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MANA 4325 Test 3 Study Guide

by: Josh Radcliff

MANA 4325 Test 3 Study Guide MANA 4325

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Josh Radcliff
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Hello everyone! Here is the review I made for test 3. It covers chapters 8-11. Please let me know if you have any questions or issues with the material. Good luck! Josh 214-883-1428 joshua...
Leadership in Organizations
Dr. Alison Hall
Study Guide
Hall, Mana, MANA4325, test, 3, study, guide, Leadership, Organizations, UTA
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Josh Radcliff on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MANA 4325 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Alison Hall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Leadership in Organizations in Business at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 04/14/16
MANA 4325 Test 3 Study Guide Dr. Hall Chapter 8: Motivation and Empowerment  Things to Know for test: o Be able to recognize and apply the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards o Be able to tap into the motives that induce people to take action to accomplish important goals o Know how to motivate others by meeting their higher-level needs o Be able to apply needs-based theories of motivation o Understand how the concept of equity applies to motivation o Describe the psychological and structural elements of empowerment and how empowerment contributes to motivation o Apply the job characteristics model to enrich jobs o Identify factors that play a role in employee engagement and use engagement to meet higher level needs o Build a thriving workforce by giving people a sense of making progress toward meaningful goals  Leadership and Motivation o Motivation – The forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action  People have basic needs such as money or recognition which translate into a motivation to act in ways that fulfill that need.  When that need is fulfilled, the person is rewarded, and that reward indicates that the person acted appropriately and can do it again.  High motivation = higher productivity = lower turnover = higher profits o Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards  Intrinsic Rewards – Internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action  It is under the control of the individual  Ex: completing a task to get a feeling of accomplishment  Extrinsic Rewards – Rewards given by another person, typically a supervisor, such as pay increases and promotions  Ex: promotions and pay increases from a supervisor  Intrinsic rewards appeal to the higher needs of the individual.  Extrinsic rewards appeal to the lower needs of the individual  The best leadership from bosses are ones who can help employees fulfill their intrinsic needs as well as give them extrinsic rewards while still accomplishing company goals. o Positive and Negative Motives  Negative motive example: I pay taxes to avoid a penalty and going to jail  Positive motive example: I pay taxes to help out the community and the society  There are four quadrants for motivation  Quadrant 1: Extrinsic Positive Approach  Leaders implement rewards such as pay raises, bonuses, and praise  Quadrant 2: Intrinsic Positive Approach  Leaders help people enjoy their work and get a sense of accomplishment  Quadrant 3: Extrinsic Negative Approach  Leaders threaten to punish employees if they don’t get work done  Employees have proven to respond better to loss aversion, which is when a leader takes a negative external motivation approach  Quadrant 4: Intrinsic Negative Approach  Leaders tap into a person’s self-doubt and anxiety  This involves instilling fear in employees  It is a powerful motivator, but the consequences are negative in the long run, and good leaders avoid using this method.  Needs-Based Theories of Motivation o Hierarchy of Needs Theory – Maslow’s theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and those needs exist in a hierarchical order, meaning the higher needs can’t be satisfied until the lower needs are met. The following order is from lowers to highest needs  1) Physiological – Basic human survival needs like food, water, and oxygen  In a company, this basic needs are heat, air, and salary  2) Safety – Safe and secure physical and emotional environment  In a company, people need secure jobs and fringe benefits  3) Belongingness – People desire to be accepted by their peers and be loved.  In a company, this is being liked by coworkers and the boss, and participating in a work team  4) Esteem – People desire a positive self-image, attention, recognition, and appreciation from others  In a company, people are motivated by recognition, are given an increase in responsibility and status, and they receive credit for contributions to the organization  5) Self Actualization – People need to develop their full potential, increase their competency, and become a better person  In a company, people have opportunities to grow, be creative, and acquire training for challenging assignments and advancement  While the first 3 are lower needs, they take priority because you need to satisfy them first before you can meet the needs of the last two. o Two-Factor Theory – Frederick Herzberg determined that two factors influence work motivation: Hygiene Factors and Motivators  1) Hygiene Factors – The first dimension, which involves working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships  These factors determine how dissatisfied a person is in their company  These satisfy the three lower needs described in Maslow’s theory above.  