no link to allergy prevention -­‐ Claims of no links to children’s cognitive development and cardiovascular system -­‐ There is lower incidence of breast cancer in women who breast feed their infants -­‐ Reduction in ovarian cancer in women who breast fee d their infants -­‐ Small reduction in type 2 diabetes in women who breast feed their infants 47. When parents arrange a situation so that they can take turns with their child in an effort to teach the child a certain behavior or skill, the parents are engaging in ? 48. Autonomy in Erikson's theory is like self-development/separation in Margaret Mahler's theory of independence and development of the self. (Page 213) -­‐ Mahler argues that the child goes through a separation and an individual process. -­‐ Separation: involves the infant’s movement away from the mother. -­‐ Individuation: involves the development of ones self. -­‐ Both give importance to the second year of life + Self -development and independence. -­‐ Erikson, autonomy builds the infant’s mental and motor abiliti es develop; they feel pride in their accomplishment and it is important that there parents recognize those accomplishments 49. For most people, speech and language are localized in the left hemisphere. 50. Braxton Hicks contractions (page 112) - Irregular contractions that begin in early pregnancy and intensify as full term approaches 51. The assumption that the child's mind is a "blank tablet" at birth that is "written on" by experiences represents which philosophical view? Tabula Rasa 52. The germinal period is approximately 2 weeks long. (Chapter 2) 53. What should pregnant women know about multiple X -ray exams and high doses of radiation? (Page 102) -­‐ Radiation can cause gene mutation (an abrupt, permanent change In the DNA) -­‐ X-ray radiation also can affect the developing embryo or fetus, especially during the first several weeks after the conception when women do not know they are pregnant. -­‐ Possible effects include microcephaly (an abnormally small brain), mental retardation, and leukemia -­‐ Should weigh the risk of an X-ray when actual or potential pregnancy involved 54. The zygote attaches to the wall of the uterine wall in the process called implantation. 55. Reflexes are built-in reactions to stimuli that govern the newborn’s movements, which are au tomatic and beyond the newborns control. 56. Caregiver-infant games such as peek-a-boo teach the infant social rules, such as turn taking. Such games are examples of mutual gaze. 57. Cigarette smoking by pregnant women has been associated with (100) -­‐ Influence prenatal development, birth, and postnatal development. -­‐ Preterm births and low birth weights, fetal and neonatal deaths, and respiratory problems and sudden infant syndrome are more common among the offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. -­‐ Tabaco is a key contributor to Intrauterine (growth within the womb) growth retardation -­‐ Smoking linked to nicotine withdrawal symptoms in newborn babies. -­‐ Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been identified as a risk factor for the development of atten tion deficit hyperactivity disorder in offspring. -­‐ Smoking during pregnancy was linked to a modest increase In risk of childhood -Hodgkin lymphoma 58. The Strange Situation test is an observational measure of infant attachment. (Lecture) 59. According to proximodistal growth pattern, which of the following would develop the earliest? -­‐ Proximodistal pattern: the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves towards the extremities. -­‐ Example: infants control the muscles of their trunk and arms before they control their hands and fingers, and they use their whole hands before they can control several fingers. -­‐ Example: Polly learning to grab the objects with her whole hands before learning to pick them up with her fingers. 60. By the age of 6 or 7 months most infants are able to sit independently (page 152) 61. By 18-24 months of age, most children can kick a ball while standing still. (Page 153) 62. The period extending from birth to 18 to 24 months is called infancy. (Lecture) 63. In the developing world, low birthweight stems mainly from the mothers poor health and nutrient. (Page 121). 64. The Apgar scale rates infant responses in the areas of heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and body color. (Page 118) 65. Which of the following occurs when information contacts the body's receptors? Sensation 66. Piaget's basic research method was was schemas, actions or mental representation that organize knowledge such as assimilation and accommodation. 67. The myelin sheath is a layer of fat cells that insulates axons and helps electrical signals travel faster down the axon in neurons . (Page 138) 68. Vygotsky (sociocultural c ognitive theory) believed that knowledge is situated and collaborative. 69. Observations of fathers and their infants suggest that father’s ability to act as sensitively as mothers with their infants. 