Human Geography, Exam 3
Human Geography, Exam 3 GEOG 100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 100 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by DR. GEORGE in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO HUMAN GEORGRAPHY in Geography at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Introduction to Human Geography (Geog100) Study Guide: Exam 3 Topic: Food and Agriculture (Chapter 10) Challenges and issues related to food production o Commercial crops in poor countries o Lack of financial incentives o Systems of land ownership o Farm subsidies in rich countries The origins of agriculture—food appropriation vs. food production; consequences of domestication o Appropriation Systems Hunting and Gathering o Production Systems: Planting and Harvesting o Some consequences of domestication Tamed plants and animals The numbers The changed appearances Wild plant and animals The reduced numbers Extinction Difference between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture o Subsistence Relies mostly on human labor – little animal or machine power Low technology use Smaller average farm size Most food consumed by farmer and family o Commercial Relies on capital investment in machinery, chemicals, improved seeds Large average farm size Products sold to agribusiness companies Fewer family-owned farms Classifying agricultural regions—Shifting agriculture, transhumance, intensive subsistence agriculture, mixed crop and livestock farming, plantation farming o Shifting Cultivation Low-tech subsistence Slash-and-burn Amazon, Central and West Africa Supports low population densities o Pastoral Nomadism The breeding and herding of domesticated animals for subsistence Dry areas of N. Africa, Middle East, Central Asia o Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Rice Farming in East, South, Southeast Asia Labor intensive About ½ of the world’s population dependent on wet rice o Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Mixed farming with livestock Usually commercial Crops fed to livestock Mixed farming in the “maize belt” (Iowa to Dakotas) o Grain Farming Large scale commercial grain production Regions that are too dry for mixed crops and livestock (ex. Wheat) o Livestock Ranching Commercial grazing Arid or semiarid land Cattle – North and South America Sheep – Australia Environmental effects: o Overgrazing has damaged much of the world’s arid grasslands o Destruction of rainforest is motivated by desire for cattle ranches o Plantation Farming Plantations are colonial legacies that persist in poorer, primarily tropical, countries along with subsistence farming Ownership in rich country, location in tropics or subtropics Latin America, Asia, Africa-originally colonial estates Coffee, sugarcane, bananas, rubber Targets for land reform Difference between urban agriculture in developed vs. developing countries o Chicago (Developed Countries) Social movement for sustainable communities Organic Receives formal institutional support o Kibera, Kenya (Developing Countries) Food security Income Generation Factors influencing the diets of people o Level of Development Dietary energy consumption is the amount of food that an individual consumes. Higher per capita consumption in rich countries Diversified diets o Physical Conditions Diets constrained by environment in poorer countries o Cultural Preferences Religious and cultural food taboos Environmental impacts of modern animal production o Destruction of fragile pasture in marginal lands o Release of methane (greenhouse gas) o “Factory” farming Cesspools Seepage Conservation of aquatic resources—Exclusive economic zones, aquaculture o Exclusive Economic Zone provisions Traditional Fishing: Asia, Oceania Commercial Fishing Higher level of technology Impact on supplies for traditional fishing Aquaculture Herding and domesticating aquatic animals Hunger and food security—Hunger, malnourished, undernourished, Food security, Food desserts o Hunger: insufficient calories and/or nutrients o Malnourished: Too many or too few nutrients o Undernourished: Too few nutrients o Food Security Condition of continued access to adequate food that meets nutritional needs for a healthy life o Food deserts Are areas with limited access to fresh, nutritious foods. Problems of food production in Africa o Communal land holdings o Lack of fertilizer o Requirements to sell to government marketing boards o Growing international debt o Civil wars
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