If met, these factors make a person content but don’t motivate them to work  2) Motivators – The second dimension, which involves job satisfaction and meeting higher-level needs such as achievement, recognition, and opportunity for growth  These factors determine has satisfied a person is in their company  These satisfy the two higher needs described in Maslow’s Theory above  If met, these are what motivate a person and give them high enthusiasm and satisfaction o Acquired Needs Theory – McClelland’s theory that proposes that certain types of needs (achievement, affiliation, and power) are acquired during an individual’s lifetime  In other words, they don’t have these needs right away, but they develop a desire for these needs as they grow older  This theory focuses on underlying needs that motivate how people behave  The three most frequently studied needs are:  1) Need for Achievement – The desire to accomplish something difficult, attain a high standard of success, master complex tasks, and surpass others  2) Need for Affiliation – The desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, and establish warm friendships o These people are integrators who coordinate the work of people and departments  3) Need for Power – The desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others, and have authority over others  Other Motivation Theories - The following theories focus on extrinsic rewards and take a carrot-and-stick approach, meaning if you do well, you are rewarded with a carrot and if you do bad, you are hit with a stick. o Reinforcement Theory – A motivational theory that looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences by changing or modifying followers’ on-the-job behavior through the appropriate use of immediate rewards or punishments  Influenced by behavior modification – the set of techniques the reinforcement theory uses to modify behavior  Law of effect – the underlying assumption of behavior modification, stating that positively reinforced behaviors tend to be repeated and behavior that isn’t reinforced isn’t repeated  There are four kinds of reinforcement  1) Positive Reinforcement – Using pleasant and rewarding consequences following a behavior o Examples: giving recognition for good work or rewarding with more money  2) Negative Reinforcement aka avoidance learning – The withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved o Ex: A supervisor who constantly reminds and nags an employee who is goofing off stops the nagging when the employee stops goofing off  3) Punishment – Imposing unpleasing outcomes on an employee following undesirable behavior o Punishment is controversial and criticized for failing to indicate the correct behavior  4) Extinction – Taking away a positive reward, meaning that behavior is no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the future o Behavior that is not reinforced with positive rewards will disappear.  Continuous reinforcement – reinforcing behavior after each and every occurrence  Good for establishing new behaviors  Partial Reinforcement – Only reinforcing behavior every now and then  Good for maintaining behavior over extended time periods  Example of Reinforcement Theory Below  o Expectancy Theory – A theory that suggests that motivation depends on individuals’ mental expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards  Concerned with the thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards  E  P - People must first expect that putting in a lot of effort will lead to a high performance  To expect this, people must have the ability, experience, tools, information, and opportunity to perform  P  O - People expect that a high performance will then lead to the desired outcome  Valence – Motivation will be highest when the possible outcomes are highly valued by the individual  This theory is tailored to the individual, like the Path-Goal Theory.  In sum, the expectancy theory increases motivation by increasing expectations by satisfying individual needs, providing desired outcomes, and ensuring that individuals have the ability and support needed to perform well and attain their desired outcomes o Equity Theory – A theory that proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance  If people receive equal rewards to what others receive for similar contributions, they will believe they are treated fairly and will be more highly motivated  People will compare their credentials and how much time and effort they put in with other people in the work place. We want to make sure we are rewarded equally and fairly for our contributions  Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs o Empowerment – Power sharing; the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization o Empowering employees by providing them with an understanding of how their jobs are important to the organization’s mission and performance. o The Psychological Model of Empowerment  People have a need for self-efficacy – the capacity to produce results or outcomes, to feel that they are effective  5 elements that need to be in place