SCOM 121 TEST 2 Study Guide
SCOM 121 TEST 2 Study Guide SCOM 121 0003
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
SCOM Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 3: Culture and Gender 1. Define what culture is. A system of beliefs, values and assumptions about life. 2. Explain how culture influences communication. Your communication should match people’s cultural values. 3. Define ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, and multiculturalism. Ethnocentrism the notion that one’s own culture is superior to any other; the idea that other cultures should be measured by the degree to which they live up to our cultural standards. Cultural relativism view cultures as merely different, not deficient. Multiculturalism socialintellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and as equals. 4. Explain the major differences between lowcontext and highcontext communication styles. A lowcontext communication style is verbally precise, direct and explicit, with little assumption that others will be able to discern what you mean without precise verbal explanation. i.e. when you say what you mean A highcontext communication style uses indirect verbal expression, expecting the listener to read between the lines. i.e. Japanese manager says, “When we say one word, we understand 10, but here (in America) you have to say 10 to understand one.” 5. Explain the major differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Individualistic cultures are lowcontext and masculine gendered. Collectivist cultures are high context feminine gendered. 6. Explain the major differences between lowpower distance and high power distance cultures. Low power distance horizontal, equal power, sharing, little attention to differences in status, and communication occurs across perceived differences. High power distance vertical, status differences, challenging authority is discouraged, status controls communication Airplane example! 7. Explain the major differences between feminine and masculine cultures. A feminine culture exhibits stereotypic feminine traits such as affection, nurturance, sensitivity, compassion, and emotional expressiveness. Masculine cultures exhibit the enhancement of selfesteem by speaking often, controlling the room, and interrupting. 8. How does culture influence nonverbal communication? Different cultures value different ways of communicating, so it is important to understand that not everybody will tend to communicate like you do. Some cultures speak clearly and without beating around the bush, while other cultures will use few words and expect others to get the meaning from that. Remember the airplane example in class. Chapter 6: Listening to Others 9. Define listening by its basic elements (comprehending, retaining, and responding). Comprehension shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction. Retaining keeping the comprehension in your memory Responding Providing feedback 10.Define the three types of listening (informational, critical and empathic). Informational listening the goal is to comprehend the information, and a helpful aid is to ask good questions; respond with a focused response. Critical listening the goal is to evaluate ideas and information, and a helpful aid is to have skepticism. Responds with critiques (or cynicism) Empathetic listening listen from the other point of view; feelings equals the facts; the goal is to understand how someone feels, and a helpful aid is to be personcentered. 11.Explain the problems that can interfere with competent informational listening (conversational narcissism, competitive interrupting, glazing over, pseudolistening, and ambushing). Pseudolistening pretend listening Glazing over listeners’ attention wanders and daydreaming occurs Competitive interrupting occurs when we dominate the conversation by seizing the floor from others who are speaking Conversational narcissism tendency of listeners to turn the topics of ordinary conversation to themselves without showing sustained interest in others’ topics Ambushing occurs when we listen for weaknesses and ignore strengths of a speaker’s message 12.Explain problems that can interfere with competent critical listening (skepticism, true belief, cynicism) Cynicism nay saying, faultfinding, and ridiculing. True belief the willingness to accept claims without solid reasoning or valid evidence and to hold these beliefs tenaciously even if contradictory evidence proves otherwise. Skepticism process of listening to claims, evaluating evidence and reasoning supporting those claims and drawing conclusions based on probabilities. 