70. Approximately what percentage of new mothers expe rience postpartum depression? (Page 126) -­‐ Estimates indicate that 10 to 14 percent of new mothers experience postpartum depression. -­‐ Postpartum depression: involves a major depressive episode that typically occurs about four weeks after delivery. -­‐ Women with postpartum depression have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that for at least two weeks they have trouble coping with their daily task. 71. SIDS is a condition that occurs while infants are sleeping, usually occurs during night, and die suddenly without apparent cause. (Page 143) 72. The fetal period begins 2 months after conception and lasts for 7 months, on average. 73. Contractions occur during the first stage of the birth process in order to (page 113) -­‐ To stretch the cervix and open -­‐ Dilate the cervix to an opening of 4 inches. 74. Anoxia is when the newborn has an insufficient supply of oxygen. (page118) -­‐ If the delivery process takes too long the baby can develop anoxia. 75. A gene -­‐ Is a unit of heredity -­‐ A short segment of D NA -­‐ Is the smallest entity 76. Legs are to __________ as toes are to __________. 77. At the beginning of the sensorimotor stage, infants are born with simple reflexes and develop complex sensorimotor patterns during infancy. (Page 174) 78. According to Erikson, the first year of life is characterized by the stage of trust versus mistrust. (Page 211) 79. Five-month-old Elizabeth looks up at her mother and smiles. Researchers call this social smiling. 80. By the end of the sensorimotor period, children have developed complex sensorimotor patterns. (Page 174) 81. Behavioral theory believe that scientifically we can study only what can be directly observed and measured. 82. The major activity of the third stage of birthing is expulsion of the placenta, umbili cal cord, and other membranes. (114) -­‐ Afterbirth is the third stage. During this stage, the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled. 83. An infant who shakes a rattle over and over again because he is fascinated by the experi ence is in which sub-stage of sensorimotor thought? Secondary circular reaction (Piaget’s sensorimotor sub -stage) 84. A scheme, according to Piaget's theory, is -­‐ An action or mental representation that organize knowledge . (Page 173) * -­‐ First develop in childhood 85. The highest cause of infant death in the United States is sudden infant death syndrome. 86. Approximately 10-15 % percent of couples in the United States experience infertility. 87. The research on caffeine suggests that the birth weight of newborns to lower birth weight and longer pregnancies to women who consume more than 150 milligrams a day . 88. As more women over the age of 40 have babies, which of the following is most likely to happen? Down syndrome, as well as many other chromosomal ab normalities increases as well 1. Gestational diabetes 2. Pre -eclampsia 3. Miscarriage 4. Preterm delivery 5. Problems with the placenta (placenta previa, placental insufficiency) 6. Stillbirth 89. Emotion is characterized by behavior that expresses the pleasantness or unpleasantness of a person's state or transactions. 90. Jamie was born with facial deformities; defective limbs and is below average in intelligence. Jamie's mother most likely abused alcohol during pregnancy. (Page 99) 91. Gina is pregnant and is a heavy smoker. Her baby is more likely to experience sudden infant death syndrome than the baby of a nonsmoker. (Page 100) -­‐ Since Gina is a heavy smoker, her baby is more likely to experience sudden infant death syndrome than the baby of a nonsmoker. Preterm births and low birth weights, fetal and neonatal deaths, and respiratory problems and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, also known as crib death) are more common among the offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. 92. The leading cause of accidental death among infants over 1 year of age is accidents. 93. Habituation is/are the decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus. 94. Women who drink alcohol, smoke, take medication or have STD’S should not breastfeed their children. 95. Liana wanted to elicit the rooting reflex in her newborn, Paula. To do this she needs to touch baby’s cheek or lip. 96. Emotional regulation is the ability to develops an ability to inhibit, or minimize, the intensity and duration of emotional reactions 97. Which of the following events in fetal growth occurs during the last two months of pregnancy? Fatty tissue develops 98. Most infants learn to walk by 11-14 months. 99. Which theory describes development as primarily u nconscious and heavily colored by emotion? Psychoanalytic theories 100. If Jennifer wants to reduce the risk of having a baby with a birth defect caused by an environmental substance (like drugs or alcohol), she should be most careful to avoid these substa nces during the embryotic period


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