before employees can be empowered to perform their jobs effectively  1) Information – Employees receive information about company performance  2) Knowledge – Employees receive knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals  3) Discretion – Employees have the power to make substantive decisions  4) Meaning – Employees understand the meaning and impact of their jobs  5) Rewards – Employees are rewarded based on company performance  Job Design for Empowerment  Job Design – Structuring jobs in a way to meet higher level needs and increase motivation toward the accomplishment of goals  Job Characteristic Model – proposes that certain core job dimensions create positive psychological reactions within employees that lead to higher motivation and better performance. o The core dimensions are: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback o These dimensions will have an effect on an employee’s psychological state, which in turn effects personal and work outcomes o Depicted best in the graph below  The more these characteristics can be designed into the job, the more the authority and responsibility are transferred from leaders to employees to create job enrichment  Job Enrichment – A motivational approach that incorporates high-level motivators into the work, including job responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement o Employees control resources needed to perform well and make decisions on how to do the work  Empowerment Applications o There are two dimensions for empowering employees  1) The extent to which employees are involved in defining desired outcomes  2) The extent to which they participate in determining how to achieve those outcomes  The relationship between the two is described in the graph below  Giving Meaning to Work Through Engagement o Companies can help people find true value and meaning in their work through engagement o Engagement – When people enjoy their jobs and are satisfied with their work conditions, contribute enthusiastically to meeting team and organizational goals, and feel a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization o The behavior of the leader is the most important factor in deciding whether people feel engaged at work or not. o Q12 – a 12 question metric that leaders can go through to determine if they are optimizing employee engagement  New Ideas for Motivation o The Making Progress Principle – The idea that the single most important factor that can boost motivation, positive emotions, and perceptions during a workday is making progress toward meaningful goals  Leaders can support making progress by setting goals, giving people autonomy, providing sufficient time and resources, and making people feel their work is meaningful o Building a Thriving Workforce  Thriving Workforce – A workforce in which people are not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating a better future for themselves and the organization; it incorporates vitality and learning  An employee feels that their work is vital in organizational success  The employee is learning and developing new knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be applied in the future  The goal of empowerment and engagement is to transform culture.  Zappos video o Had a Holacracy: Removes power from management and distributes it across clear roles o Moved to Teal management: There are no managers. People solely self- manage themselves. They set their own goals, outcomes, and plans. There are no leaders.  Terrible idea for Zappos. Lead to 21% turnover rate. Business Week Speaker – Felicia Williams  She is a Program Director at Texas Health Resources  She is a communication major  Texas Health is a faith-based, non-profit health organization  Her community relations job raises awareness about issues in the community, and they spend $2 million in donations every year  Gave a two-sided handout of two sides of a quarter and discussed differences between leaders and managers. Talked about all the differences we have already discussed in class Chapter 9: Leadership Communication  Things to know for the test: o Be able to define communication and explain the communication process o Know how to act as a communication champion and a sensegiver rather than just as an information processor o Be able to use key elements of effective listening and understand why listening is important to leader communication o Be able to use candor appropriately to improve communication effectiveness o Be able to recognize and apply the difference between dialogue and discussion o Know how to incorporate metaphor and storytelling into leadership communications o Select an appropriate communication channel for the message and effectively use social media and nonverbal communication o Know how to communicate in a way that persuades and influences others o Be able to effectively communicate during times of stress or crisis  How Leaders Communicate o Communication – A process by which information and understanding are transferred between a sender and a receiver o How information is passed from sender to receiver  1. Sender encodes a thought or idea in words or other methods to compose a message  2. The message is sent through a medium called a channel, which could be a report, blog, phone call, etc.  3. The receiver decodes the message to interpret it  4. The receiver then gives