13. Describe the listening response styles associated with empathic listening and nonempathic listening. Empathetic listening habits include: listening from the other point of view, understanding how the person feels, being personcentered, allowing the listener to correct you, giving a supportive response, and assuming that the person’s feelings are as important as the facts. Nonempathetic listening habits include: responding to content only (not the underlying emotion), interpreting from our own frame, and offering advice. Chapter 7: Power What are the various resources of power? Posture, power in the tone of voice, encouraging assertion of power, advising as a parent to a child, dominance posture, powerful offensive, etc. What is different about a communicative understanding of power? When you have a communicative understanding of power, you can recognize them when you see them and can address the situation in a way that won’t feed into the argument. What are the differences between dominance, prevention, and empowerment orientations to power? Dominance exercise of power over others Prevention power used to thwart the influence of others; the flip side of dominance Empowerment power derived from enhancing the capabilities, choices, and influence of individuals and groups. What are some verbal and nonverbal indicators of power? What are indicators of less power? Those who can define others are typically recognized as having power in relationships and groups. i.e. teachers over students, physicians over patients, parent over child, psychiatrist over client, bosses over employees. Verbal: language choice, i.e. perhaps, saying um, saying sorry over and over. Nonverbal: silent exercise of power: clothing, touch, space What is assertiveness? Assertiveness the ability to communicate the full range of your thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill. Uses mutual respect, reduces stress and anger, and has a lack of selfawareness (nonverbal play a role) What are some tools we have to achieve power balance? Cooperative argumentation, using a mentor or a counselor, networking, or seeking another type of assistance Chapter 8: Relational Communication What are some things that draw us in to relationships? Good looks, similarity (using the same jargon), reciprocity, rewards (exchange), a latitude of similarity What types of behaviors are markers of different stages of relationships? Initiating networking about the person, offering something, approaching them, asking for favors, expressing deep feelings Experimenting auditioning for the part; finding out things about the other person, too Intensifying increased contact, relationship negotiation, social support and assistance, increased rewards, direct definitional bid, tokens of affection, personalized communication, verbal expressions of affection, suggestive actions, nonverbal expressions of affection i.e. sending flowers, giving gifts, gazing, touching, requesting advice from them, seeing or calling them more often, doing favors for each other, listening to each other Integrating connecting friends/social circles/family, sharing life goals and aspirations Bonding wearing engagement ring, a turning point, having sex for the first time, moving in together Differentiating conflict occurs, giving each other space Circumscribing don’t ask, don’t tell; not talking about it Stagnating communicating is more restricted, talking may provoke argument Avoiding distance from each other, working late, spending more time with friends Terminating ending the relationship, moving out Chapter 9: Managing Conflict What is conflict? Conflict the expressed struggle of interconnected parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one or more parties in attaining those goals What are the five conflict styles? Competing, Collaborating, Avoiding, Accommodating, and Compromising Why is conflict a valuable way to address conflict and what are key components of collaboration? Recognizing the problem is important in being able to fix the solution. The key components of collaboration are 1) Confrontation recognizing and naming the problem, 2) Integration finding a way to meet all the needs, and 3) Smoothing attempting to repair Chapter 15: Persuasive Speaking 13.Define persuasion. Persuasion a communication process of converting, modifying, or maintaining the attitudes and/or behaviors of others. 14.What are the primary dimensions of credibility (competence, trustworthiness, dynamism, and composure)? Competence refers to the audience’s perception of the speaker’s knowledge and experience on a topic. Trustworthiness refers to how truthful or honest we perceive the speaker to be. Asking, “can I believe what the speaker says?” Dynamism refers to the enthusiasm, energy, and forcefulness exhibited by a speaker. Composure when a speaker is emotionally stable, appears confident, and in control of themselves, and remains calm even when problems arise. 15.Identify and discuss how the three Aristotelian modes of proof (ethos, logos, and pathos) are used in persuasive speeches. Ethos good sense, good moral character, and good will Logos logic and evidence Pathos emotional appeals 16.Identify and discuss how propositions of fact, value, and policy are used in persuasive speeches. Proposition of fact a true or false statement. Be careful using this in a speech because it may not be fully plausible. i.e. “school uniforms reduce violence in schools,”—they might not correlate like that Proposition of value a statement that is worth your consideration. Convincing the audience that, “volunteering is a way for young people to enact citizenship,” isn’t a fact, but it’s something to consider Proposition of policy an action that should or should not be taken, “policy” doesn’t mean official; i.e., “driving tests should be mandatory every year for people over age 75.”
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