feedback by returning with a message of their own; could be body language, words, etc.  5. Repeat. It’s an ongoing circle o Below figure is how information is passed from sender to receiver o o Communication Styles  1) Thinkers  2) Doers  3) Creators  4) Listeners o Management Communication  Managers spend 80% of their day or 48 minutes of every hour communicating with others  They communicate facts, statistics, and decisions  They establish themselves at the center of information networks to facilitate the completion of tasks o The Leader as Communication Champion  Leaders communicate the big picture – the vision  The leader is a communication champion – A person who is philosophically grounded in the belief that communication is essential to building trust and gaining commitment to a vision  They communicate to reach embeddedness with their employees – When people throughout the organization are united around a common purpose based on a deep understanding and acceptance of the vision and strategy  Leaders are sensegivers  Sensegiving – The process of influencing how others make sense of the organization, where they fit within it, and the larger purpose of their work  Leaders who are communication champions actively communicate through words and actions every day to build personal relationships and bind people together to accomplish the vision and purpose.  Leaders facilitate strategic conversation to help move the organization forward  Leaders often use symbolic language and behavior to get their messages across and to influence others  Leading Strategic Conversations o Strategic Conversation – Communication that takes place across boundaries and hierarchical levels about the group or organization’s vision, critical strategic themes, and values that can help achieve desired outcomes  They do this by: 1) asking questions and actively listening to understand others  2) Set the agenda by underscoring the key strategic themes linked to organizational success  3) Select the right communication channels and facilitate dialogue o There are 6 key components for facilitating strategic conversations  1) Creating an Open Communication Climate – Leaders sharing all types of information throughout the company and across all levels  Leaders break down departmental boundaries, enabling people to convey a stronger awareness of and commitment to organizational visions, goals, and values  The leader’s vision “cascades” through the organization, demonstrated in the exhibit below   2) Asking Questions  What Questions to Leaders Ask? o A leader-centered approach: Questions must inform the leader about what is going on in the organization o A follower-centered approach: questions connect with the followers, develop new insights, encourage critical thinking, expand people’s awareness, and stimulate learning  Benefits of Asking Questions o They encourage people to think and empower them to find answers, helping to build positive attitudes and follower self-confidence o It shows that leaders care about individuals, and he/she values the opinions and knowledge of others  3) Listening – The skill of grasping and interpreting a message’s genuine meaning  Big key is just to focus on the individual speaking and their message.  More keys listed below   4) Dialogue – Active sharing and listening in which people explore common ground and grow to understand each other and share a world view  Very important in handling hot topics in the work place that cause people to get worked up and emotional  Conversations are free of prejudgments, personal agendas, and “right” answers.  Focus is to reveal feelings and build common ground  5) Communicating with Candor  Candor – Honest, forthright expression of a leader’s thinking  Limits potential for workplace misunderstanding, incivility, and ill will that turn into hot topics  Communicating with candor lets followers know exactly where the leader stands and what the leader expects of them.  6) Using Stories – The Power of Stories  Stories are the foundation for sensegiving  Leaders listen to the stories of employees, and others and tap into clues about how to construct their own stories to unite people with purpose and meeting  Stories inspire and bring about change in a way that other forms of communication cannot  Stories help win people’s hearts  It needs to create emotional context for getting the message across  Communicating to Persuade and Influence o Four steps to persuade people  1) Listen First – When you listen first, the other person trusts you more, and it gives you a solid ground to stand on  2) Establish Credibility – Based on knowledge, expertise, and relationships with others. Proving you are credible and have everyone’s best interests at heart is critical  3) Build Goals on Common Ground – Describe how what you’re requesting will benefit others as well as the leader  4) Make your position compelling to others – Appeal to others on an emotional level by using symbols, metaphors, and stories to express messages rather than just facts o Communication apprehension – an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person; not good to have.  Selecting the Correct Communication channel o Channel – a medium by which a communication message is carried from sender to receiver o The Continuum of Channel Richness  Channel Richness – The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode  Different channels and their level of richness are shown below  Richness is influenced by 3 characteristics  1) The ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously  2) The ability to facilitate rapid, two-way feedback and  3) the ability to establish a personal focus for the communication  Best channel depends on how routine the message is  Routine communications are simple and straightforward, so you don’t need a rich form of communication  Non-routine communications are complicated messages with potential for misunderstanding, so the richer the channel, the better  If it’s super important, you can use redundant communication and send the message via multiple channels  Effectively Using Electronic Communication Channels  1) Combine high-tech and high-touch o If you work with someone through an electronic basis, schedule to spend some time with them in person too  2) Consider the Circumstances o When you know the person better, your message could be understood electronically; but it may be good to start more face-to-face with new people until you get to know each other better  3) Think twice before you hit “send” o Slow down and consider whether the message is something you want out there. Never send messages when you’re angry or upset.  Nonverbal Communication – Messages transmitted through action and behavior o Very important to match these with the verbal message you’re giving o People tend to value nonverbal cues even higher than verbal cues in some cases o You are always giving off nonverbal cues to people whether you realize it or not o If you’re gonna talk the talk, make sure you also walk the walk  Current Communication Challenges o 1) Leadership via Social Media  Trending towards openness will have the greatest impact on businesses and jobs in the coming years, and social media is one method of being open  Community is built through social media nowadays, so it’s important to get involved o 2) Being Crisis-Ready  Communication is vital during times of crises; best advice during these times  1) Stay Calm – absorb everyone else’s fears and uncertainties  2) Be visible and supportive – Step out immediately to reassure followers and respond to public concerns  3) Tell the Truth – Rumor control is critical. Getting the whole truth out quickly can help prevent that.  4) Communicate a vision for the future – Continue to give people something to work for and look forward to Chapter 10: Leading Teams  Things to know for the test o Be able to differentiate between teams and groups o Be able to identify various types of teams and their respective leadership needs o Be able to identify challenges associated with teamwork o Know how to explain why people sometimes have negative feelings about working in a team o Be able to explain the leadership components to leading high performance teams o Understand the stages of team development o Know how to promote cohesiveness and shape productive team norms o Understand the challenges and benefits of virtual (and global) teams and the team leader behaviors that contribute to virtual (and global) team effectiveness  The value of teams  Teams are good for interdependent work (in other words, work where people must rely on one another)  Effective teams provide benefits such as higher productivity, quality improvements, greater flexibility and speed, a flatter management structure, increased employee involvement and satisfaction, and lower turnover o What is a team?  Team – A unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a shared goal or purpose  People in a team share a common purpose/goal that requires them to depend on each other  Teams include members who combine all their individual needs, desires, and egos and put their knowledge, skills, and efforts together toward accomplishing a common goal  You can have a group of people and not have a team o Types of Teams  1) Functional teams AKA vertical team AKA Command team – A team made up of a supervisor and subordinates in the formal chain of command  Typically used for different departments within an organization  2) Cross-Departmental Team - A team made up of members from different functional departments within an organization  Good for projects that affect many departments  Facilitate information sharing across functional boundaries  Special Purpose team AKA project team – a type of cross- functional team that focuses on a specific purpose of high importance and disbands once the project is completed  3) Evolution to Self-Directed Teams – evolved from cross- departmental team  A team made up of members who work with minimum supervision and rotate jobs to produce a complete product or service  Typically have a leader who sets overall direction and monitors the team’s work on a regular basis   The Dilemma for Team Members o 3 primary reasons that teams could present a dilemma for some people  1) Individuals must give up their independence  Some people aren’t used to making sacrifices for an entire group’s success and like working alone  2) Individuals have to put up with free riders  Free rider AKA social loafing – A team member who attains benefits from team-membership but does not actively participate in and contribute to the team’s work  3) Teams are sometimes dysfunctional  Dysfunctional teams are caused by 5 things o 1) Lack of trust between people o 2) Fear of conflict between members o 3) Lack of commitment to the team goal o 4) Avoidance of accountability aka free riding and finger pointing o 5) Inattention to results – members put personal needs ahead of collective results  Leading a Team to High Performance o 5 Elements leaders incorporate to get high performance out of a team:  1) Leaders provide a compelling purpose, clear objectives, and explicit metrics  Purpose is very specific  2) The team has a diversity of skills and unambiguous roles  Everyone knows their roles on the team  3) Leaders streamline team size  Having just enough members to complete the job; err on the lesser side  4) There is clear decision authority over how to achieve goals  Leaders share power, information, and responsibility and work to build consensus rather than issue orders  5) Leads provide good support and coaching  Leaders have soft leadership skills concerned with building positive relationships.  Team Processes – the dynamics that change over time, which can be influenced by leaders o How Teams Develop  1) Forming – Stage of team development that includes orientation and getting to know each other  Leader needs to facilitate communication and interaction among members and get everyone to feel comfortable and apart of the team  2) Storming – Stage of team development in which individual personalities and conflicts emerge  General lack of unity and cohesiveness  Leader needs to encourage participation by everyone to help people find their common vision and values  3) Norming – The stage of team development in which conflicts have been resolved and team unity emerges  Roles become clear, and team members understand and accept one another  Quickest stage  Leader emphasizes openness and communication again  4) Performing – Stage in which the major emphasis is on accomplishing the team’s goals  Leader should concentrate on facilitating high task performance and helping the team self-manage to reach its goals  5) Adjourning – Stage that occurs in committees and teams that have a limited task to perform; the emphasis is on wrapping up, gearing down, and signifying closure  Leaders focus on social and emotional needs o Team Cohesiveness – The extent to which members are attracted to the team and motivated to remain in it  Determinants of cohesiveness  Team interaction  Shared goals  Personal attraction to the team  Presence of competition  Team success and recognition by outsiders  Consequences of Cohesiveness  Generally higher morale  Higher performance  Groupthink (not good) – The tendency of people in cohesive groups to suppress contrary opinions o Team Norms – An informal standard of conduct that is shared by team members and guides their behavior  Provide framework for what is expected and acceptable  Norms develop from First behaviors of the new team’s members  Leader should explicitly state desired team behaviors  Primary first behaviors + Explicit Leader Statements = Team Norms  What Team Members Must Contribute o Essential Team Competencies  1) Members must establish and execute goal setting and manage their performance  2) Everyone must be able to plan and coordinate responsibilities  3) They must collaborate to solve problems  4) They must always communicate with everyone in the team  5) They must be able to manage conflict with one another when it arises o Team Member Roles  1) task-specialist role – Role associated with…  initiating new ideas  evaluating the team’s effectiveness  seeking to clarify tasks and responsibilities  summarizing facts and ideas for others, and  stimulating others to action  2) Socioemotional role – Role associated with…  Facilitating others’ participation  Smoothing conflicts  Showing concern for team members’ needs and feelings  Serving as a role model, and  Reminding others of standards for team interaction  Leading a Virtual Team o Virtual Team – A team made up of geographically or organizationally dispersed members who share a common purpose and are linked primarily through advanced information technologies  Uses of Virtual Teams  50% of organizations use them  Have the ability to rapidly assemble the most talented group of people to complete a project  Challenges of Virtual Teams  Innovative behavior declines 93%  Trust drops 83%  Clarity of roles and objectives fall 62%  Project results fall 50%  To be Successful, Virtual Team Leaders must:  Select the right team members  Start off right, focusing a lot on forming and storming  Use technology to build relationships AKA Skype, Facebook (carefully), etc  Set and agree on ground rules with everyone o Global Team – Team made up of culturally diverse members who live and work in different countries and coordinate some part of their activities on a global basis o Differences between conventional, virtual, and global teams shown below o  Handling Team Conflict o Conflict – Antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another o Types of Conflict  Task Conflict – Disagreement among people about the goals to be achieved or the content of the task to be performed  Can have positive consequences: Can lead to better decision making and problem solving  Relationship Conflict – Personal incompatibility that creates tension and feelings of personal animosity among people  Can have negative consequences: Less team effectiveness o Balancing Conflict and Cooperation  Conflict helps prevent groupthink because multiple viewpoints are expressed  Conflict could also damage productivity and form bad relationships  Too much conflict: outweighs team’s cooperative efforts  Too little conflict: lower team performance because team’s don’t benefit from a mix of opinions and ideas o Causes of Conflict  Competition over resources like money, information, or supplies  People are using resources to pursue goals other than the team goals o Styles to Handle Conflict  1) Dominating Style = my way  Good when quick, decisive, vital action is needed  High assertiveness  No cooperation  2) Avoidance Style = no way  No assertiveness  No cooperation  Good when issue is small and there’s no chance of winning  3) Compromising Style = half way  Some assertiveness  Some cooperation  Good when goals are equally important for both sides and both sides share similar amount of power  4) Accommodating Style = your way  No assertiveness  High cooperation  Good for maintaining harmony and when the issue is more important to the other party than to yourself  5) Collaborating style = our way  High assertiveness  High cooperation  Win, win for both parties  Good when… o both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised o insights from different people need to be merged into an overall solution o the commitment of both sides is needed for a consensus o Styles of Handling Conflict (Same as above, but shown in a graph)  o Negotiation – Great way to manage conflict  Ways to Negotiate  Integrative negotiation – A cooperative approach to negotiation in which conflicting parties attempt to reach a win-win solution o People want to expand the pie, rather than divide it  Distributive negotiation – Adversarial negotiation in which conflicting parties compete to win the most resources and give up as little as possible (win-lose) o Get as much of the pie as possible for yourself  Rules for Reaching a Win-Win Solution  1. Separate the people from the problem  2. Focus on the person’s underlying interests, not current demands o In other words, figure out why they are asking for those demands  3. Listen and ask questions to learn more about the other’s position to try and come up with a solution that benefits both parties  4. Insist that results be based on objective standards Chapter 11: Developing Leadership Diversity  Things to know for the test o Define the concept of diversity and clarify misunderstandings of its meaning o Explain the value of organizational diversity o Differentiate between diversity and inclusion o Know how to reduce the difficulties faced by minorities in organizations o Know how gender influences leadership o Be able to apply an awareness of various dimensions of diversity and multicultural issues in everyday life o Be able to encourage and support diversity to meet organizational needs o Know the role of cultural values and attitudes in determining how to deal with employees from different cultures or ethnic backgrounds o Be able to break down personal barriers that may stand in the way of becoming an inclusive leader o Know how to use sponsorship and employee affinity groups to support female and minority participation and advancement  Leading People Who Aren’t Like You o Many minority leaders struggle daily with the problem of delegating authority and responsibility to employees who show them little respect  Diversity Today o Definition of Diversity  Diversity – Differences among people in terms of age, ethnicity, gender, race, or other dimensions  Workforce Diversity – A work place with diverse employees… pretty much common sense there.  Over time, the list of things that are included in diversity has expanded, shown below in the traditional and inclusive models of diversity   o Changing Attitudes toward Diversity  America is growing in demographic diversity, and the social norm is to be accepting of all types of people and treat everyone fairly  Globalization and interacting often with other countries is making it more important to grow our cross-cultural understanding o The Value of Organizational Diversity  All organizations need diversity of thought. In other words, they need people from different backgrounds so they can get all sorts of different opinions to consider from different perspectives  More innovative companies are ones who have lots of women, minorities, and diversity  Clarifying Diversity o It is real or perceived differences among people within a group that affect their interactions and relationships o It is a group property, meaning you can’t have diversity if there’s only one person o The context of the work situation shapes what is meaningful o Deep diversity – Related to Inclusive diversity in the exhibit above  Personality, functional expertise, work style, etc. o Surface Diversity – Related to the traditional diversity in the exhibit above  Gender, race, age, religion, etc.  Challenges Minorities Face o Ethnocentrism – The belief that one’s own culture and subculture are inherently superior to other cultures o People have a natural tendency to associate themselves with a certain group and discriminate against others not in that group o Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination  Prejudice – An adverse feeling or opinion formed without regard for the facts  Stereotype – A rigid, exaggerated, irrational, and typically negative belief or image associated with a particular group of people  Discrimination – Treating people differently based on prejudicial attitudes and stereotypes  There are many laws prohibiting various kinds of discrimination  Unconscious bias theory – Everyone has unconscious prejudices that could influence our decisions o The Glass Ceiling  Glass Ceiling - An invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top leadership positions  Could also be called a sticky floor that holds women and minorities down  Only about 15% of women hold seats on corporate boards and executive committees on average around the world  Norway has the largest percentage at 35%  Japan has the lowest at 2%  In America, women are on the opt-out trend – 37% of highly qualified women voluntarily leave the work force  This is often due to women primarily taking more responsibility in taking care of the home and the children  Ways Women Lead o Women as Leaders  Women are typically better with interpersonal skills and are good with:  1) idealized influence – followers want to emulate the leader, who is trusted and respected  2) inspirational motivation – appealing to emotions to get an employee to achieve goals  3) Individual consideration – showing care for each person individually  4) Intellectual Stimulation – questioning the status quo and trying to think of new and better ways to do things  o Is Leader Style Gender Driven?  Communal qualities like compassion and kindness are more associated with women  Men are more aggressive and assertive  Women more concerned with relationship building  Interactive Leadership – A leadership style in which people develop personal relationships with followers, share power and information, empower employees, and strive to enhance others’ feelings of self-worth  Women tend to lead this way  Global Diversity o The Sociocultural Environment  Accommodating all the different cultures in a diverse group is hard to do without offending someone  Global companies need to adjust their policies in the work place depending on what part of the world that branch of the company is in. One standard will not work worldwide o Social Value Systems – 4 major dimensions  1) Power Distance – How much people accept equality in power  High power distance reflects an acceptance of power inequality among institutions, organizations, and individuals  Low power distance means people expect equality in power  2) Uncertainty Avoidance – The degree to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity  High uncertainty avoidance are people who want certainty and conformity  Low uncertainty avoidance mean people can tolerate the unstructured, unclear, and unpredictable  3) Individualism and Collectivism  Individualism – A value for a loosely knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves  Collectivism – A preference for tightly knit social framework in which people look out for one another and organizations protect their members’ interests  4) Masculinity and Femininity  Masculinity – A preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, work centrality, and material success  Femininity – A preference for relationships, cooperation, group decision making, and quality of life o Developing Cultural Intelligence  Cultural Intelligence (CQ) – The ability to use reasoning and observation to interpret unfamiliar situations and devise appropriate behavioral responses  High CQ means a person can adapt quickly to unfamiliar situations  Three components work together to make up CQ  1) Cognitive Component – a person’s observational and learning skills allow them to pick up on clues to understanding  2) Emotional Component – A leader believes in his/her ability to understand and assimilate different cultures; high self-confidence and motivation  3) Physical Component – A person can shift his/her speech patterns, expressions, and body language to be in tune with people from different cultures o Leadership Implications  How leader behavior is perceived differs from culture to culture.  She gave example of Japanese leaders expected to know and have the answer to everything whereas it’s okay for leaders here to not know everything without having to ask their counterparts    Becoming an Inclusive Leader o 5 stages of diversity awareness and actions listed from lowest awareness to highest awareness and described in detail in the exhibit  1. Defense  2. Minimizing differences  3. Acceptance  4. Adaptation  5. Integration    Ways to Encourage the Advancement of Women and Minorities o 1) Employee affinity groups AKA diversity networks AKA Employee Resource Groups – Groups based on social identity that focus on concerns of employees from that group and enable them to make greater contributions to the organization  In other words, create groups of people that get together and make sure that the needs of all the different types of minorities are met  This engages minorities and lets them feel like they are making genuine contributions, which makes them more engaged o 2) Minority Sponsorship – Strong support from a powerfully positioned executive who is willing to put his or her reputation on the line to promote an individual’s career advancement  Mentorship on steroids  The people supporting will put the minorities in touch with influential people in the company to help them rise to the top of the ranks


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